General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pnt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pointed
Annotation Symbol
CG17077
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003118
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
PntP1, PntP2, D-ets-2, pointed, DMPOINT1A
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:23,290,231..23,346,167 [-]
Recombination map
3-78
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the ETS family. (P51023)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
ETS DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The E26 transformation specific (ETS) domain transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. These factors are characterized by a conserved 85 amino acid DNA binding ETS domain that binds specifically to purine-rich DNA motif GGAA/T. (Adapted from PMID:11715049 and PMID:9570133).
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
ETS transcription factor with a prominent role during development of the eye and the nervous system (PubMed:8223245, PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412, PubMed:28245922). Required for glial-neuronal cell interactions at the ventral midline which are necessary for the proper elaboration of commissures in the embryonic CNS (PubMed:8223245). Isoform P2: Required for normal EGFR-induced photoreceptor development probably as a downstream effector of Ras85D (PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412). In larval eye imaginal disks, activated by MAPK phosphorylation following EGFR activation, induces transcription of isoform P1 which in turn activates transcription of target genes essential for photoreceptor development (PubMed:23757412). Isoform P1: Required for normal EGFR-induced photoreceptor development (PubMed:23757412). Following transcriptional activation by isoform P2, acts as a constitutive activator of transcription, leading to induction of target genes essential for photoreceptor development (PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412). In larval brains, involved in the maintenance of type II neuroblast self-renewal and identity together with brat, btd and pros; prevents intermediate neuronal progenitor (INP) dedifferentiation by regulating the expression of erm probably via Notch signaling; suppresses Ase expression in type II neuroblasts and promotes the generation of intermediate neuronal progenitors (PubMed:22143802, PubMed:27151950, PubMed:27510969, PubMed:28899667, PubMed:28245922).
(UniProt, P51023)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ets2: Ets-2 proto-oncogene homologue
Encodes a Drosophila homologue to the ets gene from the avian erythroblastosis retrovirus E26. mRNA constitutively present in all developmental stages, with elevated levels of expression in 0-9-hr embryos and pupae.
pnt: pointed
Homozygous lethal. Zygotic expression in embryo. Head skeleton of embryo pointed; median part of all denticle bands deleted. CNS broad and less dense than wild type. Sensory organs (maxillary, antennal, and Keilin's organs) spread.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pnt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pnt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089717
4074
718
FBtr0089715
2996
623
FBtr0089716
2805
636
FBtr0334554
3715
625
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.2, 4.0 (northern blot)
4.4 (northern blot)
4.7 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088658
77.7
718
6.60
FBpp0088656
66.9
623
6.72
FBpp0088657
69.9
636
6.69
FBpp0306621
67.0
625
6.72
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
718, 623 (aa); 78, 67 (kD predicted)
Comments
The P2 pnt protein, which has a single MAP kinase phosphorylation site motif, is phosphorylated by rl MAP kinase in vitro.
The amino acid sequences of various Ets gene family members were studied to determine evolutionary relatedness. Phylogenetic trees were derived.
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Isoform P2: Phosphorylated at Thr-151 by rl.
(UniProt, P51023)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pnt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (44 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (38 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (36 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:aop; FB:FBgn0000097
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:foxo; FB:FBgn0038197
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P08646
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P11346
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24324
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24266
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q01071
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q26263
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P07207
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P07207,UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24266
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism | anterior | dorsal

Comment: dorsal anterior tip of embryo

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
pnt mRNA is highly enriched in the lysate extracted from larval brains enriched with type II neuroblasts.
Transcript is expressed in the intermediate groups and R8 photoreceptor equivalence groups of the developing retina.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
pnt expression is observed in the Bolwig organ primordium from embryonic stage 10/11 to stage 12/13 and is gone by stage 15.
With an antibody that detects both pnt protein isoforms, pnt protein is detected in the nuclei of ommatidial precursor cells. In a background that is mutant for the 718 amino acid P2 isoform, most all nuclear staining is eliminated, except for clusters of nuclei in the morphogenetic furrow, and scattered nuclei in the posterior part of the eye. This staining presumably corresponds to the P1 isoform, and is in good agreement with the distribution of the P1 transcript. In photoreceptor precursors, the appearance of pnt P2 protein precedes the appearance of elav protein, and after about 4-6 hours of co-expression, pnt P2 protein is no longer detected.
With an antibody that detects both pnt protein isoforms, pnt protein is detected in the nuclei of ommatidial precursor cells. In a background that is mutant for the 718 amino acid P2 isoform, most all nuclear staining is eliminated, except for clusters of nuclei in the morphogenetic furrow, and scattered nuclei in the posterior part of the eye. This staining presumably corresponds to the P1 isoform, and is in good agreement with the distribution of the P1 transcript.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}pntrM254
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}pnt14-94
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pnt1277
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pntS060807a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pntS099812
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}pnt07825
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pnt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 101 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of pnt
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
        Other relevant insertions
        miscellaneous insertions
        Name
        Expression Data
        Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
        For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
        Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pnt
        Allele of pnt
        Mutagen
        Associated Transgenic Construct
        Stocks
        Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pnt
        vital-reporter construct
        Name
        Expression Data
        Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
        Summary of Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        embryonic/larval dorsal branch & terminal tracheal cell | somatic clone
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        12 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
         
