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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ninaE
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
neither inactivation nor afterpotential E
Annotation Symbol
CG4550
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0002940
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
neither inactivation nor afterpotential E (ninaE) encodes a protein that plays a major role in light detection and vision. It is the rhodopsin expressed in the largest class of photoreceptors in the adult retina. The stimulation by light of the product of ninaE induces G-protein signaling activation, the opening of the channels encoded by trp and trpl and photoreceptor cell membrane depolarization. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

Rh1, rhodopsin, Rhodopsin 1, Rhodopsin-1, Rh-1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:19,886,255..19,888,206 [-]
Recombination map

3-67

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:19886255..19888206
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily. (P06002)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RHODOPSINS -
Rhodopsins, visual photoreceptors, are Class A GPCRs composed of the seven transmembrane protein (opsin) covalently linked to the chromophore retinal. A photon of light stimulates the isomerization of retinal resulting in a conformational change in opsin and activation of an intracellular heterotrimeric G protein. Different rhodopsins are activated at different peak wavelengths. (Adapted from FBrf0218480 & FBrf0217353).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Visual pigments are the light-absorbing molecules that mediate vision. They consist of an apoprotein, opsin, covalently linked to cis-retinal.
(UniProt, P06002)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ninaE (J.C. Hall)
ninaE+ encodes the opsin moity of the major rhodopsin, RH1, which occupies the rhabdomeres of the outer six photoreceptor cells R1-R6 in each ommatidium of the adult fly. This rhodopsin is also expressed in the larval light sensitive organs (Zucker et al., 1985; Pollack and Benzer, 1988). RH1 is a 39 kd basic protein (Pak and Nichols, 1985, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 12670-74). Homozygous ninaE mutants display severe depletion of rhodopsin from the outer photoreceptors, shown microspectrophotometrically and physiologically (Scavarda et al., 1983; Johnson and Pak, 1986; also see below), as well as by absence of R1-6 staining with an anti-(Drosophila)-rhodopsin MAb (de Couet and Tanimura, 1987, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 44: 50-56). Electroretinograms demonstrate that the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA) is absent; also, the sustained corneal-negative light-coincident response is reduced in some alleles and nearly wild type in amplitude in others. Physiological measurements of light-induced "quantum bumps" in three ninaE mutants (whose RH1 decrements range from 10-2 to 10-6 of wild-type) indicate that these responses-at the level of a given bump-are basically normal (implying that interactions among rhodopsin molecules are not likely to be critical for generation and adaptation of these "basic units" of photoreceptor potential (Johnson and Pak, 1986); bump amplitudes were higher than normal (more so in the more severe of the three mutants). Increased and decreased dosages of ninaE+ cause higher than normal and lower than normal rhodopsin levels (Scavarda et al., 1983). Some mutants, when heterozygous to wild type, show less than 50% of the normal rhodopsin level (e.g., ninaE7/+ yields 35% of the normal level); in heterozygotes of ninaE5, ninaE6, and ninaE7, the basic photoreceptor potential, as seen in electroretinograms, may be reduced. In mutant homozygotes, the cross-sectional area of rhabdomeres 1-6 is smaller than normal; in some mutants (ninaE1, ninaE3, ninaE7, and ninaE8), an age dependent, light-independent degeneration of R1-6 rhabdomeres (but not cell bodies) is observed; in the case of severe alleles like ninaE1 (see other information) or ninaE17, the rhabdomeres are present at eclosion, but degenerate rapidly thereafter (e.g., Stark and Sapp, 1987, O'Tousa et al., 1989); degeneration is cell autonomous in mosaics (Stark, Srygley, and Greenberg, 1981, DIS 56: 132-33).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

rhodopsin expressed in photoreceptors R1-R6, response to light intensity, phototransduction, thermotaxis

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ninaE or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ninaE for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

Gene model reviewed during 5.54

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083857
1588
373
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083266
41.5
373
8.09
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

33 (kD)

373 (aa); 41 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region.

