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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ord
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
orientation disruptor
Annotation Symbol
CG3134
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003009
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
orientation disruptor (ord) encodes a chromosome-localized protein required for meiotic sister chromatid cohesion in both sexes. In oocytes, it also promotes normal formation and maintenance of the synaptonemal complex and centromere clustering. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

orientation disrupter

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,271,257..23,275,536 [-]
Recombination map
2-102
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:23271257..23275536
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VB08
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in gamete generation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in meiotic cell cycle
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in mitotic cell cycle
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in chromatin
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in nuclear envelope
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    orientation disruptor (ord) encodes a chromosome-localized protein required for meiotic sister chromatid cohesion in both sexes. In oocytes, it also promotes normal formation and maintenance of the synaptonemal complex and centromere clustering. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Essential for proper maintenance of sister-chromatid cohesion in both male and female meiosis. Mutations in ord cause premature separation of the sister chromatids in meiosis I and random segregation in both meiotic divisions. Required for chiasma maintenance in female meiosis. Mutations in ord reduce recombination in female meiosis.
    (UniProt, Q24434)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    ord: orientation disruptor (R.S. Hawley)
    In females homozygous for ord, exchange is strongly reduced. In both males and females, ord causes a dramatic increase in both reductional and equational nondisjunction as assayed genetically. In male meiosis, Goldstein observed abnormal sister-chromatid associations during prophase as well as precocious sister-chromatid separation, followed by random disjunction during anaphase I. "The bulk of the first division misbehavior consists of sister chromatids' disjoining from one another, a process which normally occurs only during the second meiotic division" (Goldstein). ord also elevates the frequency of mitotic chromosome misbehavior (Baker et al., 1978). "A substantial proportion of this mitotic instability can be accounted for by a hypothesis in which ord causes precocious sister-chromatid separation, followed by random disjunction, in somatic as well as germline cells" (Goldstein). Thus the ord locus likely specifies a function required for sister-chromatid cohesion during most or all cell divisions.
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    rapidly evolving gene - involved in meiotic cohesion, chromosome core maintenance and homologous recombination

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ord for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.52

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0072047
    3915
    479
    FBtr0343199
    2178
    479
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    2.7 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0071956
    55.2
    479
    5.91
    FBpp0309889
    55.2
    479
    5.91
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    479 aa isoforms: ord-PA, ord-PB
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    479 (aa); 55 (kD predicted)

    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

    Interacts with Sce.

    (UniProt, Q24434)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ord using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    distribution deduced from reporter or direct label
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    spermatocyte

    Comment: meiosis I G2-meiosis II anaphase

    spermatocyte
    nucleus

    Comment: G2 phase of meiotic cell cycle; protein not localized to chromatin

    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    Protein is found in the nuclei of developing spermatocytes. It is extrachromosomal in stage S1-S3 spermatocytes (corresponding to early to mid G2 phase) but then becomes associated with chromatin during mid to late G2 phase. The ord protein is initially distributed uniformly over the chromatin but then is detected primarily at the centromere from metaphase of meiosis I through metaphase of meiosis II.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    located_in chromatin
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    located_in nuclear envelope
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    located_in nucleus
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\ord in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ord
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ord
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 17 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    chromosome (with ord5)
    chromosome (with ord10)
    meiosis & nuclear chromosome (with Df(2R)3-70)
    meiosis & nuclear chromosome | male
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919089A )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915080W )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with Sce.
      (UniProt, Q24434 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-102
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:23,271,257..23,275,536 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      59D4-59D4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k07136k07136 and P{lacW}l(2)s4830s4830&P{lacW}chrwk06908
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (9)
      Genomic Clones (27)
      cDNA Clones (2)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments
          Other Comments

          ord is required for the maintenance of meiotic sister cohesion in oocytes.

          Flies that are double mutant for mei-S332 and ord are viable and fertile. ord is epistatic to mei-S332.

          ord is not required for mei-S332 protein to localize to meiotic centromeres.

          A balance between the activity of mei-S332 and ord is required for proper regulation of meiotic cohesion.

          Negative complementation occurs between strong alleles (typically showing poisoning activity) and weak alleles (typically are poisoned), it is not allele-specific, suggesting that protein-protein interactions are necessary for wild-type ord function. C-terminal part of ord is required to elicit negative complementation effects.

          Meiotic sister-chromatid cohesion is severely disrupted in flies lacking ord protein and the frequency of missegregation in genetic tests suggests sister chromatid cohesion may be completely abolished. C-terminal part of ord is required for both aspects of ord function. ord function is not essential for cohesion during somatic mitosis as only a slight decrease in viability is observed.

          Analysis of weak ord mutants suggests ord is required for proper centromeric cohesion after arm cohesion is released at the metaphase I/anaphase I transition. ord activity appears to promote centromeric cohesion during meiosis II but is not essential for kinetochore function during anaphase.

          ord is necessary for chromosome segregation and can interact specifically with the centromere.

          The C-terminal half of ord is essential for the normal function of the protein, unusual genetic interactions between specific ord alleles also implicates the C-terminal part in protein-protein interactions. In direction of increasing cytology: anon-59Da? ord-

          ord is essential for sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis.

          ord is required to maintain sister-chromatid cohesion during meiosis in both males an females. Mutations result in defects in cohesion before the first division.

          All alleles are fully viable, even in trans to a deficiency, therefore ord+ has no essential role in somatic mitosis, though a role in mitosis in the germ line is suggested.

          Mutations at ord cause precocious separation of sister chromatids, at earlier stages than do mutations at mei-S332.

          Mutations at ord affect sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I in both males and females.

          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 30 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
          EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          MARRVEL_MODEL
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (109)