General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pcl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Polycomblike
Annotation Symbol
CG5109
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003044
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
l(2)s1859
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:18,135,426..18,139,990 [+]
Recombination map
2-84
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Polycomblike family. (Q24459)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' residues of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required. Required for the correct spatial expression of the homeotic genes of the Antennapedia and Bithorax complexes.
(UniProt, Q24459)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Pcl: Polycomblike
Pcl+, like Pc+, may be considered a negative regulator of the BXC and the ANTC. Strong Pcl mutant alleles (Pcl1, Pcl2) are homozygous lethal, hemizygous lethal, and lethal with each other, the embryos having partial posteriorly-directed transformations of the abdominal segments (segment 1 into segment 2 and segments 2-7 into more posterior segments). These mutants are strong enhancers of Pc3, showing Pc-like transformations in embryos, and are indistinguishable from Pcl deficiencies in complementation behavior. Extreme posteriorly-directed segmental transformations are found in Pcl1/Df(2R)Pcl11B;Pc3/Pc3 lethal embryos (Duncan, 1982); these embryos are considerably more abnormal than the Pc3 homozygotes that are Pcl+. Pcl/Pcl embryos that are also homozygous for Asx, Psc, or Scm show strong posteriorly-directed transformations of the entire body pattern; the triple mutant Psc Asx Pcl has a tandem array of posterior abdominal segments including four abdominal denticle bands in the head region (Jurgens, 1985). Pcl1/Pcl1 clones in the second through the sixth abdominal tergites also show caudal transformations; similar clones in the wing often appear to be partially transformed into haltere tissue. Weak Pcl alleles (Pcl3, Pcl4) survive, at least through eclosion, either as homozygotes or as heterozygotes with strong or weak Pcl alleles (Duncan, 1982). Pcl1/Pcl3 and Pcl1/Pcl4 show segmental transformations characteristic of Pc/+ flies, i.e. antenna to leg, second and third leg to first leg, wing to haltere, and posteriorly-directed abdominal transformations (the most frequent abnormality). Increasing the dosage of the BXC in Pcl1/Pcl4 heterozygotes suppresses the posteriorly-directed transformations, but enhances the transformations from leg2 and leg3 to leg1; increasing the dosage of the ANTC enhances both types of transformations (Duncan, 1982). Pcl1/Pcl3 females, which die before or soon after eclosion, show a conversion of parovaria to spermathecae. Both strong and weak Pcl alleles are viable as heterozygotes (Pcl/+) and may show partial abdominal and leg transformations, the abnormalities increasing in Pcl/+;Pc/+ flies or when Pcl/+ is combined with E(Pc).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pcl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pcl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086735
3836
1043
FBtr0329998
4384
1043
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085914
114.6
1043
9.08
FBpp0303033
114.6
1043
9.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1043 aa isoforms: Pcl-PA, Pcl-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of a form of the Esc/E(z) complex present specifically during early embryogenesis which is composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Pcl and Rpd3. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.
(UniProt, Q24459)
Domain
The PHD-type zinc fingers mediate the interaction with E(z). In contrast to vertebrate homologs (PHF1, PHF19 and MTF2), the Tudor domain does not bind H3K36me3 (PubMed:23104054 and PubMed:23142980).
(UniProt, Q24459)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pcl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24338
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q94517
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9NJG9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P42124
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from key residues
contributes_to nucleosome binding
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with ESC/E(Z) complex
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290240
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

anterior endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

Additional Descriptive Data
Pcl transcripts are distributed evenly throughout all tissues at all stages of embryonic development.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Pcl protein binds to approximately 100 sites on the polytene chromosomes. It binds to the identical set of sites bound by Pc and ph proteins.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pcl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 42 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Pcl
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
      Deletions and Duplications ( 14 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      mesothoracic leg & sex comb | ectopic
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      9 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      10 of 15
      No
      Yes
      8 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
      9 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      8 of 13
      No
      Yes
      8 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
      7 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      5 of 12
      No
      Yes
      4 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      7 of 15
      No
      Yes
      4 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
      1 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
      2 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      2 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902KD )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505SB )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W011X )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0103 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G01JL )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        enhanceable
        enhanceable
        enhanceable
        enhanceable
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Component of a form of the Esc/E(z) complex present specifically during early embryogenesis which is composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Pcl and Rpd3. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.