(UniProt, P06002)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ninaE using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (28 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001760
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

ninaE transcripts are present at near wild type levels in ninaEΔAsn20 mutants.

ninaE transcripts are abundant in adult head RNA and are not detected in body RNA. Transcripts are present at less than 1% of wild type levels in gl3 mutants lacking photoreceptors suggesting that ninaE is expressed in the photoreceptors.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult head

Comment: 72-100h APF. Immature protein (40kDa) also present at a low level.

Additional Descriptive Data

ninaE protein is detected in a crescent shape at the base of the rhabdomere. In retinas that are exposed to light, ninaE protein enters the cell body, colocalising with Cp1.

ninaE protein is present at greatly reduced levels in the ninaEΔAsn20 mutant.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{ninaE-Cpn.GFP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ninaE-GAL4.D}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ninaE-taulacZ.N}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Rh1-GAL4.HS}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{rh1-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Rh1-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ninaE in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 52 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 69 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ninaE
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ninaE
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
photoreceptor cell & Golgi apparatus
photoreceptor cell & rough endoplasmic reticulum
rhabdomere & actin filament
rhabdomere R1 & microvillus
rhabdomere R2 & microvillus
rhabdomere R3 & microvillus
rhabdomere R4 & microvillus
rhabdomere R5 & microvillus
rhabdomere R6 & microvillus
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (12)
4 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (37)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909NJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505P2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07ZF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0537 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0ALC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 6 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-67

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:19,886,255..19,888,206 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
92B4-92B4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)1058510585 and P{EP}SyndEP409
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
92B8-92B11
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

3-66.4

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

Maps to 3-66.4 +/- 2.1 based on mapping of ninaE7, or 3-66.1 +/- 2.7 based on mapping of ninaE5.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (47)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (1654)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: ninaE CG4550

Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

ninaE is required in

mid third-instar larvae, but not in late third-instar larvae, for normal thermal preference in a temperature gradient.

Phosphorylation of ninaE at the C-terminus is required for triggering degeneration of norpA mutant photoreceptors.

ninaE is important for circadian photoentrainment to green and yellow light.

ninaE maturation defects induce photoreceptor death by apoptosis.

Identified with: GH11778.5prime <up>FlyBase curator comment: EST subsequently found to be chimeric</up>.

ninaE appears to organise the actin cytoskeleton through Rac1 during rhabdomere morphogenesis.

Retinal cell death in mutants occurs by apoptosis and can be blocked by eye-specific expression of BacA\p35. Mutants expressing BacA\p35 show significant retention of visual function.

In disrupted photoreceptor cells metarhodopsin is not stabilised until arrestin is present. In intact photoreceptor cels significant metarhodopsin stabilisation occurs even in the absence of bound arrestin.

Rescue of rhabdomere morphology in ninaE mutants by heat induced expression of ninaE demonstrates there is a critical developmental period in which rhodopsin plays its key role in photoreceptor morphogenesis.

ey directly regulates ninaE expression in photoreceptor cells.

EST GH11778 is chimeric; the 3' portion corresponds to part of ninaE, the 5' portion matches part of AE003519 on the opposite strand to Cat.

Light driven release of arrestin from ninaE in the visual cycle is studied using immunochemical and spectroscopic probes of in vitro regenerated wild type and mutant ninaE. Experiments identify the spectroscopic transitions and arrestin release/binding as separate events that can be decoupled from each other.

Retinoid (vitamin A) deprivation reduces transcription of ninaE and this increases on carrot juice feeding. Deprivation by feeding on yeast-glucose medium reduces ninaE protein, but not mRNA.

Vitamin A deprivation causes a reduction in the steady state levels of rhodopsin 1 (ninaE) mRNA and protein; levels recover on feeding vitamin A.

Retinal degeneration caused by rdgE mutants requires functional rhodopsin but the degeneration is not dependent upon the activation of the subsequent PLC-mediated visual transduction cascade. Reduction, without elimination, of rhodopsin activity is sufficient to slow the rdgE mutant degeneration.

Retinal degeneration results from interference in the maturation of wild type rhodopsin by mutant ninaE proteins.

