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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pnr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pannier
Annotation Symbol
CG3978
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003117
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
pannier (pnr) encodes a transcription factor that acts as an activator of proneural achaete-scute complex genes. Its roles include dorsal cell fate determination, nervous system development and lymph gland development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
dGATAa, GATA
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,026,079..16,041,796 [+]
Recombination map
3-58
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
GATA TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
GATA transcription factors contain one or two zinc fingers with the amino acid sequence CX2CX17CX2C (where x is any other amino acid) that can bind the consensus DNA sequence (A/T) GATA (A/G). (Adapted from FBrf0195200).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcriptional regulator involved in several developmental processes during embryonic and imaginal disks development. Involved in determining dorsal cell fate. Acts as an essential transcriptional regulator of proneural achaete-scute complex (AS-C) and is required for its spatial regulation during development of the adult peripheral nervous system, and hence for the positioning of neural precursors. It is the only factor to directly activate AS-C genes.
(UniProt, P52168)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
pnr: pannier
Homozygous lethal. Dorsal anterior of embryo open.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - zinc finger - GATA family - required for the normal pattern of sensory bristles in parts of the dorsal epithelium - an activator of proneural achaete-scute complex genes - roles include dorsal cell fate determination, nervous system development and lymph gland development
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pnr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pnr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083221
2720
540
FBtr0083220
2786
488
FBtr0335426
3592
537
FBtr0335427
3840
488
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.0 (northern blot)
2.9 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082675
57.0
540
8.83
FBpp0082674
51.7
488
9.15
FBpp0307408
56.8
537
8.83
FBpp0307409
51.7
488
9.15
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

488 aa isoforms: pnr-PB, pnr-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with OSA.
(UniProt, P52168)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pnr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001600628
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001600628
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000679, InterPro:IPR013088
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0000981
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001600628
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as dorsal epidermis anlage

