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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\otu
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ovarian tumor
Annotation Symbol
CG12743
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003023
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
fs(1)231, K, fs(1)M101
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,485,008..8,489,535 [-]
Recombination map
1-23
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OVARIAN TUMOUR PROTEASES (DEUBIQUITINASES) -
The ovarian tumour (OTU) sub-family of deubiquitinases are cysteine proteases and that catalyze the removal of ubiquitin from ubiquitin chains and ubiquitinated proteins. (Adapted from PMID:19626045).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Essential for female fertility; germ cell division and differentiation.
(UniProt, P10383)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
otu: ovarian tumor (R. King)
Homozygous females defective in proliferation, differentition, or maturation of the germ line, depending on the level of activity of the particular allele. So-called quiescent alleles (QUI) produce ovarioles lacking in germ cells; oncogenic alleles (ONC) produce cystocytes that continue dividing and form tumors; differentiated alleles (DIF) produce chambers containing only "pseudonurse" cells (PNCs) or nurse cell/oocyte (NC/O) syncytia. In these, transport of nurse cell cytoplasm to the oocyte is inhibited and chambers are arrested at a pseudo-12 stage [Bishop and King, 1984, J. Cell Sci. 67: 87-119 (fig.)]. Mutant nurse cells that fail to pump their cytoplasm into the oocytes are also unable to form a system of actin microfilament bundles in their cortical cytoplasm during stage 10B (Storto and King, 1988, Dev. Genet. 9: 91-120). The proportions of ovarioles with the different phenotypes appear to reflect the level of function of the particular allele; homozygotes are less severely affected than hemizygotes (80% of ovarioles of females carrying otu1, otu4, otu5, or otu7 in combination with an otu deficiency lack germ cells, whereas 5% of the ovarioles of homozygotes lack germ cells); similarly, the levels of function of certain alleles decline as the developmental temperature is raised. Thus otu1 behaves like a DIF allele at 18, an ONC allele at 23, and a QUI allele at 28. The ovarian tumors which give the mutant gene its name are made up of large numbers of single cystocytes and small numbers of clones of 2-4 interconnected cells [King, 1979, Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 8: 297-309 (fig.)]. Most cystocytes undergo complete cytokinesis, and there are defects in the construction and functioning of the polyfusomal system during the cycles of cystocyte divisions [Storto and King, 1989, Dev. Genet. 10: 70-86 (fig.)]. Drosophila nurse cells normally undergo nine or ten cycles of DNA replication (Mulligan and Rasch, 1985, Histochemistry 82: 233-47), and the chromatids dissociate so that each nucleus is filled with a jumbled mass of oligotene threads. In otu PNCs, the chromatids remain in register, generating banded polytene chromosomes [Dabbs and King, 1980, Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 9: 215-29 (fig.)]. Homologues pair and rearrangement configurations can be discerned [King, Riley, Cassidy, White, and Paik, 1981, Science 212: 441-43 (fig.)]. The largest polytenes have undergone 12 cycles of endonuclear replication (Rasch, King, and Rasch, 1984, Histochemistry 81: 105-10). The banding pattern of PNC polytenes is similar to that of the polytenes from larval salivary gland cells (Sinha, Mishra, and Lakhotia, 1987, Chromosoma 95: 108-16; Heino, 1989, Chromosoma 97: 363-73). At 25, otu11 behaves as an ONC allele, the cells dividing to form tumors, but at 18, homozygous females produce oocytes that reach a pseudo-14 stage, contain beta yolk spheres and can undergo early embryogenesis. In the case of DIF alleles such as otu4, females generate pseudo-12 eggs which lack beta yolk spheres and never initiate development. When otu11 is combined with alleles from the QUI class such as otu2, the heteroallelic females are sterile. Heteroalleles between otu11 and certain DIF alleles show various degrees of fertility [Storto and King, 1987, Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 196: 210-21 (fig.)]. otu11/otu14 females are fully fertile although the nurse cells, unlike those of wild-type females, contain banded chromosomes (Storto and King, 1988). Oocyte differentiation is destabilized in certain otu alleles; for example, the presumptive oocytes in about 20% of otu7 homozygotes resemble nurse cells in their polytenization, although they lag behind the remaining nurse cells by at least one replication cycle [King, Rasch, Riley, O'Grady, and Storto, 1985, Histochemistry 82: 131-34 (fig.)]. Germ line autonomy has been demonstrated for otu3, otu4, and otu7 (Wieschaus, Audit, and Masson, 1981, Dev. Biol. 88: 92-103; unpublished work cited in King et al., 1986).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
novel protein required in oogenesis - ensures the survival of female germ cells in pupae, cyst formation in germ-line cells, the attainment of mature chromosome structure in nurse cells and egg maturation.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\otu or the JBrowse view of Dmel\otu for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071236
3101
811
FBtr0071237
3227
853
FBtr0071238
3241
853
FBtr0333146
3006
811
FBtr0333147
3118
811
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.0, 3.2, 1.3, 1.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071180
92.6
811
7.03
FBpp0071181
97.5
853
7.06
FBpp0089325
97.5
853
7.06
FBpp0305351
92.6
811
7.03
FBpp0305352
92.6
811
7.03
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

811 aa isoforms: otu-PA, otu-PD, otu-PE
853 aa isoforms: otu-PB, otu-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
853 (aa); 104, 98 (kD observed); 93 (kD predicted)
110 (kD observed); 93 (kD predicted)
Comments
The ability of the 98kD otu protein isoform as expressed from a cDNA construct to restore fertility to an otu mutant is inversely correlated with the severity of the mutation. Evidence suggests that the 104kD isoform and not the 98kD isoform preferentially localizes to the oocyte.
