General Information
Symbol
Dmel\neur
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
neuralized
Annotation Symbol
CG11988
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002932
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Neuralized (Neur) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RING family. Neur is part of the Notch signaling pathway, where it is thought to contribute to the endocytosis-dependent activation of the ligand. Neur also has Notch-independent functions in epithelial morphogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
neu
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:9,020,348..9,039,471 [-]
Recombination map
3-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RING FINGER DOMAIN PROTEINS -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in neurogenesis. Interacts with other neurogenic proteins in the specification of the neuroblast versus epidermoblast cell fate.
(UniProt, P29503)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
neu: neuralised (J.C. Hall)
Homozygous lethal, with hyperplasia of neural components at the expense of epidermal components as seen in other neurogenic lethal mutations (N, bib, mam, etc.); neu mutations cause especially strong neural hypertrophy; also aberrant imaginal disc development when expressed in mosaic clones (Dietrich and Campos-Ortega, 1984, J. Neurogenet. 1: 315-32). N+ duplications reduce the neu neural hypertrophy, while neu+ duplications have no effect on N defects (De la Concha, Dietrich, Weigel, and Campos-Ortega, 1968, Genetics 118: 499-508).
Interactive Fly
cytoplasmic zinc finger signaling protein - neurogenic - promotes or modulates the Notch neurogenic signal at the receptor/ligand level
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\neur or the JBrowse view of Dmel\neur for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082003
3992
754
FBtr0082004
3989
753
FBtr0082001
3756
672
FBtr0082002
3753
671
FBtr0300414
3381
672
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.1, 3.7 (northern blot)
4.2, 4.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081481
82.3
754
7.91
FBpp0081482
82.2
753
7.91
FBpp0081479
72.8
672
7.19
FBpp0081480
72.6
671
7.19
FBpp0289643
72.8
672
7.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

672 aa isoforms: neur-PC, neur-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
754 (aa); 82 (kD predicted)
Comments
last few amino acids differ from neur+P754
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\neur using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m4-BFM; FB:FBgn0002629, FLYBASE:E(spl)mα-BFM; FB:FBgn0002732
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Brd; FB:FBgn0000216
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E(spl)m4-BFM; FB:FBgn0002629
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000277024
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

epidermoblast

Comment: reference states 3-9 hr AEL

neuroblast

Comment: reference states 3-9 hr AEL

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

eo neuron of mesothoracic tergum

Comment: reference states 24 hr APF

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Expression pattern inferred from unspecified enhancer trap line.
neur expression is undetectable before late third instar, and is first observed in the sensory organ precursors of the wing disc.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The protein can be detected at the plasma membrane and in many intracellular vesicles in eye disc photoreceptors.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}neurP72
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
macrochaeta | restricted

