General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mod(mdg4)
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
modifier of mdg4
Annotation Symbol
CG32491
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002781
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Modifier of mdg4 is a nuclear protein that specifically interacts with various DNA binding proteins. It is involved in processes including chromosome condensation and segregation, regulation of transcription and enhancer blocking. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-16]
Also Known As
E(var)3-93D, doom, mnm, Mod(mdg4)2.2, Mod(mdg4)67.2
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:21,350,846..21,377,401 [-]
Recombination map
3-71
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Component of the gypsy chromatin insulator complex which is required for the function of the gypsy chromatin insulator and other endogenous chromatin insulators. Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements which establish independent domains of transcriptional activity within eukaryotic genomes. Insulators have two defining properties; they can block the communication between an enhancer and a promoter when placed between them and can also buffer transgenes from position effect variegation (PEV). Insulators are proposed to structure the chromatin fiber into independent domains of differing transcriptional potential by promoting the formation of distinct chromatin loops. This chromatin looping may involve the formation of insulator bodies, where homotypic interactions between individual subunits of the insulator complex could promote the clustering of widely spaced insulators at the nuclear periphery. Within the gypsy insulator complex, this protein may control the nature of the repressive effect of su(Hw): in the absence of mod(mdg4) protein, su(Hw) exerts a bidirectional silencing effect, whereas in the presence of mod(mdg4), the silencing effect is unidirectional. Isoform H is specifically required to maintain the pairing of achiasmate homologs in male meiosis I which is mediated by the rDNA repeats on the achiasmate X-Y bivalents. Isoform H also plays a role in apoptotic regulatory pathways.
(UniProt, Q86B87)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
31
Number of Unique Polypeptides
31

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\mod(mdg4) or the JBrowse view of Dmel\mod(mdg4) for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
gene_with_trans_spliced_transcript ; SO:0000459
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084060
1962
485
FBtr0114359
1673
488
FBtr0114360
1722
506
FBtr0114361
1799
540
FBtr0307759
1689
510
FBtr0307760
1596
479
FBtr0343765
1839
499
FBtr0084061
2251
498
FBtr0084062
1811
534
FBtr0084063
1746
520
FBtr0084064
2282
603
FBtr0084065
2231
536
FBtr0084066
1736
497
FBtr0084067
2204
514
FBtr0084068
1873
541
FBtr0084069
1668
473
FBtr0084070
2137
510
FBtr0084071
1659
476
FBtr0084072
2046
503
FBtr0084073
2273
580
FBtr0084074
2107
545
FBtr0084075
1855
539
FBtr0084077
1638
475
FBtr0084078
1907
506
FBtr0084079
2188
610
FBtr0084080
2149
486
FBtr0084081
2046
567
FBtr0084082
1692
505
FBtr0084083
1658
490
FBtr0084084
1698
500
FBtr0084085
2045
526
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.733 (longest cDNA)
2.2, 1.9, 1.8 (northern blot)
2.3 (northern blot); 1.76 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083459
53.4
485
6.02
FBpp0112908
53.5
488
5.58
FBpp0112909
55.2
506
4.79
FBpp0112910
59.3
540
4.66
FBpp0300270
55.8
510
5.31
FBpp0300271
52.4
479
5.97
FBpp0310324
54.6
499
5.65
FBpp0083460
54.6
498
6.02
FBpp0083461
58.1
534
4.83
FBpp0083462
57.4
520
5.88
FBpp0083463
65.0
603
5.69
FBpp0083464
58.6
536
4.86
FBpp0083465
54.3
497
5.09
FBpp0083466
56.4
514
4.93
FBpp0083467
59.1
541
5.35
FBpp0083468
51.4
473
5.27
FBpp0083469
55.8
510
5.31
FBpp0083470
52.3
476
5.59
FBpp0083471
55.3
503
6.28
FBpp0083472
64.2
580
4.94
FBpp0083473
60.2
545
5.32
FBpp0083474
58.8
539
5.22
FBpp0083476
52.1
475
6.38
FBpp0083477
55.3
506
5.32
FBpp0083478
67.2
610
4.70
FBpp0083479
53.2
486
5.64
FBpp0083480
62.3
567
5.25
FBpp0083481
55.6
505
6.70
FBpp0083482
53.6
490
6.51
FBpp0083483
54.8
500
5.63
FBpp0083484
57.5
526
5.45
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
610, 524, 520 (aa); 67, 58, 57 (kD predicted)
610, 534 (aa)
Comments
The "Doom" variant of mod(mdg4) protein induces apoptosis in insect cells which is inhibited by baculovirus IAP (inhibitor-of-apoptosis). The region of the "Doom" protein required for apoptosis and for binding to baculovirus IAP genes maps to the carboxy-terminal end. Carboxy-terminal amino acids 403-514 are unique to the "Doom" protein and distinguish it from other mod(mdg4) proteins.