The 104kD otu protein isoform as expressed from a cDNA construct can rescue all classes of otu mutations. Evidence suggests that the 104kD isoform and not the 98kD isoform preferentially localizes to the developing oocyte. This suggests that the amino acids encoded by the alternate exon are required for oocyte localization.
Two antibodies were made to different regions of the otu protein. Both antibodies recognize both otu protein isoforms.
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\otu using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000276125
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
dissected tissue
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The 104kD otu isoform is more abundant than the 98kD isoform in ovaries from late pupae, is about equal in abundance in 2-5hr adult ovaries, and is substantially less abundant in 2-5 day adult ovaries. Thus, the 98kD isoform increases as differentiation progresses. Confocal microscopy on larval and adult whole mount ovaries (after staining with an antibody which recognizes both protein isoforms) reveals that otu protein is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm of germ-line cells in germarial regions 1 and 2. In stage S1 egg chambers and through the vitellogenic stages, otu protein staining is more intense in the cytoplasm of the oocyte. As egg chambers mature, otu protein staining in nurse cells steadily rises. The distribution of otu protein in nurse cells becomes reorganized such that by stage S10, all otu protein staining is restricted to a subcortical region of the nurse cells at the nurse cell/follicle cell boundary.
The 104kD otu isoform is more abundant than the 98kD isoform in ovaries from late pupae, is about equal in abundance in 2-5hr adult ovaries, and is substantially less abundant in 2-5 day adult ovaries. Thus, the 104kD isoform predominates in predifferentiated germ-line cells. Confocal microscopy on larval and adult whole mount ovaries (after staining with an antibody which recognizes both protein isoforms) reveals that otu protein is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm of germ-line cells in germarial regions 1 and 2. In stage S1 egg chambers and through the vitellogenic stages, otu protein staining is more intense in the cytoplasm of the oocyte. As egg chambers mature, otu protein staining in nurse cells steadily rises. The distribution of otu protein in nurse cells becomes reorganized such that by stage S10, all otu protein staining is restricted to a subcortical region of the nurse cells at the nurse cell/follicle cell boundary.
otu protein is detected in cystocytes, nurse cells, and oocytes but not in follicle cells. Staining is strong in germaria and remains constant or decreases slightly up to stage S4. Staining increases again from stage S5 or S6, reaches a plateau at stages S9-10B and is gone by stage S11. The 98kD isoform is significantly more abundant in ovaries than the 104kD form. The antibodies used recognize both protein isoforms.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\otu in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 42 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of otu
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of otu
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
nurse cell & nuclear chromosome
nurse cell & nuclear chromosome (with otu11)
nurse cell & nuclear chromosome (with otu13)
nurse cell & nucleus
polytene chromosome band & nurse cell | ectopic
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190346 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508MW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09DP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09A3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0MOZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
6 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-23
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:8,485,008..8,489,535 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    7F1-7F1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1632EP1583 and P{EP}MoeEP1652
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    7F1-7F4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    7F1-7F1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Determined by deficiency mapping (details unspecified).
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (30)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Heteroallelic combinations usually produce intermediate phenotypes, but some show partial complementation.
    Other Comments
    Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of either one or two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
    An ovo protein binding site near the otu transcription start site is required for ovo-dependent otu transcription in vivo.
    otu is required during pupal and adult stages for the cystocyte divisions that give rise to the egg chamber. otu may also have a role in other oogenic functions.
    otu is required for the organisation of actin filaments during multiple stages of oogenesis.
    Female germ cells do not require otu function for survival before pupariation.
    Variation of a microsatellite within the otu locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.
    The pseudonurse cells of otu mutants give rise to polytene chromosomes. Nurse cell-specific genes are functional in the pseudonurse cells, but the transport of pum, otu, ovo and bcd RNAs to the cytoplasm is affected. The nuclear localisation of otu and pum mRNA correlates with chromosome polytenisation.
    otu and ovo are required cell autonomously in the female germline for germ cell proliferation and differentiation. XY germ cells do not require otu when developing in testes, but become dependent on otu function for proliferation when placed in an ovary. The requirement for ovo is dependent on a cell autonomous signal derived from the X:A ratio. The differential regulation of the otu and ovo genes provides a mechanism for the female germline to incorporate both somatic and cell-autonomous inputs required for oogenesis.
    Alleles of otu can partially enhance the mutant phenotype of ovoD2/+ heterozygous ovaries.
