General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
prickle
Annotation Symbol
CG11084
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003090
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
prickle (pk) encodes a core component of the Frizzled-dependent planar polarity complex, which localises to cell junctions in developing epithelia, most likely via direct protein-protein interactions with the transmembrane proteins encoded by Vang and stan. pk product contributes to planar polarity defects in epithelia, as well as nervous system development. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
sple, pk-sple
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:7,150,703..7,223,378 [+]
Recombination map
2-55
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the prickle / espinas / testin family. (A1Z6W3)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Acts in a planar cell polarity (PCP) complex; polarization along the apical/basal axis of epithelial cells. Correct expression of the alternative isoforms is required for PCP signaling in imaginal disks. PCP signaling in the wing disk requires the receptor fz and the cytoplasmic proteins dsh and pk. These act in a feedback loop leading to activation of the jnk cascade and subsequent polarized arrangement of hairs and bristles. Dgo and pk compete with one another for dsh binding, thereby modulating fz dsh activity and ensuring tight control over fz PCP signaling. Vang, stan and pk function together to regulate the establishment of tissue polarity in the adult eye.
(UniProt, A1Z6W3)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
pk: prickle
Polarity pattern of wing, haltere, and notum altered in mutants. Chaetae of triple row on anterior wing slanted anteriorly instead of posteriorly. Trichomes near L2 vein arranged in counterclockwise whorl on right wing blade, in clockwise whorl on left blade; trichomes in anterior wing occasionally duplicated (Gubb and Garcia-Bellido, 1982). On the notum, the posterior acrostichals are irregularly erect and whorled. Occasionally, extra dorsocentral and scutellar bristles appear at temperatures above 23. Mutant flies slightly larger than wild type. Gubb and Garcia-Bellido (1982) describe somatic clones of homozygous pk cells.
sple: spiny legs
Polarity of chaetae and trichomes on legs irregular; relations between bracts and bristles disrupted. High incidence of ectopic tarsal joints with inverted polarity, especially in tarsae 3 and 4; incomplete intersegmental membranes between tarsal segments, especially between segments 3 and 4; no extra sensilla companiformia despite extra joints. Chaetae on abdominal tergites turned toward midline instead of pointing posteriorly as in wild type; polarity of bristles on sternites disrupted as well.
sple3
A low-temperature-sensitive allele. Legs of flies raised at 19 highly condensed with incomplete joints, haphazard bristle pattern, occasional increase in number of bristle rows, and absence of some prominent markers. Flies unable to walk and soon get stuck in food. In sple3 flies raised at 28 53% of legs, though apparently normal, display abnormalities such as swollen second, third, and fourth tarsal segments, abnormal tarsal joints and reversals in bristle orientation in the middle of every segment; such flies able to walk and breed. About 30% of legs show phenotype intermediate between the two phenotypes described above. Mutant phenotype expressed in the homeotic legs of Antp and ssa; also expressed in mitotic clones.
Interactive Fly
LIM domain protein - a tissue polarity protein - in the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, each independently interacts with the Spiny-legs isoform of Prickle and direct Spiny-legs localization in vivo
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089042
4241
963
FBtr0089043
4109
1029
FBtr0089044
5224
1299
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.1, 4.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088113
104.7
963
7.23
FBpp0088114
111.8
1029
6.94
FBpp0088115
140.7
1299
6.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1206, 936, 870 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with dsh; PET and LIM domains interact with dsh DEP domain, in wing cells. Interacts with Vang in photoreceptor cells.