        11 of 15
        No
        Yes
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
         
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (18)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        12 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        11 of 15
        No
        Yes
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (19)
        10 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        9 of 13
        No
        Yes
        4 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        No
        2 of 13
        No
        Yes
        2 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
        10 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        6 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        2 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        Yes
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
        11 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        5 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (10)
        2 of 15
        Yes
        No
        2 of 15
        Yes
        No
        2 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
        1 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905I0 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila suzukii
        Spotted wing Drosophila
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508GT )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles darlingi
        American malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Culex quinquefasciatus
        Southern house mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0B5K )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0B32 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0HJF )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
          Download
          Models ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Interactions ( 1 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Comments ( 0 )
           
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Homo sapiens (Human)
          Gene name
          Score
          OMIM
          OMIM Phenotype
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          esyN Network Key:
          Suppression
          Enhancement

          Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          suppressible
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          External Data
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          Pathways
          Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
          Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
          The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
          Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
          The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
          Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
          Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
          External Data
          Linkouts
          KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          3R
          Recombination map
          3-78
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          3R:23,290,231..23,346,167 [-]
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          94E10-94E13
          Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}cnc03921 and P{PZ}l(3)0690606906
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          94F1-94F2
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          94F-94F
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          94F1-94F3
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          94F1-94F3
          (determined by in situ hybridisation) 94F (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          64A4-64A5
          68C12--13 94F1--3
          94E-94F
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          58A-58B
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          Cytological location differs from that reported in FBrf0047835. It is based upon hybridisation with two independent cDNA clones.
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Left of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (51)
          Genomic Clones (29)
          cDNA Clones (82)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequences
          Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          The pnt-P1 isoform prevents both the premature differentiation and the de-differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors in the type II neuroblast lineage.
          pnt is required cell-autonomously along the dorsal midline to repress dorsal appendage fate.
          The pnt SAM domain is the docking surface for rl and this docking surface is essential for pnt-mediated enhancement of transactivation in response to Ras85D signaling.
          S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
          pnt activates ZAM expression in follicle cells.
          pnr and pntP2 act sequentially to regulate heart development.
          The pnt protein isoform is an activator of stg mRNA transcription in the eye disc.
          Seven EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
          Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
          pnt is required for morphogenesis of the posterior midgut and is a target of abd-A.
          Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
          ttk is required for proper glial cell development in the CNS. Phenotypes of doubly mutant ttk and pnt embryos and ectopic expression of ttk and pnt indicates the existance of two independent genetic pathways regulating glial cell development, which in the lateral glia are both downstream of gcm. One, mediated via pnt, results in the activation of glia cell differentiation, whereas the other, mediated by ttk, results in the suppression of neuronal differentiation in these cells.
          In the midline glial cells pntP2 has to be activated by phosphorylation, possibly through rl, to induce transcription of its target genes. aop antagonises pntP2 function in the midline glial cells. Jra and pntP2 do not cooperate during midline glia development.
          In vivo culture of mutant discs from genotypes that are normally embryonic lethal demonstrates pnt is required for wing disc growth.
          The primary target genes of Egfr are pnt, vnd and Fas3, these are induced in different ectodermal domains. Secondary target genes oc, argos and trn are activated by pnt in response to Egfr signalling. The proper induction of these genes requires the concomitant inactivation of aop, mediated by Egfr signalling.
          Inactivated mutations of Ras85D enhance the P{sevhs-cswCS} phenotype.
          pros gene becomes transcriptionally activated at a low level in all sev-competent cells prior to sev signaling and this requires the activities of Ras85D and two ETS transcription factors, aop and pnt.