    Examination of embryonic gonads indicates that reduction in zygotic otu activity sufficient to cause agametic adult ovaries does not affect the proliferation or viability of the embryonic germline. Pupal gonads fail to produce egg chambers indicating that the agametic adult phenotype is caused by a block in oogenesis before cyst formation, rather than the degeneration of existing egg chambers. otu function is not essential for germline viability before pupariation but is required in the pupal and adult ovaries. otu activity is limited to prepupal stages is not sufficient to support oogenesis, induction during pupal and adult stages causes suppression of the otu mutant phenotype.
    The 104kD isoform of otu is required for normal proliferation of female germline cells and perhaps for oocyte differentiation. The 98kD isoform appears to be dispensible but can provide an otu function needed for the completion of oocyte maturation.
    ovo, otu, snf and Sxl are not involved in the early events of germline sex determination, but are required later, during metamorphosis or in the adult for oogenesis.
    Tumorous cells produced by otu mutants are capable of female-specific transcription and RNA processing indicating the ovarian cells retain some female identity. It is proposed that mutations do not cause male transformation of the female germ line but instead either cause an ambiguous sexual identity or block specific stages of oogenesis.
    The 98kD isoform of otu is sufficient to allow proliferation of female germ cells during early oogenesis and is also involved in later stages of oogenesis. The 104kD isoform of otu is required for the differentiation of nurse cell and oocytes by some mechanism that involves Sxl. The 98kD isoform differs from the 104kD isoform in that it appears to act independently of Sxl.
    Mutants display germline hyperplastic phenotype.
    Partial germline sex transformation occurs in otu, snf, Sxl and bam ovarian tumors.
    Phenotypic complexity of otu mutant ovaries is due to a dosage-dependent requirement for otu activity.
    Reciprocal cross and expression analysis suggest a maternal requirement for otu+ in the development of the female germline.
    The genetic hierarchy regulating female germ-line sex determination includes tra, tra2, dsx, fu, otu, ovo, snf and Sxl. otu+, ovo+ and snf+ activities are required for female-specific Sxl+ pre-mRNA splicing within 2X germ-line cells.
    Mutant germ cells in otu ovaries have a morphology similar to primary spermatocytes and express male-specific reporter genes and have male-type Sxl splicing.
    otu acts upstream of Sxl in germline sex determination. Gene dosage studies demonstrate additional interaction with mutations at the ovo locus.
    Molecular analysis of otu locus and alleles reveals that the absence of otu function produces the most severe QUI class of phenotype (i.e. produce ovarioles lacking in germ cells), while the ONC mutants ( which produce cystocytes that continue dividing and form tumors) express lower levels of otu than those of the DIF class (which produce chambers containing only 'pseudonurse' cells).
    otu gene product performs several functions during oogenesis.
    Effects of otu mutations on male fertility were studied: there is a strong correlation between male sterility and severity of impairment in the female phenotype. Spermatogenesis is apparently normal, and male sterility was shown to be a consequence of failure in mating behaviour where wild type females refuse to react to the courtship attempts of mutant males.
    The banding pattern of pseudonurse cell polytenes is similar to that of the polytenes from larval salivary gland cells.
    Most cystocytes undergo complete cytokinesis and there are defects in the construction and functioning of the polyfusomal system during the cycles of cystocyte divisions.
    Mutant nurse cells that fail to pump their cytoplasm into the oocytes are also unable to form a system of actin microfilament bundles in their cortical cytoplasm during stage 10B.
    The 3' ends of Cp36 and otu map within 5kb of each other.
    otu is required for establishment of ovarian germ cells, for correct division of the germ cells and for normal development within the 15 nurse cell-oocyte syncytium.
    Oocyte differentiation is destabilized in certain otu alleles.
    Homozygous females are defective in proliferation, differentiation, or maturation of the germ line, depending on the level of activity of the particular allele. So-called quiescent alleles (QUI) produce ovarioles lacking in germ cells; oncogenic alleles (ONC) produce cystocytes that continue dividing and form tumors; differentiated alleles (DIF) produce chambers containing only 'pseudonurse' cells (PNCs) or nurse cell/oocyte (NC/O) syncytia. In these, transport of nurse cell cytoplasm to the oocyte is inhibited and chambers are arrested at a pseudo-12 stage.
    Drosophila nurse cells normally undergo nine or ten cycles of DNA replication and the chromatids dissociate so that each nucleus is filled with a jumbled mass of oligotene threads. In otu pseudonurse cells, the chromatids remain in register, generating banded polytene chromosomes. The largest polytenes have undergone 12 cycles of endonuclear replication.
    Drosophila nurse cells normally undergo nine or ten cycles of DNA replication and the chromatids dissociate so that each nucleus is filled with a jumbled mass of oligotene threads. In otu pseudonurse cells, the chromatids remain in register, generating banded polytene chromosomes.
    The proportions of ovarioles with the different phenotypes appear to reflect the level of function of the particular allele; homozygotes are less severely affected than hemizygotes; similarly, the levels of function of certain alleles decline as the developmental temperature is raised.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    fs(1)23l
    fs(1)jA265
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (270)