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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pnt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pointed
Annotation Symbol
CG17077
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003118
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
PntP1, PntP2, D-ets-2, pointedP2, pointed-P1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:23,290,231..23,346,167 [-]
Recombination map
3-78
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the ETS family. (P51023)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ETS DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The E26 transformation specific (ETS) domain transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. These factors are characterized by a conserved 85 amino acid DNA binding ETS domain that binds specifically to purine-rich DNA motif GGAA/T. (Adapted from PMID:11715049 and PMID:9570133).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
ETS transcription factor with a prominent role during development of the eye and the nervous system (PubMed:8223245, PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412, PubMed:28245922). Required for glial-neuronal cell interactions at the ventral midline which are necessary for the proper elaboration of commissures in the embryonic CNS (PubMed:8223245). Isoform P2: Required for normal EGFR-induced photoreceptor development probably as a downstream effector of Ras85D (PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412). In larval eye imaginal disks, activated by MAPK phosphorylation following EGFR activation, induces transcription of isoform P1 which in turn activates transcription of target genes essential for photoreceptor development (PubMed:23757412). Isoform P1: Required for normal EGFR-induced photoreceptor development (PubMed:23757412). Following transcriptional activation by isoform P2, acts as a constitutive activator of transcription, leading to induction of target genes essential for photoreceptor development (PubMed:8033205, PubMed:23757412). In larval brains, involved in the maintenance of type II neuroblast self-renewal and identity together with brat, btd and pros; prevents intermediate neuronal progenitor (INP) dedifferentiation by regulating the expression of erm probably via Notch signaling; suppresses Ase expression in type II neuroblasts and promotes the generation of intermediate neuronal progenitors (PubMed:22143802, PubMed:27151950, PubMed:27510969, PubMed:28899667, PubMed:28245922).
(UniProt, P51023)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ets2: Ets-2 proto-oncogene homologue
Encodes a Drosophila homologue to the ets gene from the avian erythroblastosis retrovirus E26. mRNA constitutively present in all developmental stages, with elevated levels of expression in 0-9-hr embryos and pupae.
pnt: pointed
Homozygous lethal. Zygotic expression in embryo. Head skeleton of embryo pointed; median part of all denticle bands deleted. CNS broad and less dense than wild type. Sensory organs (maxillary, antennal, and Keilin's organs) spread.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - ets family - a target of Egf signaling - required for the differentiation of glial cells in the ventral nerve cord - required downstream of Ras in the development of the eye prevents both premature differentiation and dedifferentiation of Drosophila intermediate neural progenitors
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pnt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pnt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089717
4074
718
FBtr0089715
2996
623
FBtr0089716
2805
636
FBtr0334554
3715
625
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.2, 4.0 (northern blot)
4.4 (northern blot)
4.7 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088658
77.7
718
6.60
FBpp0088656
66.9
623
6.72
FBpp0088657
69.9
636
6.69
FBpp0306621
67.0
625
6.72
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
718, 623 (aa); 78, 67 (kD predicted)
Comments
The P2 pnt protein, which has a single MAP kinase phosphorylation site motif, is phosphorylated by rl MAP kinase in vitro.
The amino acid sequences of various Ets gene family members were studied to determine evolutionary relatedness. Phylogenetic trees were derived.
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Isoform P2: Phosphorylated at Thr-151 by rl.
(UniProt, P51023)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pnt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (44 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (38 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (36 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:aop; FB:FBgn0000097
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:foxo; FB:FBgn0038197
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P08646
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P11346
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24324
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24266
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q01071
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q26263
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P07207
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P07207,UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P29617
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24266
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218930
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism | anterior | dorsal

Comment: dorsal anterior tip of embryo

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
pnt mRNA is highly enriched in the lysate extracted from larval brains enriched with type II neuroblasts.
Transcript is expressed in the intermediate groups and R8 photoreceptor equivalence groups of the developing retina.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
During induction of bract cells in pupae, pnt is initially upregulated in all cells adjacent to bristle lineage cells at 30h APF, but it is highest in the bract cell and is lost from other cells by 36h APF.
pnt expression is observed in three or four rows of medial neurepithelial cells in the optic lobe, some of which also express l(1)sc through the third instar larval stage, indicating that the Egfr signal is activated in neuroepithelial cells at and
near the proneural wave. pnt is also observed in lamina glial cells in late third instar. The pattern is complementary to aop.
pnt expression is observed in the Bolwig organ primordium from embryonic stage 10/11 to stage 12/13 and is gone by stage 15.