(UniProt, A1Z6W3)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51140
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z7N9
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001781, InterPro:IPR010442
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
leg

Comment: reference states 28-34 hr APF

wing

Comment: reference states 28-34 hr APF

Additional Descriptive Data
In 28-34hr pupal wings, pk transcripts are expressed uniformly in intervein cells but not in presumptive vein regions. In pupal legs, transcripts are uniform in most cells but are excluded from the segmental boundaries. Low levels are detected in restricted domains in larval imaginal discs. In the eye disc, expression is detected in a stripe of cells behind the morphogenetic furrow. In wing discs, expression is higher along the dorsoventral compartment boundary. In embryos, a dynamic expression pattern is observed. Expression is highest in cells engaged in morphogenetic movements such as invaginating midline cells, the cephalic fold, and at parasegmental boundaries. Expression of the "pk" and "sple" isoforms is indistinguishable.
"pkM" transcripts are detected only in embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 99 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of pk
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pk
      Allele of pk
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pk
      Deletions and Duplications ( 102 )
      Disrupted in
      Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Sterility
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      abdomen & macrochaeta
      abdominal sternite & macrochaeta
      abdominal tergite & macrochaeta
      mesothoracic tergum & sensory mother cell & spindle
      tarsal segment 1 & joint
      tarsal segment 1 & joint, with Scer\GAL4C-765
      tarsal segment 1 & joint, with Scer\GAL4da.G32
      tarsal segment 3 & joint
      tarsal segment 4 & joint
      tarsal segment & joint
      trichome & adult abdomen
      trichome & adult abdomen | somatic clone | cell autonomous
      trichome & costal cell
      wing & cell
      wing & pupa & cell, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
      wing hair & 1st posterior cell, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
      wing hair & cell & pupa, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      8 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
      3 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (13)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      7 of 15
      No
      Yes
      3 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (12)
      10 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      10 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      6 of 13
      No
      Yes
      2 of 13
      No
      No
      2 of 13
      No
      No
      2 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      1 of 13
      No
      No
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
      8 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      5 of 12
      No
      Yes
      2 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (19)
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      9 of 15
      No
      Yes
      7 of 15
      No
      Yes
      6 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
      9 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      2 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
      1 of 9
      Yes
      No
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901TV )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915011V )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01M8 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01K8 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07C5 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 3 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      model of  epilepsy
      inferred from mutant phenotype
      model of  epilepsy
      inferred from mutant phenotype
      Interactions ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      model of  epilepsy
      is ameliorated by fafB3
      is ameliorated by fafBX4
      is ameliorated by fafBX3
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with dsh; PET and LIM domains interact with dsh DEP domain, in wing cells. Interacts with Vang in photoreceptor cells.
      (UniProt, A1Z6W3 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-55
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:7,150,703..7,223,378 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      42F3-43A1
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}vimark16722 and P{lacW}cosk16101
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      43A1-43A2
      Placed in 42E3--43C3 by deficiency mapping. This cytological map position does not agree with FBrf0020044.
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      The cellular polarity gene pk and the adult lethal nec gene map within the proximal region of pk-sple complex among a set of 3 Serpin transcripts.
      Alleles of the 'prickle' phenotypic class map to the left of alleles of the 'sple' phenotypic class.
      Genetic map position is approximate.
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (60)
      Genomic Clones (45)
      cDNA Clones (117)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: pk CG11084
      Source for merge of: pk CG12830
      Additional comments
      Annotations CG12830 and CG11084 merged as CG11084 (which corresponds to pk) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
      Other Comments
      During development of the bristle lineage, Vang protein is localised in an anterior crescent in dividing sensillum precursor cells.
      Mutations in fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh act as strong enhancers of weak in or fy phenotypes.
      in and fy are needed for cells to respond to pk and stan. Genetic analysis is not consistent with fz-like class of genes fz, pk, Vang, stan and dsh acting simply as positive or negative regulators of in and fy.
      pk is required for a feedback loop that generates asymmetric planar cell polarity signalling in the wing.