Genetic studies showed that mod(mdg4) protein acts through the su(Hw) binding region, either by binding directly to DNA or by interacting with the su(Hw) protein. Purified mod(mdg4) protein was used to distinguish between these possibilites. Results indicate that mod(mdg4) protein does not interact with DNA from the su(Hw)-binding region but does interact with su(Hw) protein.
mod(mdg4) protein is distributed at many sites along the polytene chromosomes including the BXC and ANTC complexes and the white gene. Many of these sites are correlated with less condensed interbands.
encoded by mod1.9
encoded by mod1.8
fragment of protein B
encoded by mod2.2
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Can self-associate (PubMed:11350941, PubMed:11416154). Interacts with Chi (PubMed:11416154). Interacts with Top2 (PubMed:21304601). Isoform mod2.2: Component of the gypsy chromatin insulator complex, composed of Cp190, mod(mdg4) and su(Hw) (PubMed:7664338, PubMed:11350941, PubMed:11416154, PubMed:15574329). The gypsy chromatin insulator complex interacts with Topors via mod(mdg4) and su(Hw) (PubMed:16209949). Isoform mod2.2 interacts with Trl/GAGA and interaction with this protein may bypass the repressive effects of the su(Hw) insulator (PubMed:15465920).
(UniProt, Q86B87)
Domain
Homotypic interactions mediated by the BTB (POZ) domain of this protein may promote the clustering of distant insulator complexes into nuclear insulator bodies.
(UniProt, Q86B87)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mod(mdg4) using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24478
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V8P9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P08970
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:wun2; FB:FBgn0041087
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mod(mdg4) in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 63 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of mod(mdg4)
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mod(mdg4)
Allele of mod(mdg4)
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mod(mdg4)
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 3 & neuromuscular junction
G2 phase & nuclear chromosome
meiosis I & nuclear chromosome
neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 1
neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 2
neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 3
neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 4
neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 5
neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral longitudinal muscle 1
neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 3
neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 1
neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 2
neuromuscular junction & postsynaptic membrane & larva
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909MG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505QN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05OC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 2 )
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Can self-associate (PubMed:11350941, PubMed:11416154). Interacts with Chi (PubMed:11416154). Interacts with Top2 (PubMed:21304601). Isoform mod2.2: Component of the gypsy chromatin insulator complex, composed of Cp190, mod(mdg4) and su(Hw) (PubMed:7664338, PubMed:11350941, PubMed:11416154, PubMed:15574329). The gypsy chromatin insulator complex interacts with Topors via mod(mdg4) and su(Hw) (PubMed:16209949). Isoform mod2.2 interacts with Trl/GAGA and interaction with this protein may bypass the repressive effects of the su(Hw) insulator (PubMed:15465920).
    (UniProt, Q86B87 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-71
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:21,350,846..21,377,401 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    93D6-93D9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Atpα01164 and P{PZ}mod(mdg4)07038&P{lacW}mod(mdg4)L3101
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    93E1-93E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    93D-93D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Maps within 0.1cM of e.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (474)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) l(3)L3101
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) CG15802 CG7836 CG8076
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) BcDNA:GH07769
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) CG7859
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) CG15500 CG15501 CG18151
    Source for merge of: mod(mdg4) BcDNA:SD03001
    Additional comments
    Genetic and cytological analyses pinpoint one candidate gene for pf-2: modifier of mdg4 mod(mdg4) A complex complementation pattern between pf-2 alleles and mod(mdg4) alleles was observed.
    Annotations CG15500, CG15501, CG15802, CG18151, CG7836 and CG7859 merged as CG32491 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
    Source for merge of mod(mdg4) CG7859 was sequence comparison ( date:021121 ).