The collapse of rhabdomere morphogenesis in null mutants suggest the ninaE protein plays a significant structural role in photosensitive membrane development.

ninaE mutants act as dominant rhodopsin mutants by suppressing the production of the wild type ninaE rhodopsin. As a consequence of the lowered rhodopsin content the mutations suppress the rapid retinal degeneration associated with rdgC and norpA mutations. Independent of this phenotype the dominant mutations also induce slower photoreceptor generation in the absence of other photoreceptor mutations.

ninaA and ninaE bind to form a complex in vivo and the stability of the complex is dependent on the last six amino acids of the ninaA protein.

Light absorption by rhodopsin generates metarhodopsin which activates heterotrimeric G proteins in photoreceptor cells. ninaE is thermally stable, this is a consequence of its interaction with Arr1. Light absorption by ninaE initially regenerated an inactive rhodopsin-like intermediate which is subsequently converted in the dark to active rhodopsin. The accumulation of inactive rhodopsin at higher light levels may represent a mechanism for gain regulation in the visual cycle.

Light induces a rapid increase in internal calcium concentration in photoreceptors. Detectable calcium signals can be observed in mutants.

ninaE and Rh2 chimeric constructs demonstrate multiple regions of the opsin protein are involved in regulating rhodopsin spectral specificity and the native and photoactivated forms of rhodopsin can be tuned independently of each other.

A 38bp fragment of the ninaE promoter includes a binding site for the gl product and is restricted in its ability to activate a heterologous promoter in response to gl expression. A 29bp truncated version of the same binding site directs unrestricted expression in response to gl. The restriction is mediated by a protein binding an ATTG repeat present near the gl binding site.

Major opsin genes can be transcribed in the absence of carotenoid, or retinoid. Expression of mature opsin is extremely depressed by carotenoid deprivation. The chromophore 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal accelerates the synthesis of opsin by inducing its maturation.

ninaE promoter used to drive expression of Rh2, Rh3 and Rh4 in R1-6 photoreceptors. Transgenic flies expressing both ninaE (Rh1) and Rh2 in photoreceptors R1-6 demonstrate response that indicates that photoreceptors trigger receptor potentials tuned to combined spectral response of both rhodopsins.

Degeneration of R1-6 photoreceptors was studied in ninaE mutants: the time course of degeneration is allele-dependent. Degeneration is independent of illumination cycle to which the animals are exposed, or presence of screening pigments in the eye. Eventually the effect extends to R7 and R8.

Mutant analysis showed that the N-linked glycosylation site plays a critical role in the maturation of rhodopsin.

Amount of ninaE (Rh1) protein assayed in Western blots with monoclonal antibody was determined for a series of ninaA mutant alleles.

ninaE enhancer element II contains gl-binding sites. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that the gl binding sites confer gl- dependent regulation on a reporter gene.

ninaE protein distribution in the photoreceptor cells has been studied using electron microscopy.

Identified as a cDNA clone that is expressed exclusively or predominantly in the adult visual system.

ninaE,rdgC double mutant combinations demonstrate that rhodopsin is required to trigger retinal degeneration in rdgC flies.

Mutagenesis of the ninaE promoter region extending from -120 to +67 using Ecol\CAT reporter constructs has identified a small number of sequence elements that are essential for proper expression of the ninaE promoter.

Mutations at the ninaE locus are sufficient to produce the morphological rhabdomere defects seen in ort1 ninaE1.

Ecol\CAT promoter gene constructs demonstrate there are no essential regulatory elements in the coding sequence, introns or 3' flanking sequence of ninaE. Deletion analysis reveals the presence of at least three separable cis-acting promoter elements.

ninaE has been isolated and characterized to reveal that the ninaE gene product belongs to the family of opsin proteins.

