General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mnd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
minidiscs
Annotation Symbol
CG3297
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002778
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Minidiscs is the putative amino acid/polyamine transporter involved in leucine import. It is expressed in the larval fat body and is required for the differentiation of the wing imaginal disc cells. [Date last reviewed: 2017-05-18]
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:14,985,100..14,991,667 [+]
Recombination map
3-42
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
L-TYPE AMINO ACID TRANSPORTERS -
L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) are system L, Na[+]-independent transporters responsible for transport of bulky neutral amino acids. LATs form the light chains or catalytic chains of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). (Adapted from FBrf0207965 and PMID:14770310).
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(3)SG29
Homozygous larvae do not form puparia; imaginal discs never attain size of those in young third-instar larvae. Mutant discs transplanted into wild-type female abdomens decrease in size and disappear during the first three days; however, in transplanted mixtures of wild-type and mutant embryonic cells allowed to pass through metamorphosis, mutant cells appear in cuticular derivatives from all discs. Wildtype discs transplanted into mutant larvae are capable of reduced growth and of differentiation upon retransplantation into wild-type larvae. Alleles with more extreme effects (i.e., larval death in early second instar) and less severe effects (pharate adults that do not eclose) noted (Shearn, Hersperger, Hersperger, Pentz, and Denker, 1978, Genetics 89: 355-70).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\mnd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\mnd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075627
2491
499
FBtr0075626
2376
499
FBtr0114529
2046
499
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.3 (northern blot, compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075380
54.3
499
6.71
FBpp0075379
54.3
499
6.71
FBpp0113021
54.3
499
6.71
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

499 aa isoforms: mnd-PA, mnd-PC, mnd-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
499 (aa); 54.3 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mnd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (5 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000208507
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002293
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
mnd transcript levels are high during embryonic and early larval stages, but drop to very low levels during larval and pupal development. Transcripts are detected in the adult, and specifically by in situ in the larval fat body.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mnd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 49 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of mnd
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
        Other relevant insertions
        miscellaneous insertions
        Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
        For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
        Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mnd
        Allele of mnd
        Mutagen
        Associated Transgenic Construct
        Stocks
        Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mnd
        Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
        Summary of Phenotypes
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        9 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        8 of 15
        No
        No
        8 of 15
        No
        Yes
        7 of 15
        No
        No
        7 of 15
        No
        Yes
        5 of 15
        No
        No
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        7 of 15
        Yes
        No
        7 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 15
        Yes
        No
        6 of 15
        No
        No
        6 of 15
        No
        No
        5 of 15
        No
        No
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (14)
        7 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        6 of 13
        No
        No
        6 of 13
        No
        No
        6 of 13
        No
        No
        5 of 13
        No
        No
        4 of 13
        No
        No
        4 of 13
        No
        Yes
        3 of 13
        No
        Yes
        3 of 13
        No
        Yes
        3 of 13
        No
        Yes
        3 of 13
        No
        No
        2 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        Yes
        1 of 13
        No
        Yes
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (12)
        7 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        6 of 12
        No
        Yes
        5 of 12
        No
        Yes
        5 of 12
        No
        No
        3 of 12
        No
        No
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        2 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
        7 of 15
        Yes
        No
        7 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        6 of 15
        No
        No
        6 of 15
        No
        Yes
        6 of 15
        No
        No
        4 of 15
        No
        No
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (11)
        13 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        5 of 15
        No
        No
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (6)
        10 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        9 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (11)
        2 of 12
        Yes
        No
        2 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        2 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907GO )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila suzukii
        Spotted wing Drosophila
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915056B )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Lucilia cuprina
        Australian sheep blowfly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles darlingi
        American malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0690 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X064D )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07EM )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
          Download
          Models ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Interactions ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Comments ( 0 )
           
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
          Select Layout:
          Legend:
          Protein
          RNA
          Selected Interactor(s)
          Interactions Browser

          Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
          RNA-RNA
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          External Data
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          Pathways
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          3L
          Recombination map
          3-42
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          3L:14,985,100..14,991,667 [+]
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          71A4-71B1
          Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Mpcp00564 and P{PZ}l(3)rO220rO220
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Location
          3-47.0 +/- 0.9
          3-47.0
          Left of (cM)
          Right of (cM)
          Notes
          3-42 Based on mapping of mnd.
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (14)
          Genomic Clones (18)
          cDNA Clones (50)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequences
          BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for identity of: mnd CG3297
          Source for identity of: mnd l(3)SG29
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: l(3)ds5 l(3)SG29
          Additional comments
          Interallelic complementation not observed; heteroallelic combinations exhibit phenotypes intermediate between those of the two homozygotes.
          Other Comments
          The fat body may respond to amino acid uptake by the mnd transporter by secreting a factor that is required for imaginal disc maturation and proliferation.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 61 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (68)