        (UniProt, Q24459 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        External Data
        Linkouts
        Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        2R
        Recombination map
        2-84
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        2R:18,135,426..18,139,990 [+]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        55B8-55B8
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Hsf03091&P{EP}Dgp-1EP731 and P{PZ}sbb04525&P{EP}EP1081EP1081
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        55B5-55B6
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Location from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (17)
        Genomic Clones (19)
        cDNA Clones (107)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: Pcl l(2)s1859
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
          DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Pcl protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
          Abd-B MCP725 element is a silencer that functions throughout proliferation of the imaginal discs. MCP725-mediated silencing requires the Pc and Pcl proteins (it is likely that other members of the PcG also interact with the MCP725 silencer).
          Silencing activity of the iab-7PRE in the bithorax complex is dependent upon proteins from the Polycomb group.
          In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Scm and Sce have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. Genetic interactions have been demonstrated between esc, Asx, E(Pc), Pcl, E(z) and sxc. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.
          Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
          Mosaic and expression pattern analysis reveals that the Pc-group genes do not act only in a common complex or pathway: they must have some independent functions.
          Duplication of ph-d suppress homeotic transformations of Pc and Pcl, this data supports the conclusion that ph-d is at equilibrium with a multimeric complex containing Pc group genes.
          Alleles of trx lighten the eye colour of some pairing sensitive allele of w, whereas alleles of Pcl darken their eye colour.
          Pcl product is found on larval salivary chromosomes at about 100 specific loci, in the same positions as the products of Pc, ph-d and ph-p genes.
          The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal bithorax complex context. The Pc group products apparently provide stable memory or imprinting of boundaries which are specified by gap and pair-rule regulators.
          Strong Pcl mutant alleles (Pcl1, Pcl2) are homozygous lethal, hemizygous lethal and lethal with each other, the embryos having partial posteriorly-directed transformations of the abdominal segments (segment 1 into segment 2 and segments 2-7 into more posterior segments). These mutants are strong enhancers of Pc3, showing Pc-like transformations in embryos and are indistinguishable from Pcl deficiencies in complementation behavior. Extreme posteriorly-directed segmental transformations are found in Pcl1/Df(2R)Pcl11B; Pc3/Pc3 lethal embryos (FBrf0038059); these embryos are considerably more abnormal than the Pc3 homozygotes that are Pcl+. Pcl/Pcl embryos that are also homozygous for Asx, Psc, or Scm show strong posteriorly-directed transformations of the entire body pattern; the triple mutant Psc, Asx, Pcl has a tandem array of posterior abdominal segments including four abdominal denticle bands in the head region (FBrf0043317). Pcl1/Pcl1 clones in the second through the sixth abdominal tergites also show caudal transformations; similar clones in the wing often appear to be partially transformed into haltere tissue. Weak Pcl alleles (Pcl3, Pcl4) survive, at least through eclosion, either as homozygotes or as heterozygotes with strong or weak Pcl alleles (FBrf0038059). Pcl1/Pcl3 and Pcl1/Pcl4 show segmental transformations characteristic of Pc/+ flies, i.e. antenna to leg, second and third leg to first leg, wing to haltere, and posteriorly-directed abdominal transformations (the most frequent abnormality). Increasing the dosage of the BXC in Pcl1/Pcl4 heterozygotes suppresses the posteriorly-directed transformations, but enhances the transformations from leg2 and leg3 to leg1; increasing the dosage of the ANTC enhances both types of transformations (FBrf0038059). Pcl1/Pcl3 females, which die before or soon after eclosion, show a conversion of parovaria to spermathecae. Both strong and weak Pcl alleles are viable as heterozygotes (Pcl/+) and may show partial abdominal and leg transformations, the abnormalities increasing in Pcl/+;Pc/+ flies or when Pcl/+ is combined with E(Pc).
          Pcl+, like Pc+, may be considered a negative regulator of the BXC and the ANTC.
          Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.
          Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic Pcl product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.
          Mutations in Pcl derepress homeotic genes in the BXC and ANTC.
          The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.
          Pcl is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
          Mutants of Pcl exhibit a reduction in sex comb teeth on the second and third legs.
          Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that Pcl is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0010678
          Datasets (2)
          Study focus (2)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          • transgene_used
          Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
          • bait_protein
          Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
          References (256)