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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mud
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
mushroom body defect
Annotation Symbol
CG12047
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002873
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
mushroom body defect (mud) encodes regulates spindle orientation via interactions with the dynein complex. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
mushroom body defective, NuMA
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:14,247,732..14,258,595 [+]
Recombination map
1-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    mud: mushroom body defect (J.C. Hall)
    Neuropile of mushroom bodies (usually in dorsal brain) is missing (Heisenberg, 1980); penetrance for this anatomical phenotype (on which criterion the mutant was isolated) ca. 90%. Calyces that should innervate pedunculi and lobes of mushroom bodies are enlarged, as are antennal lobes in anterior brain. At sites of calyces, large numbers of thin axons form distinct lobes outside main neuropile of brain. Viability of mutant females poor, and they are sterile as well. Development of mushroom bodies apparently normal until pupation, when "reconstruction" of this bilaterally paired brain entity (this process being a normal feature of wild-type metamorphosis) is aberrant (Technau and Heisenberg, 1982). Supernumerary neuroblasts observed in the larval brain, owing to anomalous proliferation of such cells postembryonically.
    Summary (Interactive Fly)
    involved in spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division - asymmetrically localized Partner of inscuteable-Gαi complexes regulate spindle orientation by directly binding to Mud which in turn binds microtubules
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    7
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    7

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\mud or the JBrowse view of Dmel\mud for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Gene model reviewed during 5.39
    Apparent introns within longest coding exon in cDNAs and RNA-seq junctions within the same region are likely to be artifacts; possibly caused by reverse transcriptase template-switching.
    Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
    Gene model reviewed during 5.45
    Gene model reviewed during 5.55
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0308325
    7938
    2394
    FBtr0308326
    6286
    1933
    FBtr0308327
    8457
    2567
    FBtr0308328
    8643
    2113
    FBtr0308329
    7097
    2165
    FBtr0332621
    6223
    1912
    FBtr0332622
    8259
    2501
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    6.003 (longest cDNA)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0300644
    274.5
    2394
    5.47
    FBpp0300645
    223.3
    1933
    5.02
    FBpp0300646
    294.1
    2567
    5.46
    FBpp0300647
    242.8
    2113
    5.06
    FBpp0300648
    248.9
    2165
    5.14
    FBpp0304867
    220.8
    1912
    5.02
    FBpp0304868
    286.5
    2501
    5.50
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    2501, 1871 (aa)
    Comments
    Each mud protein isoform is predicted to have a long coiled-coil in the central region, and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain. The region predicted to form a coiled-coil includes a segment of 42 amino acids that is repeated 10 times. The 1871 amino acid isoform is predicted to have a single transmembrane segment, whereas the two longer isoforms are predicted to have two transmembrane segments each.
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mud using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (17 terms)
    Molecular Function (2 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pins; FB:FBgn0040080
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (7 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    traceable author statement
    Cellular Component (8 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000431519
    (assigned by GO_Central )
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\mud in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mud
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mud
    Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    egg & chromatin | maternal effect
    egg & spindle | maternal effect
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
    2 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
     
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    2 of 15
    Yes
    No
    2 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 13
    Yes
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
    3 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (11)
    2 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (10)
    2 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
    2 of 15
    Yes
    No
    2 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (6)
    2 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919050D )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150069 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X004L )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
    2 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      X
      Recombination map
      1-48
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      X:14,247,732..14,258,595 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      12E5-12E6
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}l(1)G0007EP764 and P{EP}EP1599
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (9)
      Genomic Clones (11)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (35)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        polyclonal
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Annotation CG12047 split into CG12047 (which corresponds to mud) and CG32599 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
        Other Comments
        Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.
        Mutation of mud interferes with the regulation of central nervous system development by affecting the proliferation pattern.
        Neuropil of mushroom bodies (usually in dorsal brain) is missing (Heisenberg, 1980); penetrance for this anatomical phenotype (on which criterion the mutant was isolated) ca. 90%. Calyces that should innervate pedunculi and lobes of mushroom bodies are enlarged, as are antennal lobes in anterior brain. At sites of calyces, large numbers of thin axons form distinct lobes outside main neuropil of brain. Viability of mutant females poor and they are sterile as well. Development of mushroom bodies apparently normal until pupation, when 'reconstruction' of this bilaterally paired brain entity (this process being a normal feature of wild-type metamorphosis) is aberrant (Technau and Heisenberg, 1982). Supernumerary neuroblasts observed in the larval brain, owing to anomalous proliferation of such cells postembryonically.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 71 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        KS63
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0052599
        • FBgn0030557
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (147)