General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ncd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
non-claret disjunctional
Annotation Symbol
CG7831
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002924
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Minus-end-directed kinesin ATPase (3.6.4.5)
Gene Snapshot
Non-claret disjunctional is a minus-end-directed kinesin microtubule motor protein and the sole member of the kinesin-14 motor family. It is required for spindle assembly in oocytes and chromosome attachment to spindles in early embryos. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
DmNcd, l(3)05884, cand
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,804,290..29,807,127 [-]
Recombination map
3-99
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the TRAFAC class myosin-kinesin ATPase superfamily. Kinesin family. NCD subfamily. (P20480)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.4.5)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
KINESINS -
Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are microtubule motor proteins which use the hydrolysis of ATP to drive directional movement along microtubules. KIFs possess a well-conserved 360 residue globular head domain which binds and hydrolyses ATP and interacts with microtubules. Many KIFs homodimerize via coiled-coil interactions in the stalk region. KIFs bind cargo through their variable tail regions and are involved in transporting organelles, protein complexes, mRNAs and the movement of spindles and chromosomes during cell division. (Adapted from FBrf0219884).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
NCD is required for normal chromosomal segregation in meiosis, in females, and in early mitotic divisions of the embryo. The NCD motor activity is directed toward the microtubule's minus end.
(UniProt, P20480)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ncd: non-claret disjunctional
Disjunction in homozygous females abnormal; incidence of nondisjunction of all chromosome pairs in the first meiotic division and of meiotic and early-cleavage mitotic loss of maternally inherited chromosomes is high. X-chromosome recombination normal among both regular and exceptional progeny. Behavior of nonhomologues correlated; doubly disomic and doubly nullosomic ova more frequent than expected (Davis). Similar in action to ca of D. simulans (Sturtevant, 1929, Z. Wiss. Biol. Abt. A 135: 323-56). Two thirds of mitotic loss of chromosomes in progeny of ncd mothers takes place in the first zygotic division; one third takes place subsequently. The majority of X-chromosome loss (85-95%) is of the maternally inherited X but there is also appreciable loss of the paternally inherited X as well (Sequeira et al.). Somatic loss of X and 4 correlated (Portin, 1978, Heredity 41: 193-203). Cytological description of meiotic behavior in D. simulans ca females (Wald, 1936, Genetics 21: 264-81) includes abnormal first meiotic spindle, second meiotic arrest, and dispersal of chromosomes into multiple micronuclei; micronuclei also observed in ncd females (Roberts). Spindles frequently multipolar in first meiotic division (Puro) and in early-embryo nuclear divisions, and nuclei remain close together in center of egg (Kimble and Sandstedt, 1981, Genetics 978: s97). Kimble and Church (1981, J. Cell Sci. 62: 301-18) observed four classes of metaphase 1 configurations: (1) two or more spindles (2) abnormally wide spindles with widely separated bivalents (3) unipolar spindles, and (4) normal spindles; the first three comprise 80% of configurations. Approximately 20% of eggs of ncd1 females asymmetrical or with more than two appendages (Kimble and Church). Hinton and McEarchen (1963, DIS 37: 90) reported a haploid-diploid mosaic. ncd ovaries transplanted into normal host behave autonomously (Roberts, 1962, DIS 36: 120). Chromosome segregation normal in ncd males.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ncd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ncd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085534
2340
700
FBtr0344976
2720
700
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084900
77.5
700
9.65
FBpp0311231
77.5
700
9.65
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

700 aa isoforms: ncd-PA, ncd-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
44 (kD observed)
685 (aa); 76 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ncd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001752, InterPro:IPR019821
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Axs; FB:FBgn0000152
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Klp61F; FB:FBgn0004378
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:αTub67C; FB:FBgn0087040
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001537590
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000648413
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001537590
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001537590
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
ncd transcripts are present in approximately wild type amounts in ncdD females.
ncd transcripts are present in adult females and in gradually decreasing amounts during embryogenesis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ncd protein is observed in early embryos in mitotic spindles and in polar bodies.