With an antibody that detects both pnt protein isoforms, pnt protein is detected in the nuclei of ommatidial precursor cells. In a background that is mutant for the 718 amino acid P2 isoform, most all nuclear staining is eliminated, except for clusters of nuclei in the morphogenetic furrow, and scattered nuclei in the posterior part of the eye. This staining presumably corresponds to the P1 isoform, and is in good agreement with the distribution of the P1 transcript.
With an antibody that detects both pnt protein isoforms, pnt protein is detected in the nuclei of ommatidial precursor cells. In a background that is mutant for the 718 amino acid P2 isoform, most all nuclear staining is eliminated, except for clusters of nuclei in the morphogenetic furrow, and scattered nuclei in the posterior part of the eye. This staining presumably corresponds to the P1 isoform, and is in good agreement with the distribution of the P1 transcript. In photoreceptor precursors, the appearance of pnt P2 protein precedes the appearance of elav protein, and after about 4-6 hours of co-expression, pnt P2 protein is no longer detected.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}pntrM254
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}pnt14-94
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pnt1277
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pntS060807a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}pntS099812
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}pnt07825
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pnt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 102 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pnt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pnt
Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic/larval dorsal branch & terminal tracheal cell | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
11 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
 
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (19)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (10)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905I0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508GT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0B5K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0B32 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0HJF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-78
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:23,290,231..23,346,167 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    94E9-94E13
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}cnc03921 and P{PZ}l(3)0690606906
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    94F1-94F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    94F-94F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    94F1-94F3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    94F1-94F3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 94F (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    64A4-64A5
    68C12--13 94F1--3
    94E-94F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    58A-58B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Cytological location differs from that reported in FBrf0047835. It is based upon hybridisation with two independent cDNA clones.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (55)
    Genomic Clones (29)
    cDNA Clones (82)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    The pnt-P1 isoform prevents both the premature differentiation and the de-differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors in the type II neuroblast lineage.
    pnt is required cell-autonomously along the dorsal midline to repress dorsal appendage fate.
    The pnt SAM domain is the docking surface for rl and this docking surface is essential for pnt-mediated enhancement of transactivation in response to Ras85D signaling.
    S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
    pnt activates ZAM expression in follicle cells.
    pnr and pntP2 act sequentially to regulate heart development.
    The pnt protein isoform is an activator of stg mRNA transcription in the eye disc.
    Seven EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
    Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
    pnt is required for morphogenesis of the posterior midgut and is a target of abd-A.
    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
    ttk is required for proper glial cell development in the CNS. Phenotypes of doubly mutant ttk and pnt embryos and ectopic expression of ttk and pnt indicates the existance of two independent genetic pathways regulating glial cell development, which in the lateral glia are both downstream of gcm. One, mediated via pnt, results in the activation of glia cell differentiation, whereas the other, mediated by ttk, results in the suppression of neuronal differentiation in these cells.
    In the midline glial cells pntP2 has to be activated by phosphorylation, possibly through rl, to induce transcription of its target genes. aop antagonises pntP2 function in the midline glial cells. Jra and pntP2 do not cooperate during midline glia development.
    In vivo culture of mutant discs from genotypes that are normally embryonic lethal demonstrates pnt is required for wing disc growth.
    The primary target genes of Egfr are pnt, vnd and Fas3, these are induced in different ectodermal domains. Secondary target genes oc, argos and trn are activated by pnt in response to Egfr signalling. The proper induction of these genes requires the concomitant inactivation of aop, mediated by Egfr signalling.
    Inactivated mutations of Ras85D enhance the P{sevhs-cswCS} phenotype.
    pros gene becomes transcriptionally activated at a low level in all sev-competent cells prior to sev signaling and this requires the activities of Ras85D and two ETS transcription factors, aop and pnt.
    pnt is required in dorsal follicle cells for patterning of the cell layer into either appendage-producing or midline cells. Loss of pnt results in the loss of midline cells and an excess of appendage-forming cells, a phenotype associated with overactivation of the EGF receptor pathway in the dorsal region. Overexpression of pnt leads to a phenotype similar to that generated by loss of the EGF receptor pathway. Data indicates a novel antagonistic function for pnt in oogenesis: in response to activation of the EGF receptor pnt is expressed and negatively regulates the EGF receptor pathway, possibly by integrating information from a second pathway.
    The pnt transcription factor is required for secondary branching and also to activate expression of terminal branch markers.
    Jra cooperates with the ETS domain pnt gene product to act on common target genes which induce photoreceptor R7 fate in the developing eye. phyl might be one of the target genes.