      The "Pk" class of alleles carry molecular lesions within the proximal 30kb of the transcription unit, whereas the "Pk-Sple" class of alleles map to the distal section of the transcription unit. In direction of increasing cytology: Spn43Aa+ pk+ Spn43Ab- nec- pk+ Ady43A-
      Alleles can be divided into three phenotypic classes, "Pk", "Pk-Sple", and "Sple". No allele causes an embryonic phenotype, even when homozygous mutant embryos develop from homozygous mutant mothers. Deletions of the pk gene are fully viable and fertile. The defects of the double mutant "Pk-Sple" class are the same as those seen with deletions of the entire gene. Paradoxically the "Pk" and "Sple" classes give more severe phenotypes with "Pk" affecting the wing and notum and "Sple" in the legs abdomen and eyes.
      The balance between the pk isoforms "Pk" and "Sple" is critical for the specification of planar polarity.
      pk is a slightly haploinsufficient gene. A deficiency for pk (and some pk point mutants) shows a weak, partially penetrant dominant tissue polarity phenotype. This effect is enhanced by several Vang alleles. Phenotypic data suggest that genetics of Vang and its interactions with pk are complex. Several, but not all, Vang alleles act as enhancers of the pk haploinsufficient tissue polarity phenotype, and the pkTBJ21 antimorphic phenotype. Mutations in pk can also act as suppressors of Vang dominant phenotypes.
      Mutants do not exhibit defects in the denticle belt of hairs of the larvae.
      In pk mutants the dorsal/ventral boundary in the eye is respected but the mechanism for ommatidial polarization is perturbed. A likely explanation for the observed phenotype is that the fates of dorsal and ventral cells within a cluster have been interchanged.
      Mosaic analysis demonstrates pk function in either R3, R4 or R5 photoreceptor cell appears to be sufficient to drive an ommatidium in the right direction.
      Polarity pattern of wing, haltere and notum altered. Triple row bristles on anterior wing slanted proximally instead of distally. On the notum, the posterior acrostichal bristles are whorled.
      Trichomes near L2 vein arranged in counterclockwise whorl on right wing blade, in clockwise whorl on left blade; trichomes in anterior wing occasionally duplicated. Somatic clones of homozygous pk mutant cells have been generated. Not a vital locus.
      "AQ254872; BDGP:EP (2)2557" was stated as revision.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Ives, Nov. 1938.
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 60 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      pk
      (Collu et al., 2018, Ikawa and Sugimura, 2018, Johan Arief et al., 2018, Franz et al., 2017, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Duff et al., 2015, Galic and Matis, 2015, Gombos et al., 2015, Kroll et al., 2015, Morozova et al., 2015, Paemka et al., 2015, Yang and Mlodzik, 2015, Zirin et al., 2015, Ayukawa et al., 2014, Ehaideb et al., 2014, Guarner et al., 2014, Vernes, 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Lawrence and Casal, 2013, Podratz et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Butchar et al., 2012, Capilla et al., 2012, Daulat et al., 2012, Kuroda et al., 2012, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Goodrich and Strutt, 2011, Hogan et al., 2011, Luo et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Mrkusich et al., 2011, Olguín et al., 2011, Shimizu et al., 2011, Tao et al., 2011, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Lu et al., 2010, Mourikis et al., 2010, Pataki et al., 2010, Silicheva et al., 2010, Chung et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Hazelett et al., 2009, Lin and Gubb, 2009, Zhu, 2009, Chen et al., 2008, Dahmann et al., 2008, Doyle et al., 2008, Fiehler and Wolff, 2008, Strutt and Strutt, 2008, Strutt and Warrington, 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Chung et al., 2007, Fiehler and Wolff, 2007, König et al., 2007, Lawrence et al., 2007, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2007, Rawls et al., 2007, Shirai et al., 2007, Strutt and Strutt, 2007, Le Garrec et al., 2006, Price et al., 2006, Ren et al., 2006, Shimada et al., 2006, Strutt et al., 2006, Brown and Feder, 2005, Classen et al., 2005, Jenny et al., 2005, Strutt and Strutt, 2005, Lawrence et al., 2004, Jenny et al., 2003, He and Adler, 2002)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0003477
      • FBgn0033151
      • FBgn0040783
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (300)