ncd protein staining is observed in meiotic spindles.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ncd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ncd
Allele of ncd
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ncd
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
meiosis & nuclear chromosome
meiosis & nuclear chromosome & oocyte
meiosis & nuclear chromosome | female (with ncd1)
meiosis & nuclear chromosome | female (with ncdD)
meiosis II & spindle & egg
mitosis & nuclear chromosome
mitotic anaphase & spindle
mitotic metaphase & spindle
spindle & oocyte
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (18)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919047N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503OV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09HW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07XX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0DJX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-99
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:29,804,290..29,807,127 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    99C1-99C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0674306743 and P{PZ}ncd05884
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    99C1-99C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99B-99B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99B-99C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99B8-99B10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (21)
    Genomic Clones (17)
    cDNA Clones (68)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: ncd l(3)05884
      Additional comments
      Most ncd mutations recovered simultaneously with ca mutations; the double mutants are designated "cand" in the claret entry; they are caused by a single lesion affecting both transcription units and are inseparable.
      Other Comments
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes defects in spindle shape and unfocused spindle microtubules when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
      S2 cells transfected with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene show detachment of centrosomes from the spindle poles, resulting in a slight increase of spindle size.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      Spindle pole movements in embryos are directed by a temporally coordinated balance of forces generated by three mitotic motors; cytoplasmic dynein, Klp61F and ncd. Dynein acts to move the poles apart throughout mitosis, and this activity is augmented by Klp61F after the fenestration of the nuclear envelope, which occurs at the onset of prometaphase. ncd generates forces that pull the poles together between interphase and metaphase, antagonising the activity of both cytoplasmic dynein and Klp61F and serving as a brake for spindle assembly.
      The ncd tail domain can promote microtubule assembly and stability.
      Mutants show disruption of chromosome segregation in meiosis whether or not they have undergone exchange and without any direct effect on the level of exchange.
      The inhibition of Klp61F function (via injected antibodies) embryos inhibits the formation of bipolar metaphase spindles.
      Analysis of Khc-ncd fusion proteins indicates that residues or regions contributing to motor polarity are present in the ncd neck region. The neck-motor junction is also critical for ncd minus-end movement.
      ncd is necessary for chromosome segregation and can interact specifically with the centromere. ncd requires only centromeric sequences for its action in chromosome segregation.
      AMPPNP (a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog) is hydrolysed by the motor domain of ncd with a slow turnover. Turnover cannot be accelerated by microtubules.
      Medium-resolution three-dimensional structure of microtubules interacting with two functional dimeric motors with opposite directionality (Khc and ncd) is determined.
      ncd microtubule motor performs an active role during mitosis in early embryos. The motor acts to maintain centrosome integrity and attachment to nuclei, contributes to midbody stability and helps to prevent chromosome loss during the early mitotic divisions.
      ncd protein is required for normal spindle assembly kinetics and stabilisation of the spindle during metaphase arrest. Immunolocalisation analyses demonstrate that ncd is associated with spindle microtubules. Results suggest that microtubule binding by ncd promotes assembly of a stable bipolar spindle in the absence of typical microtubule organising centres (MTOCs).
      Missense mutation at residue 556, part of the motor domain, allows translocation on microtubules but at a reduced velocity relative to wild type. This provides evidence that the reduced rate of translocation is caused by altered binding of the mutant motor to microtubules.
      The crystal structure of the MgADP complex of the ncd motor domain is determined to 2.5A by X ray crystallography and compared to the Khc motor domain. The domains are similar in structure and locations of conserved surface amino acids suggest the motors share a common microtubule-binding site. Structural and functional comparisons indicate the NTPases may have a similar strategy of changing conformation between NTP and NDP states.
      ncd and Khc differ in their initial, weak binding to microtubules which causes the proteins to move in opposite directions. The nature of a structural bias that may serve as a determinant of motor polarity is not clear, results suggest the microtubule binding site may determine direction.
      Neutron scattering study reveals the overall shape of the motor domain is not the major determinant of the directionality of the movement along microtubules.
      Three dimensional reconstruction of the monomeric motor domain at the carboxy terminus of ncd is presented (FBrf0083611).