    MAP kinase activity, encoded by the rl locus, induces neuronal differentiation by simultaneously inhibiting the aop repressor and stimulating the pnt activator.
    pnt is required for neuronal glial cell interactions: loss of function mutations lead to a change in the migration behavior of the midline glial cells.
    Two different and distinct trans-acting DNA domains control the pnt P2 promoter activity, one is an activator, the other a repressor. Enhancers directing tissue specific pnt P2 expression are located 3' to the first P2 exon within intronic sequences. Heteroallelic complementation reveals that the pnt gene product is required during eye, wing and haltere development.
    The pnt gene product is involved in the specification of the glial-neuronal interactions. The pnt locus has a complex organisation, it encodes two putative ETS-like transcription factors that are expressed in different non-overlapping sets of glial cells in the CNS.
    pnt has been cloned, sequenced and its RNA expression pattern characterised.
    pnt gene product is required for the proper development of the ventralmost cuticle and the CNS midline.
    Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
    rho, pnt, S and spi all function in the formation of the same chordotonal organs.
    pnt mutants display a pointed head skeleton and deletion of the medial portion in all denticle belts.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 96 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (57)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Ets2
    Ets58AB
    Ets94F
    ets94F
    l(3)07825
    l(3)j1B7
    pnt
    (Chai et al., 2019, Kockel et al., 2019, Mazaud et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Wittes and Schüpbach, 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Zhou et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Boisclair Lachance et al., 2018, Davie et al., 2018, Du et al., 2018, Duncan et al., 2018, Powers and Srivastava, 2018, Reichardt et al., 2018, Schwarz et al., 2018, Webber et al., 2018, Bhattacharya et al., 2017, Fochler et al., 2017, Forés et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Janssens et al., 2017, Liu et al., 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Revaitis et al., 2017, Rohde et al., 2017, Suisse et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wang et al., 2017, Altenhein et al., 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Jin et al., 2016, Kalay et al., 2016, Malartre, 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Testa and Dworkin, 2016, Xie et al., 2016, Garlapow et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Jin et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Slack et al., 2015, Xia et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Baril et al., 2014, Boisclair Lachance et al., 2014, Fauré et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Tchankouo-Nguetcheu et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Caviglia and Luschnig, 2013, Cheung et al., 2013, Curtis et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Paul et al., 2013, Riebli et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Shwartz et al., 2013, Slattery et al., 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Tian et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Avet-Rochex et al., 2012, Butchar et al., 2012, Herranz et al., 2012, Herz et al., 2012, Jones et al., 2012, Mackay et al., 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Mou et al., 2012, Nawaz et al., 2012, Simakov et al., 2012, Spokony, 2012.12.12, Technau et al., 2012, Tie et al., 2012, Verma et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Weng et al., 2012, Araújo and Casanova, 2011, Bantignies et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Fulkerson and Estes, 2011, Ghabrial et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Moses et al., 2011, Sun et al., 2011, Wertheim et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhu et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Becalska and Gavis, 2010, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2010, Hsouna et al., 2010, Jiang et al., 2010, Kerman and Andrew, 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Morozova et al., 2010, Rendina et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Sonnenfeld et al., 2010, Zhan et al., 2010, Baker et al., 2009, Baltzer et al., 2009, Debat et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Flaherty et al., 2009, Franzdóttir et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Lachance et al., 2009, Lembong et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Mortimer and Moberg, 2009, Read et al., 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Tsubouchi et al., 2009, Zartman et al., 2009, Berger et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, McNeill et al., 2008, Turner et al., 2008, Weber et al., 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Zartman et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Devergne et al., 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Geng and MacDonald, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Jakobsen et al., 2007, Junion et al., 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Maeda et al., 2007, Meignin et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Sukhanova et al., 2007, Tseng et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Brown et al., 2006, Carmena et al., 2006, Charroux et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Estrada et al., 2006, Ghabrial and Krasnow, 2006, Liu et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Oishi et al., 2006, Paul et al., 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Sellin et al., 2006, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Apitz et al., 2005, Cabernard and Affolter, 2005, Dutta et al., 2005, Firth and Baker, 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Liebl and Featherstone, 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Melen et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Brodu et al., 2004, Meignin et al., 2004, Rawlings et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, zur Lage et al., 2004, Chang et al., 2003, Lavenburg et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001, Pickeral et al., 2000)
    Name Synonyms
    Ets at 58AB
    Ets protein Pointed P2
    Pointed P1
    Pointed-P2
    no terminal cell clones-R
    pointed P2
    pointed-P2
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004060
    • FBgn0005657
    • FBgn0010925
    • FBgn0011309
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (675)