In one clean use of a ninaE variant to eliminate responses of R1-6 photoreceptors, turn-on of per gene expression in nuclei of such cells (which requires exposures of the flies to light-dark transitions) was normal in ninaE17 (Zerr, Hall, Rosbash and Siwicki, 1990). A number of studies of this general sort have been carried out on the double mutant, ort ninaE (recovered as "oraJK84"); ort by itself is known to cause deficits in ERG light-on and light-off transient spikes (O'Tousa, Leonard and Pak, 1989). The application of 'ora' have usually been aimed at using it as a R1-6-removing tool for behavioral (e.g., Coombe, 1984) or physiological (e.g., Stark, Schilly, Christianson, Bone and Landrum, 1990) experiments. Many of the abnormalities, such as assessments of visual pigment content (most classically, Harris, Stark and Walker, 1976) are probably attributable to the ninaE component only; this includes an explicit demonstration that rhabdomere degeneration (Stark and Sapp, 1987) is caused by ninaE (O'Tousa, Leonard and Pak, 1989), similar to that caused by any other severe ninaE mutation. But certain effects of 'ora' on visually mediated behaviors, such as decrements in male courtship (Markow and Manning, 1980), the absence of blue-light influenced phototaxis (Willmund and Fischbach, 1977), or the absence of R1-6-dependent optomotor responses (Heisenberg and Buchner, 1977) could be affected by both factors.

ninaE+ encodes the opsin moiety of the major rhodopsin, RH1, which occupies the rhabdomeres of the outer six photoreceptor cells R1-R6 in each ommatidium of the adult fly. This rhodopsin is also expressed in the larval light sensitive organs (Zucker, Cowman and Rubin, 1985; Pollack and Benzer, 1988). RH1 is a 39kD basic protein (Nichols and Pak, 1985). Homozygous ninaE mutants display severe depletion of rhodopsin from the outer photoreceptors, shown microspectrophotometrically and physiologically (Scavarda, O'Tousa and Pak, 1983; Johnson and Pak, 1986), as well as by absence of R1-6 staining with an anti-(Drosophila)rhodopsin MAb (de Couet and Tanimura, 1987). Electroretinograms demonstrate that the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA) is absent; also, the sustained corneal-negative light-coincident response is reduced in some alleles and nearly wild type in amplitude in others. Physiological measurements of light-induced 'quantum bumps' in three ninaE mutants (whose RH1 decrements range from 10-2 to 10-6 of wild-type) indicate that these responses-at the level of a given bump-are basically normal (implying that interactions among rhodopsin molecules are not likely to be critical for generation and adaptation of these 'basic units' of photoreceptor potential (Johnson and Pak, 1986); bump amplitudes were higher than normal (more so in the more severe of the three mutants). Increased and decreased dosages of ninaE+ cause higher than normal and lower than normal rhodopsin levels (Scavarda, O'Tousa and Pak, 1983). Some mutants, when heterozygous to wild type, show less than 50% of the normal rhodopsin level (e.g., ninaE7/+ yields 35% of the normal level); in heterozygotes of ninaE5, ninaE6, and ninaE7, the basic photoreceptor potential, as seen in electroretinograms, may be reduced. In mutant homozygotes, the cross-sectional area of rhabdomeres 1-6 is smaller than normal; in some mutants (ninaE1, ninaE3, ninaE7 and ninaE8), an age-dependent, light-independent degeneration of R1-6 rhabdomeres (but not cell bodies) is observed; in the case of severe alleles like ninaE1 (see other information) or ninaE17, the rhabdomeres are present at eclosion, but degenerate rapidly thereafter (e.g., Stark and Sapp, 1987; O'Tousa, Leonard and Pak, 1989); degeneration is cell autonomous in mosaics (Stark, Srygley and Greenberg, 1981).

