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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\MtnA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Metallothionein A
Annotation Symbol
CG9470
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002868
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Metallothionein A (MtnA) encodes a member of the Metallothionein family whose transcript level is higher than that of the other four Drosophila metallothioneins. Transcription is strongly induced by copper and cadmium ions and this induction depends on the transcription factor encoded by MTF-1. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Mtn, metallothionein

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-49
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:9783407..9784370
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (3 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:MtnE; FB:FBgn0262146
Cellular Component (0 terms)
There is no information supporting a Cellular Component term for this gene. (Based on a review of available data on: 2013-03-07 )
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the metallothionein superfamily. Type 5 family. (P04357)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Metallothionein A (MtnA) encodes a member of the Metallothionein family whose transcript level is higher than that of the other four Drosophila metallothioneins. Transcription is strongly induced by copper and cadmium ions and this induction depends on the transcription factor encoded by MTF-1. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
METALLOTHIONEINS -
Metallothioneins constitute a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight metal-binding proteins. They bind physiological metals, such as zinc and copper, as well as nonessential, toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, mercury, and silver. They play an essential role in heavy metal detoxification and in maintaining the homeostasis of essential trace metals. They are also involved in the protection against free radicals and oxidative stress. (Adapted from FBrf0215591).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
This protein binds cations of several transition elements. It is thought to be involved in detoxification processes.
(UniProt, P04357)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Mtn: Metallothionein (G. Maroni)
Codes for metallothionein, a metal binding protein. Inducible by ingestion of Cu or Cd (but not Zn) ions. In larvae, it is expressed mainly in the midgut. No point mutations are available, but Dp(3;3)Mtn+H22 shows increased tolerance to Cd.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\MtnA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082158
329
40
FBtr0334686
700
40
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081636
3.9
40
7.85
FBpp0306744
3.9
40
7.85
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

40 aa isoforms: MtnA-PA, MtnA-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Domain

All cysteine residues are arranged in C-X-C groups. These are thought to be the metal-binding sites in other metallothioneins.

(UniProt, P04357)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\MtnA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\MtnA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 6 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of MtnA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of MtnA
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 3 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 3 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene not disrupted in
Gene duplicated in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KXM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150K44 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-49
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85E9-85E9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CrcEP3006 and P{lacW}s2681
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    85E10-85E15
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85E-85E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (4)
    Genomic Clones (8)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (313)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: MtnA BcDNA:GH18460

    Source for merge of: MtnA anon-WO0153538.42 anon-WO0153538.44 anon-WO0153538.49

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of MtnA BcDNA:GH18460 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

    Source for merge of MtnA anon-WO0153538.42 anon-WO0153538.44 anon-WO0153538.49 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    MtnA promoter expression induced by CuSO4 in recombinant baculovirus is inducible but 'leaky'.

    Codes for metallothionein, a metal binding protein. Inducible by ingestion of Cu or Cd (but not Zn) ions. In larvae, it is expressed mainly in the midgut. No point mutations are available, but Dp(3;3)Mtn+H22 shows increased tolerance to Cd.

    MtnA and MtnB gene structure and expression pattern have been compared.

    Metal-regulated and tissue-specific expression of MtnA requires no more than 373bp upstream of the transcription start site. MtnA sequences from -130 to -6bp are sufficient to confer metal-regulated expression to MtnA-Hsim\TK promoter fusion constructs.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GH18460
    anon-WO0153538.42
    anon-WO0153538.44
    anon-WO0153538.49
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0045904
    • FBgn0045909
    • FBgn0045911
    • FBgn0064964
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (151)