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 2-12 hr AEL

amnioserosa

Comment: mid embryonic stage 8

proctodeum | anterior to

Comment: early embryonic stage 8

Additional Descriptive Data
Both long and short pnr transcript isoforms are expressed at the dorsal-most region of the wing disc.
After germband retraction, pnr transcript is expressed just below the amnioserosa, and adjacent and dorsal to the ectodermal expression domain of ara.
At stage 4 of embryogenesis, pnr transcript is detected dorsally at 35-60% of egg length, in cells which will give rise to the amnioserosa and the dorsal ectoderm. pnr is expressed in the amnioserosa until stage 9 of embryogenesis, and expression in the dorsal epidermis continues through dorsal closure.
In late third instar larvae, pnr transcript is detected in a restricted pattern in the thoracic region of the dorsal mesothoracic (wing) disc. pnr transcript levels are highest in the dorsal-most thoracic region, especially where the dorsocentral and scutellar bristles will arise, and decrease gradually over the thoracic epithelial region. pnr transcript is also detected in a restricted pattern in the dorsal-most edge of the eye-antennal disc, in the region where postvertical and anterior vertical bristles will arise.
Northern blot analysis reveals that pnr is expressed at high levels in embryos 2-12 hours post-fertilization. Using whole mount embryo in situ hybridization, pnr transcript is detected as early as stage 5, in 5 stripes. At stage 5, which corresponds to cellularization, the pnr transcript is present at 20-60% egg length, in a region which will give rise to the dorsal ectoderm and the amnioserosa. Early in stage 8, pnr is expressed in the dorsal section of the embryo, in a region delineated by the cephalic furrow and the proctodeum. By mid-stage 8, during germband extension, pnr transcripts begin to concentrate in the dorsal ectoderm, but some transcripts are still detected in the amnioserosa. In stage 11 embryos, pnr expression is only seen in the epidermis dorsal to the tracheal pit. By stage 13, when germ band shortening is complete, pnr transcripts are still present in the dorsal epidermis, but additional signal is detected in the posterior spiracles. At dorsal closure at stage 15, pnr is expressed in a single cell layer on either side of the midline, and in an anterior cluster of epidermal cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pnr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 34 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pnr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pnr
Deletions and Duplications ( 18 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (13)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (28)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (9)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BXP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505LE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0E1N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0E05 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0AUR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 8 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with OSA.
    (UniProt, P52168 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-58
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:16,026,079..16,041,796 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    89A13-89B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}blp01618 and P{PZ}gish04895&P{EP}EP3171
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    89A-89B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89A-89A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (27)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (216)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: pnr CG3978
    Additional comments
    pnr appears to be a chimeric gene, with the 5' part of the gene derived from grn and the 3' part of the gene derived from GATAe.
    "pnr" is a putative chimeric gene derived from the "grn" and "GATAe" genes (where coding sequences of the two parental genes contribute to the coding sequence of the chimeric gene).
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for pnr protein in stage 9-11 embryos; ArrayExpress accession number E-MTAB-1184.
    tou, pnr and Chi co-operate during neural development.
    pnr is required for the development of all cardiogenic mesoderm.
    pnr expression is controlled by the convergence of dpp, bnl, wg and N signalling.
    The pntP2 isoform is involved in heart development.
    pnr is required to establish competence for heart progenitor formation.
    pnr is a direct transcriptional target of tin in the heart-forming region.
    pnr may be the principle gene responsible for the subdivision of the medial and lateral regions of each dorsal segment.
    pnr acts upstream of wg to control mirr and fng expression and establish the dorsoventral boundary in the eye.
    The pnr/ush complex serves as a repressor and a transcriptional activator, respectively for wg and ush expression.
    The dpp gradient may regulate notal wg expression through induction of pnr and ush.
    pnr is required for cardial cell formation while repressing a pericardial cell fate in the developing embryo.
    pnr directly activates the proneural ac and sc genes by binding to the enhancers responsible for their expression in the dorsocentral proneural cluster. pnr and ush are main effectors of the regulation of wg expression in the presumptive notum.
    pnr and ush provide positional information for the patterning of the dorsocentral mechanosensory bristle cluster.
    pnr acts as a negative regulator of wg in the notum. Some of the effects of pnr mutants are apparently produced through an alteration of wg function.
    Genetic and phenotypic analysis of pnr. pnr is required for viability of the cells of the amnioserosa.
    Molecular analysis of pnr alleles reveals two functional domains of the pnr gene product. Mutants associated with lesions in the zinc finger domain show overexpression of ac and sc and the development of extra neural precursors. Mutations in the putative amphipathic helices act as hyperactive repressor molecules causing a loss of ac and sc expression and a loss of neural precursors. Activity of pnr may be modulated by association with position specific factors.
    Isolated on the basis of sequence similarity to mammalian GATA factors. Expression pattern suggests that it may function downstream of the zygotic pattern genes dpp and zen.
    pnr mutants display failure of anterior dorsal closure.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    GATAa/Pannier
    l(3)89B3
    pnr
    (Immarigeon et al., 2019, Lee et al., 2019, Moreno et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Haines and Eisen, 2018, Batut and Gingeras, 2017, Liu et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Tue et al., 2017, Carbone et al., 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Kok et al., 2015, Monfort and Furlong, 2015.1.15, Schertel et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Zabidi et al., 2015, Künnapuu et al., 2014, Rogers et al., 2014, Valanne, 2014, Alfieri et al., 2013, Hattori et al., 2013, Lagha et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Ahmad et al., 2012, Amodio et al., 2012, Amoyel and Bach, 2012, Foronda et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Hironaka et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Liang et al., 2012, Tie et al., 2012, Valadez-Graham et al., 2012, Xu et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2012, Zitserman et al., 2012, Bantignies et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Lynch and Roth, 2011, Ryu et al., 2011, Weake et al., 2011, de Navascués and Modolell, 2010, Fromental-Ramain et al., 2010, Norgate et al., 2010, Oros et al., 2010, Reim and Frasch, 2010, Weiss et al., 2010, Boettiger and Levine, 2009, Fang et al., 2009, Flaherty et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Grimm et al., 2009, Harbison et al., 2009, Hazelett et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Qian and Bodmer, 2009, Stern et al., 2009, Tuxworth et al., 2009, Asmar et al., 2008, Biryukova and Heitzler, 2008, Fromental-Ramain et al., 2008, Kwong et al., 2008, Oktaba et al., 2008, Parks et al., 2008, Pierre et al., 2008, Southon et al., 2008, Zenvirt et al., 2008, Ash et al., 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Down et al., 2007, Liang et al., 2007, Mann et al., 2007, Minakhina et al., 2007, Nekrasov et al., 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Tokusumi et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Akasaka et al., 2006, Akasaka et al., 2006, Choksi et al., 2006, Davidson and Erwin, 2006, Ekas et al., 2006, Heitzler, 2006.8.9, Marcellini and Simpson, 2006, Sellin et al., 2006, Senger et al., 2006, Simpson et al., 2006, Biryukova and Heitzler, 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0038393
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    ChIP-chip identification of binding sites for transcription factors that regulate mesodermal development.
    References (330)