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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Acp26Aa
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Accessory gland protein 26Aa
Annotation Symbol
CG8982
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002855
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Accessory gland protein 26Aa (Acp26Aa) encodes a protein synthesized in male accessory glands. It is transferred during mating to females where it induces an increase in ovulation by relaxing the oviduct via activation of octopaminergic signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

ovulin, Mst26Aa, Acp26A, Acp26Aab, mst 355a

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:5,892,883..5,893,896 [-]
Recombination map

2-18

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:5892883..5893896
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
This protein is transferred from male to female's hemolymph during mating, affecting egglaying and behavior after mating.
(UniProt, P10333)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Mst26Aa
Expressed in males. but not in females; also expressed in the germ-cell-free sons of tud females as well as in XX individuals that are homozygous for dsx, ix, tra2, or tra. 1986, Presence of tra2+ activity in XX flies during a part of the third larval instar is sufficient to repress expression of Mst26Aa and prevent accessory-gland development; absence of tra2+ activity during that period leads to accessory-gland formation and the production of Mst26Aa transcript.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

male ejaculate accessory gland protein - increases ovulation through octopamine based neuronal signaling

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Acp26Aa or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Acp26Aa for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079155
958
264
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

0.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078786
29.6
264
9.31
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

41, 37, 33, 30, 28, 25 (kD observed)

29, 22 (kD observed)

264 (aa); 41, 37, 36 (kD observed); 29 (kD predicted)

Comments

The 41kD, 37kD and 36kD forms of Acp26Aa protein differ in the extent of glycosylation. The 36kD species is far less abundant than the other two. By tracking with region-specific antibodies, it was shown that the 41kD species is processed to 38kD, 33kD and finally to 28kD while the 37kD species is processed to 33kD, 30kD and finally 25kD in parallel processing pathways. These processing steps were shown to consist of stepwise cleavage events in the N-terminal half of the protein. The processing sites were mapped by CNBr mapping and by analysis of conserved cleav

ge sites within several Drosophila species. Finally, it was found that accessory gland main cell secretions are necessary to process Acp26Aa protein in the female genital tract.

This putative cleavage product was not detected. It is thought to be generated from the 41kD product by an N-terminal cleavage step in the female genital tract.

The 41kD, 37kD and 36kD forms of Acp26Aa protein differ in the extent of glycosylation. The 36kD species is far less abundant than the other two. By tracking with region-specific antibodies, it was shown that the 41kD species is processed to 38kD, 33kD and finally to 28kD while the 37kD species is processed to 33kD, 30kD and finally 25kD in parallel processing pathways. These processing steps were shown to consist of stepwise cleavage events in the N-terminal half of the protein. The processing sites were mapped by CNBr mapping and by analysis of conservated cle

vage sites within several Drosophila species. Finally, it was found that accessory gland main cell secretions are necessary to process Acp26Aa protein in the female genital tract.

Thought to be generated from a putative 38kD product by an N-terminal cleavage step in the female genital tract.

Generated from the 37kD species by an N-terminal cleavage step in the female genital tract.

Three forms of Acp26Aa protein are present in the male accessory gland, 36, 37, and 41kD. The 37kD is the most abundant. This is cleaved to 30kD in the female genital tract by the end of mating. There may be a 33kD intermediate.

Generated from a 33kD species by an N-terminal cleavage step in the female genital tract.

Generated from the 30kD species by an N-terminal cleavage step in the female genital tract.

External Data
Post Translational Modification

It undergoes several cleavages as it is secreted and it is further processed in the recipient female.

(UniProt, P10333)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Acp26Aa using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from high throughput expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004315
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004315
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence model
inferred from sequence model
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Acp26Aa transcripts were assayed in hand-sorted staged pupae. They are first detected at pupal stage 13. They are present at adult levels by one day after eclosion and persist at these levels for at least 10 days. Determination of expression occurs during the third larval instar which correlates with the time of determination of the accessory glands.

Acp26Aa transcripts are detected in RNA from adult males and specifically in accessory gland RNA.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Acp26Aa is transferred to the female at the time of mating and persists for about 2-3 hours in the female reproductive tract. Acp26Aa enters the female hemolymph. It is detected in the uterus, sperm mass, and oviduct.

The processed forms of Acp26Aa protein are detected in the female genital tract.

The 30kD processed form of Acp26Aa protein is the major form in the female genital tract by the end of mating.

The 25kD processed form of Acp26Aa protein is the major form in the female genital tract 30 minutes after mating, and by 2 hours, it is the only form detected.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Acp26Aa in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Acp26Aa
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Acp26Aa
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190F6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-18

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:5,892,883..5,893,896 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    26A1-26A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k06502k06502 and P{EP}bchsEP2299&P{EP}GpdhEP466
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    26A-26A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (2)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (5)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments

        If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Significant association has been found between Acp26Aa mutant male sperm and the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There is no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm, this lack of correlation suggests that different mechanisms mediate that the two components of sperm displacement.

        Acp26Aa contributes to the initial (first day postmating) stimulation of egg laying in the mated female.

        The Acp26Aa product is transferred to the female from the male during mating, and is processed in the female genital tract. Processing involves sequential proteolytic cleavage which is dependent on activities donated by the male.

        It is demonstrated that Acp26Aa and Acp26Ab are separate mRNAs using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and reporter gene fusions. Regulatory elements for Acp26Ab lie within a fragment containing the intergenic region and transcribed sequences of Acp26Aa and Acp26Ab.

        Sequence and restriction map polymorphism have been studied in 10 isogenic lines of D.melanogaster, and one line each of D.sechellia, D.mauritiana and D.simulans : pattern suggests selection in or near Acp26Aa region has played a part in the history of these genes.

        Expressed in males, not females. Presence of tra2+ activity in XX flies during a part of the third larval instar is sufficient to repress expression of Acp26Aa and prevent accessory-gland formation and the production of Acp26Aa transcript.

        The developmental and mating-stimulated expression of Acp26Aa, and the transfer of the protein product to and fates in the mated female has been studied.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 265 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        msP355a
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (178)