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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pcl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Polycomblike
Annotation Symbol
CG5109
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003044
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

l(2)s1859

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:18,135,426..18,139,990 [+]
Recombination map

2-84

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:18135426..18139990
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Polycomblike family. (Q24459)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' residues of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required. Required for the correct spatial expression of the homeotic genes of the Antennapedia and Bithorax complexes.
(UniProt, Q24459)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Pcl: Polycomblike
Pcl+, like Pc+, may be considered a negative regulator of the BXC and the ANTC. Strong Pcl mutant alleles (Pcl1, Pcl2) are homozygous lethal, hemizygous lethal, and lethal with each other, the embryos having partial posteriorly-directed transformations of the abdominal segments (segment 1 into segment 2 and segments 2-7 into more posterior segments). These mutants are strong enhancers of Pc3, showing Pc-like transformations in embryos, and are indistinguishable from Pcl deficiencies in complementation behavior. Extreme posteriorly-directed segmental transformations are found in Pcl1/Df(2R)Pcl11B;Pc3/Pc3 lethal embryos (Duncan, 1982); these embryos are considerably more abnormal than the Pc3 homozygotes that are Pcl+. Pcl/Pcl embryos that are also homozygous for Asx, Psc, or Scm show strong posteriorly-directed transformations of the entire body pattern; the triple mutant Psc Asx Pcl has a tandem array of posterior abdominal segments including four abdominal denticle bands in the head region (Jurgens, 1985). Pcl1/Pcl1 clones in the second through the sixth abdominal tergites also show caudal transformations; similar clones in the wing often appear to be partially transformed into haltere tissue. Weak Pcl alleles (Pcl3, Pcl4) survive, at least through eclosion, either as homozygotes or as heterozygotes with strong or weak Pcl alleles (Duncan, 1982). Pcl1/Pcl3 and Pcl1/Pcl4 show segmental transformations characteristic of Pc/+ flies, i.e. antenna to leg, second and third leg to first leg, wing to haltere, and posteriorly-directed abdominal transformations (the most frequent abnormality). Increasing the dosage of the BXC in Pcl1/Pcl4 heterozygotes suppresses the posteriorly-directed transformations, but enhances the transformations from leg2 and leg3 to leg1; increasing the dosage of the ANTC enhances both types of transformations (Duncan, 1982). Pcl1/Pcl3 females, which die before or soon after eclosion, show a conversion of parovaria to spermathecae. Both strong and weak Pcl alleles are viable as heterozygotes (Pcl/+) and may show partial abdominal and leg transformations, the abnormalities increasing in Pcl/+;Pc/+ flies or when Pcl/+ is combined with E(Pc).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

a member of a distinct chromatin complex - functions downstream of Pleiohomeotic in the assembly of a repressive complex that generates high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation in Polycomb target genes

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pcl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pcl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086735
3836
1043
FBtr0329998
4384
1043
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085914
114.6
1043
9.08
FBpp0303033
114.6
1043
9.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1043 aa isoforms: Pcl-PA, Pcl-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of a form of the Esc/E(z) complex present specifically during early embryogenesis which is composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Pcl and Rpd3. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.

(UniProt, Q24459)
Domain

The PHD-type zinc fingers mediate the interaction with E(z).

In contrast to vertebrate homologs (PHF1, PHF19 and MTF2), the Tudor domain does not bind H3K36me3 (PubMed:23104054 and PubMed:23142980).

(UniProt, Q24459)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pcl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24338
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q94517
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9NJG9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P42124
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from key residues
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000290238
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

anterior endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

Additional Descriptive Data

Pcl transcripts are distributed evenly throughout all tissues at all stages of embryonic development.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Pcl protein binds to approximately 100 sites on the polytene chromosomes. It binds to the identical set of sites bound by Pc and ph proteins.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pcl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mesothoracic leg & sex comb | ectopic
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902KD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505SB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W011X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0103 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G01JL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of a form of the Esc/E(z) complex present specifically during early embryogenesis which is composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Pcl and Rpd3. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.
    (UniProt, Q24459 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-84

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:18,135,426..18,139,990 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    55B8-55B8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Hsf03091&P{EP}Dgp-1EP731 and P{PZ}sbb04525&P{EP}EP1081EP1081
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    55B5-55B6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Location from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (107)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: Pcl l(2)s1859

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Pcl protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).