    Source for merge of mod(mdg4) BcDNA:SD03001 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for mod(mdg4) protein in 0-12 hr embryos. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO: 16245 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE16245).
    mod(mdg4) proteins can be modified by smt3.
    The Hrp59 protein binds preferentially to a subset of mRNAs, including mod(mdg4) mRNA.
    mod(mdg4) has a role in the maintenance of homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis.
    Interallelic complementation in the mod(mdg4) gene is a consequence of trans-splicing between two different mutant transcripts, ensuring wild type levels of functional gene product.
    Transgene analysis proves mRNA trans-splicing at the mod(mdg4) locus.
    The principal 2.2kb transcript of the mod(mdg4) locus appears to be composed of sequences derived from different DNA strands; exons I to IV are derived from one strand, and exons V and VI are derived from sequences on the complementary strand. The genomic organisation of the mod(mdg4) locus suggests that two RNA precursors are transcribed to yield the 2.2kb transcript; a "class I" precursor ("doom") which contains mod(mdg4) exons I to IV (plus another downstream exon), and a "class II" precursor containing mod(mdg4) exons V to VI (this class II precursor is transcribed from the complementary strand to the class I precursor). Trans splicing of the two RNA precursors could produce the 2.2kb transcript (a programmed genomic rearrangement to bring all the coding sequences to the same DNA strand has been ruled out using Southern-blot analysis. It is also possible that a switch to a different template by RNA polymerase II could produce the 2.2kb transcript, although this has never been described. In addition, recombination between precursor RNA molecules could produce the 2.2kb transcript, but this has not been reported in eukaryotes).
    Mutations in the genomic region encoding exons 1-4 show enhancement of PEV and homeotic transformation and affect viability and fertility. mod(mdg4) not only interacts with trx group genes in transcriptional regulation of homeotic genes but also in gene silencing caused by PEV.
    The molecular and genetic complexity of mod(mdg4) is underlaid by a large set of individual protein isoforms with specific functions in regulating the chromatin structure of different sets of genes throughout development. In direction of increasing cytology: mod(mdg4)- tin+
    A regulatory mutation in mod(mdg4) results in abnormal synapse specificity and synapse morphology.
    A stripe expression assay in which the gypsy\su(Hw)BR is inserted between defined enhancers and placed among divergently transcribed reporter genes (w and Ecol\lacZ) containing distinct core promoter sequences has been used to analysed the role of mod(mdg4) in gypsy\su(Hw)BR activity. mod(mdg4) is essential for the enhancer blocking activity of the gypsy\su(Hw)BR. In addition, reductions in mod(mdg4)+ activity cause the gypsy\su(Hw)BR to function as a promoter-specific enhancer that selectively represses w but not the closely linked Ecol\lacZ gene, suggesting that the gypsy\su(Hw)BR does not propagate changes in chromatin structure.
    Two acidic domains of su(Hw) that are dispensable for the unidirectional repression of enhancer elements are critical for the bidirectional silencing of enhancer activity observed in mutants lacking functional mod(mdg4) protein.
    "doom", an alternative splice product of the mod(mdg4) gene, induces apoptosis and forms a complex with baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins in S.frugiperda cells.
    Identification: Direct physical interaction with several baculovirus Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAPs).
    mod(mdg4) protein induces rapid apoptosis in insect cells. The carboxy terminal encoded by the 3' exon is responsible for the induction of apoptosis and the engagement of IAPs.
    mod(mdg4) exerts its effect on gypsy-induced mutations only in the presence of a functional su(Hw) protein. Its effect on the y locus depends on the properties and location of the gypsy\su(Hw)BR within y.
    The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation. mod(mdg4) is required for germ cell viability or early oogenesis.
    The repressive effect of su(Hw) on y2 expression is limited to the chromosome in which the su(Hw) binding sites in gypsy are present. The negative effect of the su(Hw) protein can be transmitted to the gene present on the other homologous paired chromosome in the presence of mod(mdg4) mutations. They allow the su(Hw) protein to act in trans and inhibit the action of the y enhancers located in the homologous chromosome on the promoter of their gene.
    Sequence comparison indicates that mod(mdg4) and E(var)93D are the same gene.
