transcription factor - zinc finger - GATA family - required for the normal pattern of sensory bristles in parts of the dorsal epithelium - an activator of proneural achaete-scute complex genes - roles include dorsal cell fate determination, nervous system development and lymph gland development
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Interacts with OSA.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pnr using the Feature Mapper tool.
Both long and short pnr transcript isoforms are expressed at the dorsal-most region of the wing disc.
At stage 4 of embryogenesis, pnr transcript is detected dorsally at 35-60% of egg length, in cells which will give rise to the amnioserosa and the dorsal ectoderm. pnr is expressed in the amnioserosa until stage 9 of embryogenesis, and expression in the dorsal epidermis continues through dorsal closure.
In late third instar larvae, pnr transcript is detected in a restricted pattern in the thoracic region of the dorsal mesothoracic (wing) disc. pnr transcript levels are highest in the dorsal-most thoracic region, especially where the dorsocentral and scutellar bristles will arise, and decrease gradually over the thoracic epithelial region. pnr transcript is also detected in a restricted pattern in the dorsal-most edge of the eye-antennal disc, in the region where postvertical and anterior vertical bristles will arise.
Northern blot analysis reveals that pnr is expressed at high levels in embryos 2-12 hours post-fertilization. Using whole mount embryo in situ hybridization, pnr transcript is detected as early as stage 5, in 5 stripes. At stage 5, which corresponds to cellularization, the pnr transcript is present at 20-60% egg length, in a region which will give rise to the dorsal ectoderm and the amnioserosa. Early in stage 8, pnr is expressed in the dorsal section of the embryo, in a region delineated by the cephalic furrow and the proctodeum. By mid-stage 8, during germband extension, pnr transcripts begin to concentrate in the dorsal ectoderm, but some transcripts are still detected in the amnioserosa. In stage 11 embryos, pnr expression is only seen in the epidermis dorsal to the tracheal pit. By stage 13, when germ band shortening is complete, pnr transcripts are still present in the dorsal epidermis, but additional signal is detected in the posterior spiracles. At dorsal closure at stage 15, pnr is expressed in a single cell layer on either side of the midline, and in an anterior cluster of epidermal cells.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\pnr in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for merge of: pnr CG3978
"pnr" is a putative chimeric gene derived from the "grn" and "GATAe" genes (where coding sequences of the two parental genes contribute to the coding sequence of the chimeric gene).
DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for pnr protein in stage 9-11 embryos; ArrayExpress accession number E-MTAB-1184.
pnr is required to establish competence for heart progenitor formation.
pnr may be the principle gene responsible for the subdivision of the medial and lateral regions of each dorsal segment.
pnr is required for cardial cell formation while repressing a pericardial cell fate in the developing embryo.
pnr directly activates the proneural ac and sc genes by binding to the enhancers responsible for their expression in the dorsocentral proneural cluster. pnr and ush are main effectors of the regulation of wg expression in the presumptive notum.
Molecular analysis of pnr alleles reveals two functional domains of the pnr gene product. Mutants associated with lesions in the zinc finger domain show overexpression of ac and sc and the development of extra neural precursors. Mutations in the putative amphipathic helices act as hyperactive repressor molecules causing a loss of ac and sc expression and a loss of neural precursors. Activity of pnr may be modulated by association with position specific factors.