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
Sequence Crossreferences
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BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
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Synonyms and Secondary IDs (32)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BEST:GH11778
Rh1
(Courgeon and Desplan, 2019, Hawkes et al., 2019, Mu et al., 2019, Ogi et al., 2019, Schopf et al., 2019, Senthilan et al., 2019, Palu and Chow, 2018, Pichaud, 2018, Zanini et al., 2018, Zhao et al., 2018, Leung and Montell, 2017, Yasin et al., 2017, Bernardo-Garcia et al., 2016, Chow et al., 2016, Colley, 2016.6.20, Friedrich et al., 2016, Garbers and Wachtler, 2016, Iwanami et al., 2016, Neves et al., 2016, Roman-Fernandez and Bryant, 2016, Saint-Charles et al., 2016, Viets et al., 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Chow et al., 2015, Head et al., 2015, Huang et al., 2015, Jaiswal et al., 2015, Rister et al., 2015, Satoh et al., 2015, Wan et al., 2015, Wernet et al., 2015, Zhao et al., 2015, Zheng et al., 2015, Glenwinkel et al., 2014, Griciuc et al., 2014, Hilbrant et al., 2014, Kunduri et al., 2014, Liu et al., 2014, Melnattur et al., 2014, Rosenbaum et al., 2014, Rosenbaum et al., 2014, Shieh et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Coelho et al., 2013, Johnston, 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Morishita et al., 2013, Pandey et al., 2013, Paulk et al., 2013, Rister et al., 2013, Satoh et al., 2013, Tian et al., 2013, Zhu, 2013, Astorga et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Hibbard and O'Tousa, 2012, Hu et al., 2012, Kinser and Dolph, 2012, Kristaponyte et al., 2012, Lieu et al., 2012, Pak et al., 2012, Rosenbaum et al., 2012, Sood et al., 2012, Xiong et al., 2012, Yano et al., 2012, Cao et al., 2011, Mitra et al., 2011, Oberegelsbacher et al., 2011, Panneels et al., 2011, Pocha et al., 2011, Rosenbaum et al., 2011, Vasiliauskas et al., 2011, Barth et al., 2010, Bulgakova et al., 2010, Elsaesser et al., 2010, Griciuc et al., 2010, Mecklenburg et al., 2010, Midorikawa et al., 2010, Mishra et al., 2010, Murthy et al., 2010, Sanxaridis and Tsunoda, 2010, Venkatachalam et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Bao and Friedrich, 2009, Chinchore et al., 2009, Dasgupta et al., 2009, Edwards and Meinertzhagen, 2009, Gonzalez-Bellido et al., 2009, Hanai and Ishida, 2009, Kock et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Mendes et al., 2009, Raghu et al., 2009, Salcedo et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Yano et al., 2009, Acharya et al., 2008, England et al., 2008, Hanai et al., 2008, Haroon et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Mecklenburg et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Muller et al., 2008, Ni et al., 2008, Oberhauser et al., 2008, Rosenbaum et al., 2008, Venkatachalam et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Frechter et al., 2007, Han et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Pinal and Pichaud, 2007, Pinal and Pichaud, 2007, Ryoo et al., 2007, Sanxaridis et al., 2007, Yang and O'Tousa, 2007, Ahmad et al., 2006, Ahmad et al., 2006, Cronin et al., 2006, Earl and Britt, 2006, Han et al., 2006, Hibbard and O'Tousa, 2006, Hummel and Klämbt, 2006, Husain et al., 2006, Kwon and Montell, 2006, Meyer et al., 2006, Orem et al., 2006, Rosenbaum et al., 2006, Wang and Montell, 2006, Beronja et al., 2005, Galy et al., 2005, Georgiev et al., 2005, Montell, 2005, Nelson et al., 2005, Sarfare et al., 2005, Satoh and Ready, 2005, Satoh et al., 2005, Wang and Montell, 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Cronin et al., 2004, Delmas et al., 2004, Domingos et al., 2004, Hibbard and O'Tousa, 2004, Lee et al., 2004, Xu et al., 2004, Acharya et al., 2003, Cook, 2003, Cook et al., 2003, Earl et al., 2003, Lee et al., 2003, Salcedo et al., 2003, Yan et al., 2003, Zelhof et al., 2003, Bergman et al., 2002, Sang and Ready, 2002, Bergman and Kreitman, 2001, Bilder, 2001, Foster and