    Enhancement of the y phenotype of gypsy-induced alleles by mutations in mod(mdg4) requires an intact su(Hw)-binding region and the su(Hw) protein itself.
    Genetic and molecular data suggests that the gene products of the mod(mdg4) locus are generally involved in establishing and/or maintaining an open chromatin conformation. mod(mdg4) is a position regulator of the bithorax complex.
    Interactions between mod(mdg4) and su(Hw) mutations have been studied by their effect on the phenotypic expression of mutations induced by insertion of a gypsy element.
    The effects of su(Hw) and mod(mdg4) on a set of y alleles derived in a super-unstable system has been assessed: results suggests that the same regulatory protein may influence gene expression in opposite directions.
    One mutation in mod(mdg4) is due to insertion of a Stalker element.
    mod(mdg4) seems to be involved in the control of gypsy element expression.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 231 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (71)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GH07769
    BcDNA:SD03001
    CG15501
    CG15802
    CG18151
    CG7859
    CG8076
    E(var)129
    E(var)93D
    E-(var)3-93D
    E-var(3)3
    Enhancer of variegation 93D
    MOD(MDG4)56.3
    Mod(mdg 4)67.2
    Mod[mdg4]
    Modifier of mdg4
    Modifier of mdg4 67.2
    Modifier67.2
    R5_3R:17176815..17177103
    branch point disrupted
    l(3)03852
    l(3)j2B7
    mod (mdg4)
    mod(gypsy)
    mod(mdg4)
    (Ong and Lin, 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Gerland et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Lavington and Kern, 2017, Melnikova et al., 2017, Melnikova et al., 2017, Schwartz and Cavalli, 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Golovnin et al., 2016, Lo et al., 2016, Savitsky et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Gao et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Cuartero et al., 2014, Golovnin et al., 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Yu et al., 2014, Fedoseeva and Tchurikov, 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Matzat et al., 2013, Soshnev et al., 2013, Spokony, 2013.8.25, Follmer et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Matzat et al., 2012, McKee et al., 2012, Soshnev et al., 2012, Baxley et al., 2011, Ellis and Carney, 2011, Erokhin et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Matsui et al., 2011, Ramos et al., 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Shieh and Bonini, 2011, Singer and Gall, 2011, Toku et al., 2011, van Eyk et al., 2011, Waldholm et al., 2011, Blanco et al., 2010, McManus et al., 2010, Oliver et al., 2010, Smulders-Srinivasan et al., 2010, Moshkin et al., 2009, Abhiman et al., 2008, Bakal et al., 2008, Chetverina et al., 2008, Gohl et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Oliver, 2008, Turner et al., 2008, Xi et al., 2008, Buszczak et al., 2007, Kaplow et al., 2007, Maksimenko and Georgiev, 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Soltani-Bejnood et al., 2007, Thomas and Tomkiel, 2007, Volkmar et al., 2007, Kobayashi et al., 2006, Lei and Corces, 2006, Capelson and Corces, 2005, Kiesler et al., 2005, Kravchenko et al., 2005, Melnikova et al., 2004, Drysdale, 2003, Karakozova et al., 2003, Labrador and Corces, 2003, Zobacheva et al., 2003, Umemiya et al., 2002, Gause et al., 2001, Wei and Brennan, 2001)
    mod(mdg4)-58.8
    mod(mdg4)-67.2
    mod(mdg4)67.2
    modifier mdg4
    modifier of mdg4 in meiosis
    modifier of midget4
    Name Synonyms
    Enhancer of variegation 93D
    Mod(mdg4)-67.2
    Modifier of (mdg4) 67.2
    Modifier of mdg 4 67.2
    Modifier of mdg4 67.2
    Modifier67.2
    branch point disrupted
    late boundary complex
    mod(mdg4 isoform N)
    modifier mdg4
    modifier of mdg4 in meiosis
    modifier of midget4
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010160
    • FBgn0010321
    • FBgn0010822
    • FBgn0011326
    • FBgn0024544
    • FBgn0038882
    • FBgn0038883
    • FBgn0038884
    • FBgn0038885
    • FBgn0040578
    • FBgn0040579
    • FBgn0040580
    • FBgn0046992
    • FBgn0052491
    • FBgn0063265
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • RNAi_target
    Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of insulator proteins by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (378)