      Abd-B MCP725 element is a silencer that functions throughout proliferation of the imaginal discs. MCP725-mediated silencing requires the Pc and Pcl proteins (it is likely that other members of the PcG also interact with the MCP725 silencer).

      Silencing activity of the iab-7PRE in the bithorax complex is dependent upon proteins from the Polycomb group.

      In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Scm and Sce have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. Genetic interactions have been demonstrated between esc, Asx, E(Pc), Pcl, E(z) and sxc. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.

      Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.

      Mosaic and expression pattern analysis reveals that the Pc-group genes do not act only in a common complex or pathway: they must have some independent functions.

      Duplication of ph-d suppress homeotic transformations of Pc and Pcl, this data supports the conclusion that ph-d is at equilibrium with a multimeric complex containing Pc group genes.

      Alleles of trx lighten the eye colour of some pairing sensitive allele of w, whereas alleles of Pcl darken their eye colour.

      Pcl product is found on larval salivary chromosomes at about 100 specific loci, in the same positions as the products of Pc, ph-d and ph-p genes.

      The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal bithorax complex context. The Pc group products apparently provide stable memory or imprinting of boundaries which are specified by gap and pair-rule regulators.

      Strong Pcl mutant alleles (Pcl1, Pcl2) are homozygous lethal, hemizygous lethal and lethal with each other, the embryos having partial posteriorly-directed transformations of the abdominal segments (segment 1 into segment 2 and segments 2-7 into more posterior segments). These mutants are strong enhancers of Pc3, showing Pc-like transformations in embryos and are indistinguishable from Pcl deficiencies in complementation behavior. Extreme posteriorly-directed segmental transformations are found in Pcl1/Df(2R)Pcl11B; Pc3/Pc3 lethal embryos (FBrf0038059); these embryos are considerably more abnormal than the Pc3 homozygotes that are Pcl+. Pcl/Pcl embryos that are also homozygous for Asx, Psc, or Scm show strong posteriorly-directed transformations of the entire body pattern; the triple mutant Psc, Asx, Pcl has a tandem array of posterior abdominal segments including four abdominal denticle bands in the head region (FBrf0043317). Pcl1/Pcl1 clones in the second through the sixth abdominal tergites also show caudal transformations; similar clones in the wing often appear to be partially transformed into haltere tissue. Weak Pcl alleles (Pcl3, Pcl4) survive, at least through eclosion, either as homozygotes or as heterozygotes with strong or weak Pcl alleles (FBrf0038059). Pcl1/Pcl3 and Pcl1/Pcl4 show segmental transformations characteristic of Pc/+ flies, i.e. antenna to leg, second and third leg to first leg, wing to haltere, and posteriorly-directed abdominal transformations (the most frequent abnormality). Increasing the dosage of the BXC in Pcl1/Pcl4 heterozygotes suppresses the posteriorly-directed transformations, but enhances the transformations from leg2 and leg3 to leg1; increasing the dosage of the ANTC enhances both types of transformations (FBrf0038059). Pcl1/Pcl3 females, which die before or soon after eclosion, show a conversion of parovaria to spermathecae. Both strong and weak Pcl alleles are viable as heterozygotes (Pcl/+) and may show partial abdominal and leg transformations, the abnormalities increasing in Pcl/+;Pc/+ flies or when Pcl/+ is combined with E(Pc).

      Pcl+, like Pc+, may be considered a negative regulator of the BXC and the ANTC.

      Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.

      Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic Pcl product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.

      Mutations in Pcl derepress homeotic genes in the BXC and ANTC.

      The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.

      Pcl is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.

      Mutants of Pcl exhibit a reduction in sex comb teeth on the second and third legs.

      Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that Pcl is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010678
      Datasets (2)
      Study focus (2)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • transgene_used
      Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
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