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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PolQ
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
DNA polymerase theta
Annotation Symbol
CG6019
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002905
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
DNA-directed DNA polymerase (2.7.7.7)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
DNA polymerase theta (PolQ) encodes DNA polymerase theta, a dual-domain protein with helicase-like and translesion polymerase domains. It contributes to repair/tolerance of DNA interstrand crosslinks and alternative-end joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks. [Date last reviewed: 2019-10-03]
Also Known As

mus308, mutagen-sensitive 308, Pol θ

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:12,705,523..12,712,299 [-]
Recombination map

3-52

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:12705523..12712299
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (15 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000015249
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:O75417
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011545
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001098, InterPro:IPR003583
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000015249
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:O75417
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VYA5
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000015249
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000015249
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the DNA polymerase type-A family. (O18475)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1) (2.7.7.7)
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Predictions / Assertions
Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1) (2.7.7.7)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
5'-DEOXYRIBOSE-5-PHOSPHATE LYASES -
5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyases catalyze the excision of the 5' deoxyribose-5-phosphate at an abasic site in DNA where a DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase has already cleaved the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site. These enzymes play an important role in base excision repair pathway responsible for the repair of DNA lesions. (Adapted from PMID:11457865).
DNA POLYMERASE THETA -
DNA polymerase theta is a low-fidelity nuclear polymerase that participates in translesion synthesis and DNA repair. It is indispensable for the alternative end-joining branch of the double strand break (DSB) repair pathway. (Adapted from PMID:30005324.)
DNA POLYMERASE CATALYTIC SUBUNITS -
Multiple DNA polymerases are required for DNA replication and/or repair in eukaryotic cells. The alpha-primase, delta, epsilon, zeta and gamma polymerases exist as multi-subunit complexes in which one of the subunits has catalytic activity, whereas other DNA polymerases act as single molecules. (Adapted from PMID:30005324.)
OTHER DNA HELICASES -
The 'other DNA helicases' group comprises DNA helicases that do not fit into any of the other major DNA helicase groups.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Multifunctional protein with both DNA polymerase and ATPase activities (PubMed:10343651, PubMed:15961355). Might have 3' to 5' exonuclease activity (PubMed:10343651). Plays a role in different DNA repair pathways such as DNA strand cross-link repair and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), an alternative non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) machinery triggered in response to double-strand breaks (PubMed:20936147, PubMed:20617203, PubMed:28542210). MMEJ is an error-prone repair pathway that produces deletions of sequences from the strand being repaired and promotes genomic rearrangements, such as telomere fusions (PubMed:20617203). Utilizes short microhomologies present in partially and fully single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as primers for DNA synthesis (PubMed:28542210). Prefers poly(dA)/oligo(dT) as a template-primer (PubMed:10343651). The ATPase activity is necessary during interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and has a critical role in generating templated insertions during MMEJ (PubMed:28542210). Necessary for processing DNA damage induced by oxygen and N-ethylation (PubMed:10732683, PubMed:20936147). In follicle cells, contributes to double-strand break repair at physiological rereplication forks necessary for survival of fertilized eggs (PubMed:20936147, PubMed:27849606).
(UniProt, O18475)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mus308 (J.B. Boyd)
Larval survival hypersensitive to exposure to X rays (Oliveri, Harris, and Boyd, 1990, Mutat. Res. 235: 25-31), and nitrogen mustard. Partially deficient in post-replication repair (Boyd and Shaw, 1982, Mol. Gen. Genet. 186: 289-94) and excision (Boyd and Harris, 1981, Chromosoma 97: 607-23); DNA synthesis modified (Boyd and Shaw). Displays hypermutability to alkylating agents; defective both in alkylation and UV excision repair pathways (Smith and Dusenberg, 1988, Mechanisms and Consequences of DNA Damage Processing, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 251-55). Defective in levels of nuclease 3, which is apparently active in the repair of DNA cross links (Boyd, Sakaguchi, and Harris, 1990, Genetics 125: 813-19).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\PolQ for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

DGC data (RH44346) contradicts with the Genscan predition and introduces premature stop codon, thus was disregarded.

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082662
6420
2059
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082131
229.9
2059
7.17
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

2059 (aa); 229 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

In adult males, cleaved to produce a 100 kDa form.

(UniProt, O18475)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PolQ using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PolQ in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919007Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500L7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W003C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0032 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G005B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
4 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-52

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:12,705,523..12,712,299 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    87C6-87C6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Vha55j2E9 and P{PZ}CtBP03463
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    87D1-87D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (9)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (12)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: DNApol-θ mus308

      Source for identity of: PolQ DNApol-θ

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      During end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks, mus308 plays a crucial role in Lig4-independent alternative end joining. Mutant analysis suggests that mus308 may be involved in two processes associated with alternative end joining: first, annealing at short, complementary DNA sequences and second, DNA synthesis that creates small insertions at break repair sites.

      mus308 is important for both interstrand crosslink repair and end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

      mus308 is required to process ethyl nitrosourea (ENU) induced lesions, and may play a role in post replication bypass of O-alkylpyrimidines, probably mediated by recombination, which serves to increase the time available for error-free repair of these lesions.

      Gene is involved in pre-replication repair of lesions produced by DNA cross-link agents.

      The carboxy terminal domain shares over 55% sequence similarity with the polymerase domains of prokaryotic DNA polymerase I-like enzymes. This is the first member of this family of DNA polymerases to be identified in a eukaryotic organism. mus308 is closely related to a gene in C.elegans suggesting this novel polypeptide may play an evolutionarily conserved role in the repair of DNA damage in eukaryotic organisms.

      The sex linked recessive lethal test has been used to measure the mutability of mus308 mutants to several mutagens. Results suggest mus308 is not defective in a repair pathway specific for cross-links but is rather involved in a step of a more general post-replication process responsible for the removal of non-excised adducts.

      "3-51 +/- 1" was stated as revision.

      The mus308 locus is unique among mutagen sensitive mutations in that mutants are hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents but not to monofunctional alkylating agents.

      mus308 gene is required for resistance to DNA cross-linking agents, normal female fertility and chromosome stability.

      mus308 encodes a nuclease, designated Nuclease 3.

      Studies of Nuc3 activity in mus308 mutants support the hypothesis that the mus308 locus is not the structural gene for Nuc3, but is involved in modifying the pI of the Nuc3 enzyme.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 36 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (97)