      A three dimensional map of tubulin sheets decorated with monomeric recombinant ncd motor domains has been calculated by negative-stain electron microscopy and image analysis. Comparisons with a control structure of tubulin alone reveals that each motor domain binds to the crest of a single protofilament making extensive contacts with both the α and β tubulin monomers, binding of the motor domain results in significant conformational change in both the tubulin monomers.
      ADP release is the rate-limiting step for ATP turnover for ncd protein.
      The motile and enzymatic properties of the ncd protein have been analysed.
      Mixtures of ncd motor domain and full length ncd protein treated with the zero-length cross linker EDC generates covalently cross linked products of ncd with βTub56D and ncd with αTub84B. These results indicate that the ncd motor domain interacts with both βTub56D and αTub84B.
      Identified as a 90kD polypeptide in an ATP MAPs 1-24 hour embryonic fraction.
      The sequence of the ncd protein has been compared with the sequences of a variety of kinesin family proteins.
      Despite ncds reversed directionality relative to kinesin, ncd has very similar ATPase kinetics to kinesin and an identical mode of coupling to microtubule binding.
      Encoded protein consists of 3 domains: a basic, proline-rich N terminal tail, a central α-helical coiled coil stalk, and a C terminal motor. Expression of different regions of ncd in bacteria indicates that ncd consists of three domains, a basic, proline rich N-terminal tail, a central alpha-helical coiled coil stalk and a C-terminal motor domain. N terminus proteins bundle microtubules in motility assays and show ATP-independent binding to microtubule in solution. C terminus proteins retain the ability to hydrolyse ATP in solution and the stalk region is important for dimerisation.
      N-terminal truncation of the 'tail' region of the protein identifies a weak binding state of the ncd motor. This weak binding state may be important in the mechanochemical function of the ncd motor protein.
      A series of truncated kinesin heavy chain and ncd proteins were generated and assayed for movement along microtubules in vitro: conserved domain of both proteins has microtubule motor activity, and direction of movement is intrinsic to conserved motor domain.
      Mutations at ncd disrupt meiotic spindle formation.
      ncd protein localizes to both the mitotic and meiotic spindle.
      ncd has been cloned and characterised.
      The behaviour of the ncd protein has been studied in vitro, showing that ncd is a minus end-directed microtubule motor.
      ncd is a minus-end directed microtubule motor. It also generates torque, causing microtubules to rotate as they move forward in in vitro motility assays.
      The 'cand' locus has been found to be two closely linked but separate genes, ca and ncd.
      Disjunction in homozygous females abnormal; incidence of nondisjunction of all chromosome pairs in the first meiotic division and of meiotic and early-cleavage mitotic loss of maternally inherited chromosomes is high. X-chromosome recombination normal among both regular and exceptional progeny. Behavior of nonhomologues correlated; doubly disomic and doubly nullosomic ova more frequent than expected (Davis, 1969). Similar in action to ca of D.simulans (Sturtevant, 1929). Two thirds of mitotic loss of chromosomes in progeny of ncd mothers takes place in the first zygotic division; one third takes place subsequently. The majority of X-chromosome loss (85-95%) is of the maternally inherited X but there is also appreciable loss of the paternally inherited X as well (Sequeira et al., 1989). Somatic loss of X and 4 correlated (Portin, 1978). Cytological description of meiotic behavior in D.simulans ca females (Wald, 1936) includes abnormal first meiotic spindle, second meiotic arrest, and dispersal of chromosomes into multiple micronuclei; micronuclei also observed in ncd females (Roberts, 1962). Spindles frequently multipolar in first meiotic division (Puro) and in early-embryo nuclear divisions and nuclei remain close together in center of egg (Kimble and Sandstedt, 1981). Kimble and Church (1981) observed four classes of metaphase 1 configurations: (1) two or more spindles (2) abnormally wide spindles with widely separated bivalents (3) unipolar spindles and (4) normal spindles; the first three comprise 80% of configurations. Approximately 20% of eggs of ncd1 females asymmetrical or with more than two appendages (Kimble and Church, 1981). Hinton and McEarchen (1963) reported a haploid-diploid mosaic. ncd ovaries transplanted into normal host behave autonomously (Roberts, 1962). Chromosome segregation normal in ncd males.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010880
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (362)