          pnt is required in dorsal follicle cells for patterning of the cell layer into either appendage-producing or midline cells. Loss of pnt results in the loss of midline cells and an excess of appendage-forming cells, a phenotype associated with overactivation of the EGF receptor pathway in the dorsal region. Overexpression of pnt leads to a phenotype similar to that generated by loss of the EGF receptor pathway. Data indicates a novel antagonistic function for pnt in oogenesis: in response to activation of the EGF receptor pnt is expressed and negatively regulates the EGF receptor pathway, possibly by integrating information from a second pathway.
          The pnt transcription factor is required for secondary branching and also to activate expression of terminal branch markers.
          Jra cooperates with the ETS domain pnt gene product to act on common target genes which induce photoreceptor R7 fate in the developing eye. phyl might be one of the target genes.
          MAP kinase activity, encoded by the rl locus, induces neuronal differentiation by simultaneously inhibiting the aop repressor and stimulating the pnt activator.
          pnt is required for neuronal glial cell interactions: loss of function mutations lead to a change in the migration behavior of the midline glial cells.
          Two different and distinct trans-acting DNA domains control the pnt P2 promoter activity, one is an activator, the other a repressor. Enhancers directing tissue specific pnt P2 expression are located 3' to the first P2 exon within intronic sequences. Heteroallelic complementation reveals that the pnt gene product is required during eye, wing and haltere development.
          The pnt gene product is involved in the specification of the glial-neuronal interactions. The pnt locus has a complex organisation, it encodes two putative ETS-like transcription factors that are expressed in different non-overlapping sets of glial cells in the CNS.
          pnt has been cloned, sequenced and its RNA expression pattern characterised.
          pnt gene product is required for the proper development of the ventralmost cuticle and the CNS midline.
          Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
          rho, pnt, S and spi all function in the formation of the same chordotonal organs.
          pnt mutants display a pointed head skeleton and deletion of the medial portion in all denticle belts.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 91 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
          KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (55)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          Ets2
          Ets58AB
          Ets94F
          ets94F
          l(3)07825
          l(3)j1B7
          pnt
          (Duncan et al., 2018, Powers and Srivastava, 2018, Reichardt et al., 2018, Schwarz et al., 2018, Webber et al., 2018, Bhattacharya et al., 2017, Fochler et al., 2017, Forés et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Janssens et al., 2017, Liu et al., 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Revaitis et al., 2017, Rohde et al., 2017, Suisse et al., 2017, Wang et al., 2017, Altenhein et al., 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Jin et al., 2016, Kalay et al., 2016, Malartre, 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Testa and Dworkin, 2016, Xie et al., 2016, Garlapow et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Jin et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Slack et al., 2015, Xia et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Baril et al., 2014, Boisclair Lachance et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Tchankouo-Nguetcheu et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Caviglia and Luschnig, 2013, Cheung et al., 2013, Curtis et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Paul et al., 2013, Riebli et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Shwartz et al., 2013, Slattery et al., 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Tian et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Butchar et al., 2012, Herranz et al., 2012, Herz et al., 2012, Jones et al., 2012, Mackay et al., 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Mou et al., 2012, Nawaz et al., 2012, Simakov et al., 2012, Spokony, 2012.12.12, Technau et al., 2012, Tie et al., 2012, Verma et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Weng et al., 2012, Araújo and Casanova, 2011, Bantignies et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Fulkerson and Estes, 2011, Ghabrial et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Moses et al., 2011, Sun et al., 2011, Wertheim et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhu et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Becalska and Gavis, 2010, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2010, Hsouna et al., 2010, Jiang et al., 2010, Kerman and Andrew, 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Morozova et al., 2010, Rendina et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Sonnenfeld et al., 2010, Zhan et al., 2010, Baker et al., 2009, Baltzer et al., 2009, Debat et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Flaherty et al., 2009, Franzdóttir et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Lachance et al., 2009, Lembong et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Mortimer and Moberg, 2009, Read et al., 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Tsubouchi et al., 2009, Zartman et al., 2009, Berger et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, McNeill et al., 2008, Turner et al., 2008, Weber et al., 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Zartman et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Devergne et al., 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Geng and MacDonald, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Jakobsen et al., 2007, Junion et al., 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Maeda et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Sukhanova et al., 2007, Tseng et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Brown et al., 2006, Carmena et al., 2006, Charroux et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Estrada et al., 2006, Ghabrial and Krasnow, 2006, Liu et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Oishi et al., 2006, Paul et al., 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Sellin et al., 2006, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Apitz et al., 2005, Cabernard and Affolter, 2005, Dutta et al., 2005, Firth and Baker, 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Liebl and Featherstone, 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Melen et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Brodu et al., 2004, Meignin et al., 2004, Rawlings et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, zur Lage et al., 2004, Chang et al., 2003, Lavenburg et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001, Pickeral et al., 2000)
          Name Synonyms
          Ets at 58AB
          Ets protein Pointed P2
          Pointed-P2
          no terminal cell clones-R
          pointed P2
          pointed-P2
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0004060
          • FBgn0005657
          • FBgn0010925
          • FBgn0011309
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
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          References (650)