Comment: reference states 42 hours APF

Reporter: P{GawB}neurNP3291
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}neurS032812
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}neurS131505
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lArB}neurA101
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\neur in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 81 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of neur
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 35 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of neur
Allele of neur
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of neur
characterization construct
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
cuticle & macrochaeta | somatic clone
eye photoreceptor cell & ommatidium | ectopic | somatic clone
macrochaeta & mesothoracic tergum | somatic clone
macrochaeta & mesothoracic tergum | supernumerary | somatic clone
microchaeta & sternite | female
microchaeta & sternite | male
neuron & eye | supernumerary | somatic clone
neuron & peripheral nervous system
sensory neuron & peripheral nervous system
thorax & chaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903MO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915021J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W022N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03H5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05BB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
    The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-48
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:9,020,348..9,039,471 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85C2-85C3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L4740L4740 and P{EP}D1EP473
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    85C3-85C4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C9-85C10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C-85C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 85C7--11 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 85C9--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 85C9--15 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C-85C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C9-85C10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 85C9--15 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 85C (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C4-85C5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86C1-86C8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85D-85D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (42)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (69)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      polyclonal
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: neur BEST:LD21494
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Loss of one copy of neur results in significant long-term memory impairment, whereas overexpression of neur in the peripheral neurons of the α/β loves of the adult mushroom bodies results in a dosage-dependent enhancement of long-term memory.
      neur overexpression in the mushroom bodies enhances long-term memory but not anaesthesia-resistant memory.
      neur contains a phosphoinositide-binding motif that is required for neur-mediated endocytosis of Dl protein downstream of Dl ubiquitination.
      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.
      neur is required for both germline stem cell maintenance and gonial cell viability.
      The neur product regulates the spdo protein localization.
      Ectopic expression of neur can substitute functionally for the absence of mib1 activity.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      neur is required for the socket/shaft and neuron/sheath fate decisions and acts in the pIIb cell to specify the pIIa cell.
      The internalization of Dl is drastically reduced in neur mutant cells, indicating that neur is required for the endocytosis of Dl.
      neur has a role in the reception of the lateral inhibitory signal during peripheral neurogenesis.
      neur has a role in N-controlled processes during eye development.
      neur positively regulates the N pathway by promoting the endocytosis and degradation of Dl.
      Subcellular localization and steady state levels of Dl are altered in neur mutants.
      neur is involved in the control of Dl endocytosis and steady state levels.
      Dl endocytosis and steady state levels are decreased in neur mutant cells.
      The RING finger domain of neur acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vitro.
      neur has a function in sensory organ development. This may be to affect the ability of cells to receive N-Dl signals and thus modulate the neurogenic activity that allows for the specification of non-neuronal fates in the sense organ.
      Mosaic analysis demonstrates that neur is required in a cell autonomous manner for the selection of the sensory organ precursor from the proneural cluster for the determination of the sensory organ precursor progeny cell fates.
      Alleles of bib and neur show no interaction with da in ovary development.
      Mutation in neur affects sensory organ precursor formation.
      neur is required for PNS development in the embryo.
      Comparison of D.melanogaster and D.virilis show that it is possible to identify key functional regions of the neur protein by interspecific comparison.
      neur is a neurogenic gene required initially to ensure the correct number of PNS precursors. neur is not required for the late epidermal maintenance function.
      Molecular analysis of neur indicates a DNA binding function for the gene product.
      The embryonic phenotype of neurogenic mutations was examined in most tissues using Ecol\lacZ enhancer trap lines. All alleles examined show defects in many organs from all three germ layers. At least for ectodermally and endodermally derived tissues, neurogenic gene function is primarily involved in interactions among cells that need to acquire or maintain an epithelial phenotype.
