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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mud
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
mushroom body defect
Annotation Symbol
CG12047
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002873
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
mushroom body defect (mud) encodes regulates spindle orientation via interactions with the dynein complex. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

mushroom body defective, NuMA

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:14,247,732..14,258,595 [+]
Recombination map

1-48

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:14247732..14258595
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables DNA binding
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pins; FB:FBgn0040080
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in axon guidance
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fra; FB:FBgn0011592
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:NetA; FB:FBgn0015773, FLYBASE:NetB; FB:FBgn0015774
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
involved_in spermatogenesis
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033288
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in basal cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cell cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in centrosome
inferred from direct assay
located_in spindle midzone
inferred from direct assay
located_in spindle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033288
(assigned by InterPro )
located_in Golgi apparatus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000431517
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004500658
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mud: mushroom body defect (J.C. Hall)
Neuropile of mushroom bodies (usually in dorsal brain) is missing (Heisenberg, 1980); penetrance for this anatomical phenotype (on which criterion the mutant was isolated) ca. 90%. Calyces that should innervate pedunculi and lobes of mushroom bodies are enlarged, as are antennal lobes in anterior brain. At sites of calyces, large numbers of thin axons form distinct lobes outside main neuropile of brain. Viability of mutant females poor, and they are sterile as well. Development of mushroom bodies apparently normal until pupation, when "reconstruction" of this bilaterally paired brain entity (this process being a normal feature of wild-type metamorphosis) is aberrant (Technau and Heisenberg, 1982). Supernumerary neuroblasts observed in the larval brain, owing to anomalous proliferation of such cells postembryonically.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

involved in spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division - asymmetrically localized Partner of inscuteable-Gαi complexes regulate spindle orientation by directly binding to Mud which in turn binds microtubules

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\mud for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.39

Apparent introns within longest coding exon in cDNAs and RNA-seq junctions within the same region are likely to be artifacts; possibly caused by reverse transcriptase template-switching.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0308325
7938
2394
FBtr0308326
6286
1933
FBtr0308327
8457
2567
FBtr0308328
8643
2113
FBtr0308329
7097
2165
FBtr0332621
6223
1912
FBtr0332622
8259
2501
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

6.003 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0300644
274.5
2394
5.47
FBpp0300645
223.3
1933
5.02
FBpp0300646
294.1
2567
5.46
FBpp0300647
242.8
2113
5.06
FBpp0300648
248.9
2165
5.14
FBpp0304867
220.8
1912
5.02
FBpp0304868
286.5
2501
5.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

2501, 1871 (aa)

Comments

Each mud protein isoform is predicted to have a long coiled-coil in the central region, and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain. The region predicted to form a coiled-coil includes a segment of 42 amino acids that is repeated 10 times. The 1871 amino acid isoform is predicted to have a single transmembrane segment, whereas the two longer isoforms are predicted to have two transmembrane segments each.

External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mud using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in basal cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cell cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in centrosome
inferred from direct assay
located_in spindle midzone
inferred from direct assay
located_in spindle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mud in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mud
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mud
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
egg & chromatin | maternal effect
egg & spindle | maternal effect
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1  
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919050D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150069 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X004L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-48

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:14,247,732..14,258,595 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    12E5-12E6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}l(1)G0007EP764 and P{EP}EP1599
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (8)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (35)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      Annotation CG12047 split into CG12047 (which corresponds to mud) and CG32599 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      Other Comments

      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

      Mutation of mud interferes with the regulation of central nervous system development by affecting the proliferation pattern.

      Neuropil of mushroom bodies (usually in dorsal brain) is missing (Heisenberg, 1980); penetrance for this anatomical phenotype (on which criterion the mutant was isolated) ca. 90%. Calyces that should innervate pedunculi and lobes of mushroom bodies are enlarged, as are antennal lobes in anterior brain. At sites of calyces, large numbers of thin axons form distinct lobes outside main neuropil of brain. Viability of mutant females poor and they are sterile as well. Development of mushroom bodies apparently normal until pupation, when 'reconstruction' of this bilaterally paired brain entity (this process being a normal feature of wild-type metamorphosis) is aberrant (Technau and Heisenberg, 1982). Supernumerary neuroblasts observed in the larval brain, owing to anomalous proliferation of such cells postembryonically.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      KS63
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0052599
      • FBgn0030557
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (151)