Helfrich-Förster, 2001, Mollereau et al., 2001, Pichaud and Desplan, 2001, Tsunoda et al., 2001, Vanden Broeck, 2001, Brody and Cravchik, 2000, Engels et al., 2000, Raghu et al., 2000, Vought et al., 2000, Webel et al., 2000, Yasuhara et al., 2000, Alloway and Dolph, 1999, Chou et al., 1999, Chyb et al., 1999, Herrmann et al., 1999, Montell, 1999, Pichaud et al., 1999, Salcedo et al., 1999, Stark et al., 1999, Thomas and Wassarman, 1999, Beaufils et al., 1998, Bentrop, 1998, Montell, 1998, Shetty et al., 1998, Stark et al., 1998, Tahayato and Desplan, 1998, Xu et al., 1998, Yasuhara et al., 1998, Kiselev and Subramaniam, 1997, Papatsenko et al., 1997, Scott et al., 1997, Tsunoda et al., 1997, Vinos et al., 1997, Wang et al., 1997, Alvarez et al., 1996, Karpilow et al., 1996, Kiselev and Subramaniam, 1996, Picking et al., 1996, Pizarro et al., 1996, Colley et al., 1995, Colley et al., 1995, Kumar and Ready, 1995, Baker et al., 1994, Brown et al., 1994, Carulli et al., 1994, Kiselev and Subramaniam, 1994, Ranganathan et al., 1994, Britt et al., 1993, Carulli et al., 1993, Ellis et al., 1993, Carulli and Hartl, 1992, Feiler et al., 1992, Ondek et al., 1992, Zuker, 1992, Britt et al., 1991, Colley et al., 1991, Moses and Rubin, 1991, Ranganathan et al., 1991, Sapp et al., 1991, Stamnes et al., 1991, Suzuki and Hirosawa, 1991, Fortini and Rubin, 1990, Mlodzik et al., 1990, Mismer and Rubin, 1989)
Rh1(ninaE)
Rhodopsin-1
ninaE
(Alejevski et al., 2019, Delgado et al., 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Nash et al., 2019, Schlichting et al., 2019, Hall et al., 2018, Katz and Minke, 2018, Kunduri et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Lin et al., 2018, Ogueta et al., 2018, Ribeiro et al., 2018, Schnaitmann et al., 2018, Zanini et al., 2018, Zhao et al., 2018, Karunendiran et al., 2017, Pharris et al., 2017, Voolstra et al., 2017, Yasin et al., 2017, Crocker et al., 2016, Friedrich et al., 2016, Sokabe et al., 2016, Xu and Wang, 2016, Cerny et al., 2015, Head et al., 2015, Lazopulo et al., 2015, Ryoo, 2015, Voolstra et al., 2015, Xu et al., 2015, Delgado et al., 2014, Karuppudurai et al., 2014, Karuppudurai et al., 2014, Rosenbaum et al., 2014, Zhu et al., 2014, Neckameyer and Argue, 2013, Oortveld et al., 2013, Hu et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Minke, 2012, Pak et al., 2012, Yano et al., 2012, Zhou et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Cao et al., 2011, Lee et al., 2011, Mitra et al., 2011, Moreno-Moreno et al., 2011, Pinal and Pichaud, 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Shen et al., 2011, Elsaesser et al., 2010, Griciuc et al., 2010, Mishra et al., 2010, Sanxaridis and Tsunoda, 2010, Satoh et al., 2010, Su et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Xiang et al., 2010, Yamaguchi et al., 2010, Chinchore et al., 2009, Kang and Ryoo, 2009, Mendes et al., 2009, Salcedo et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Yano et al., 2009, Zhu et al., 2009, Acharya et al., 2008, Hoyer et al., 2008, Kang and Ryoo, 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Loh et al., 2008, Meyer et al., 2008, Ni et al., 2008, Oberhauser et al., 2008, Tarone et al., 2008, Yamaguchi et al., 2008, Ahmad et al., 2007, Kang and Ryoo, 2007, Mishra et al., 2007, Ryoo and Steller, 2007, Ryoo et al., 2007, Sanxaridis et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Ahmad et al., 2006, Ahmad et al., 2006, Bartolome and Charlesworth, 2006, Baumann and Lutz, 2006, Cronin et al., 2006, Han et al., 2006, Walser et al., 2006, Wang and Montell, 2006, LaLonde et al., 2005, Nelson et al., 2005, Taraszka et al., 2005, Wang and Montell, 2005, Yang et al., 2005, Cronin et al., 2004, Hsu et al., 2004, Iakhine et al., 2004, Punzo et al., 2004, Zelhof et al., 2003, Hsu et al., 2002, Zordan et al., 2001)
rhodopsin
Name Synonyms
Neither inactivation nor afterpotential E
neither inactivation nor afterpotential E
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0046298
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (612)