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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\net
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
net
Annotation Symbol
CG11450
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002931
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
net (net) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein that probably acts as a transcriptional repressor. During wing vein formation it is expressed in all interveins territories and antagonises the activity of the product of Egfr. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:82,421..87,387 [-]
Recombination map
2-0.5
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:82421..87387
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:HLH54F; FB:FBgn0022740
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011598
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:HLH54F; FB:FBgn0022740
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
net (net) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein that probably acts as a transcriptional repressor. During wing vein formation it is expressed in all interveins territories and antagonises the activity of the product of Egfr. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
net: net
thumb
net: net
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Wing veins form plexus-like net; first posterior cell between L3 and L4 widens toward tip; branch missing from posterior crossvein; all veins fused at base of wing, like bi. According to Waddington [1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139 (fig.)], spaces form between epithelial layers owing to inadequate contraction during pupal period; spaces later fuse and form extra veins (Diaz-Benjumea, Gonzalez-Gaitan, and Garcia-Bellido, 1989, Genome 31: 612-19). RK1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

bHLH transcription factor - promotes vein production in the wing

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\net for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0290323
2225
360
FBtr0330637
1662
360
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0288762
39.1
360
9.82
FBpp0303487
39.1
360
9.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

360 aa isoforms: net-PB, net-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\net using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\net in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 30 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of net
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of net
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 30 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
2  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (15)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (16)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190EWG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B30 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0IME )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0ND0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G167Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-0.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:82,421..87,387 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    21B1-21B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}spenk06805&P{lacW}l(2)k13604k13604 and P{lacW}U2af38k14504
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (36)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (50)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: shout CG11450

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: net shout

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of net shout was sequence comparison ( date:010307 ).

    Other Comments

    net exhibits a two tiered control in wing vein versus intervein fate by repressing rho transcription and interfering with Egfr signalling downstream of rho.

    Egfr signalling and net exert mutually antagonising activities during the specification of wing vein versus intervein fate. net is required to maintain intervein development by restricting Egfr signalling to the net-free vein regions of the wing disc.

    Extra vein mutations cause enhancement of rhohs.PSt ectopic vein phenotype and suppression of the rhove-1 loss of vein phenotype.

    Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, showing tissue overgrowth in mitotic recombination clones.

    A screen that identified Dominant enhancers of the wing phenotype associated with Dl9P and DlFE32 identified 4 new net alleles.

    Mutations in net cause extra longitudinal or transverse veins with plexated vein phenotypes. Px, px, net, dsr and emc belong to the same synergistic group and act synergistically against kn, fu and shf.

    Px, net, dsr, px and emc loci belong to the plexus phenotypic group within the 'excess-of-vein' mutant class. Extra veins occur parallel to and between normal veins that connect to each other by crossveins, forming plexi. Plexi are distal. Proximal regions shift to the margin leaving a central area devoid of veins. Sensilla and chaetae appear shifted. Combinations of mutations produce superadditive phenotypes.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    The expression pattern of CG11450 overlaps with that of the bHLH transcription factor twist (twi), so the gene was named "shout" after "Twist and Shout" by Lennon and McCartney (1963).

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 35 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (124)