      neur is needed for proper mesoderm differentiation prior to the onset of nau expression: mutant alleles cause hypertrophy in nau expressing cells.
      Genetic analysis demonstrates that Dl, neur, E(spl), HLHm5, HLHm7 and m4 are functionally related. Spatial distribution of mRNA in neurogenic mutant embryos suggests that some of the functional interactions take place at the transcriptional level.
      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that neurogenic loci are required to restrict the number of competent cells that will become sensory mother cells, SMCs.
      Mutations of mam, bib and neur in an heterozygous condition had no effect on the expression of NAx-59d or NAx-59b except when coupled in cis with Nfa-g. The neurogenic mutations suppress the wing venation phenotype of N.
      neur mutants show no interaction with dx.
      Both neur and mam serve as hotspots for insertion of P{lacW} enhancer trap elements.
      Neural hyperplasia, caused by mutations in neu, can be prevented by the presence of another neurogenic mutation.
      Increasing number of wild type copies of neur does not modify the bib phenotype. H2 causes reduction of neural hyperplasia due to homozygosity for neur- alleles. N+ duplications reduce the neur neural hypertrophy, while neur+ duplications have no effect on N defects.
      neu mutants display no ventral cuticle and hypertrophy of the central nervous system.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 97 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEST:LD21494
      l(3)j6B12
      l(3)j9B8
      l(3)j9B9
      l(3)j9C8
      l(3)neo37
      neu
      (Salzer et al., 2010, Ohlstein and Spradling, 2007, Balakireva et al., 2006, Gonzalez-Gaitan and Stenmark, 2003, Sen et al., 2003, Lai and Rubin, 2001, Lai and Rubin, 2001, Riede, 2001, Yeh et al., 2001, Baeg and Perrimon, 2000, Dobens and Raftery, 2000, Jhaveri et al., 2000, Jhaveri et al., 2000, Pages and Kerridge, 2000, Yeh et al., 2000, Yeh et al., 2000, Jack and Myette, 1999, Rusconi and Corbin, 1999, Wu and Rao, 1999, Yeh et al., 1999, Yuan et al., 1999, Zhang et al., 1999, Rusconi and Corbin, 1998, Yeh et al., 1998, Doherty et al., 1997, Jagla et al., 1997, Sonnenfeld et al., 1997, Hassan and Vassin, 1996, Leviten and Posakony, 1996, Lewis, 1996, Naemsch and Boulianne, 1996, Salzberg and Bellen, 1996, Yeh and Boulianne, 1996, Bang et al., 1995, Feger et al., 1995, Jennings et al., 1995, Lord et al., 1995, Mackay, 1995, Sturtevant and Bier, 1995, Wilkins, 1995, Couso and Martinez Arias, 1994, Hoch et al., 1994, Lewis and Crews, 1994, Muskavitch, 1994, Nelson and Laughon, 1994, Ruohola-Baker et al., 1994, Salzberg et al., 1994, Watson et al., 1994, Yamaguchi et al., 1994, Zhou and Boulianne, 1994, Bate et al., 1993, Blair, 1993, Boulianne, 1993.7.27, Boulianne et al., 1993, Campos-Ortega, 1993, Campos-Ortega, 1993, Coyle-Thompson and Banerjee, 1993, Dickson and Hafen, 1993, Jan and Jan, 1993, Kooh et al., 1993, Martinez Arias, 1993, Miklos, 1993, Noll et al., 1993, Price, 1993.7.27, Price and Laughon, 1993, Price et al., 1993, Skaer, 1993, Boulianne, 1992.1.13, Hartenstein et al., 1992, Skeath and Carroll, 1992, Woods and Bryant, 1992, Basler and Hafen, 1991, Corbin et al., 1991, Godt et al., 1991, Held, 1991, Campos-Ortega and Knust, 1990, Jan and Jan, 1990, Vaessin et al., 1990, Xu and Artavanis-Tsakonas, 1990, Xu et al., 1990, de la Concha et al., 1988, Tearle and Nusslein-Volhard, 1987, Dietrich and Campos-Ortega, 1984, Jurgens et al., 1984)
      neur
      (Yamakawa et al., 2018, Bhattacharya et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Kojima, 2017, Langridge and Struhl, 2017, Perez-Mockus et al., 2017, Shukla et al., 2017, Ayeni et al., 2016, Blick et al., 2016, Nagel et al., 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Shahab et al., 2015, Siudeja et al., 2015, Bischof, 2014.10.20, Miller et al., 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Zacharioudaki and Bray, 2014, Jauffred et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Couturier et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Ulvklo et al., 2012, Zacharioudaki et al., 2012, Benhra et al., 2011, Bhat et al., 2011, Cho and Fischer, 2011, Du et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Levis et al., 2011.12.16, Mukherjee et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Takemura and Adachi-Yamada, 2011, Weake et al., 2011, Yamasaki et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Bardin et al., 2010, Benhra et al., 2010, Buffin and Gho, 2010, Hamel et al., 2010, Kitadate and Kobayashi, 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Monastirioti et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Robinett et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Tajiri et al., 2010, Vachias et al., 2010, Chanet et al., 2009, Fontana and Posakony, 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Parks and Muskavitch, 2009.2.3, Yamamoto et al., 2009, Eun et al., 2008, Miller and Posakony, 2008, Pavlopoulos et al., 2008, Rollmann et al., 2008, Small et al., 2008, Weber, 2008.12.10, Yamamoto et al., 2008, Assa-Kunik et al., 2007, Commisso and Boulianne, 2007, Magalhaes et al., 2007, Nguyen et al., 2007, Omel'yanchuk et al., 2007, Peng et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Skwarek et al., 2007, Weiler, 2007, Yi et al., 2007, Bardin and Schweisguth, 2006, Bernard et al., 2006, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2006, Kuo et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Mosimann et al., 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Terry et al., 2006, Ward et al., 2006, Emery et al., 2005, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Reeves and Posakony, 2005, Roegiers et al., 2005, Kamimura et al., 2004, Li and Baker, 2004, Wang and Struhl, 2004)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0011395
      • FBgn0011419
      • FBgn0011420
      • FBgn0011422
      • FBgn0011470
      • FBgn0046269
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      References (445)