General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
purple
Annotation Symbol
CG16784
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003141
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (4.2.3.12)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
38B.9
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,073,719..20,075,458 [-]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the PTPS family. (P48611)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate = 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydropterin + triphosphate (4.2.3.12)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CARBON-OXYGEN LYASES, ACTING ON PHOSPHATES -
Carbon-oxygen lyases, acting on phosphates are a class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by elimination of a phosphate group. (Adapted from FBrf0238856).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Required for pigment and biopterin synthesis.
(UniProt, P48611)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
pr: purple
Eye color ruby at hatching, darkening to purplish ruby with age [Sturtevant and Beadle, 1939, An Introduction to Genetics, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London, p. 64 (plate I)]; orange in combination with st, reddish brown in combination with bw (Mainz, 1938). pr eye color autonomous in larval optic disks transplanted into wild-type hosts (Beadle and Ephrussi, 1936, Genetics 21: 230). Larval Malpighian tubules wild-type in color (Beadle, 1937, Genetics 22: 587-611). Mutants deficient in pteridines (Hadorn and Mitchell, 1951, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 37: 650-65; Wilson and Jacobson, 1977; Yim et al., 1977); sepiapterin and the drosopterins are markedly reduced relative to wild type in pr1 and prbw (Wilson and Jacobson, 1977; Dorsett and Brown, 1982), the effect being greater in prbw than in pr1. The enzyme sepiapterin synthase A, which is involved in early steps leading to the synthesis of the drosopterins (Wiederrect et al., 1984a, 1984b), is most active in wild-type Drosophila in late pupae and young adults when sepiapterin accumulation begins and the eyes become pigmented (Krivi and Brown, 1979, Biochem. Genet. 17: 371-90). When pr+ has been translocated into the Y chromosome [Tp(2;Y)prC5], the Tp(2;Y)prC5, cn/prC4cn flies show a variegated eye color (Yim et al., 1977; Tobler et al., 1979) and the mutant late larvae and early pupae show a reduction in sepiapterin synthase A activity as compared to both wild-type and pr1 (Tobler et al., 1979). The suppressors su(s)2 and su(pr)e3 restore the pyrimidine level of pr1 and prbw to that of wild-type or nearly wild-type (Wilson and Jacobson, 1977; Yim et al., 1977).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089395
1073
168
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.3, 1.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088417
19.3
168
7.25
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
168 (aa); 19 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homohexamer formed of two homotrimers in a head to head fashion.
(UniProt, P48611)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (4 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000287393
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000287393
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000287347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of pr
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pr
      Allele of pr
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pr
      Deletions and Duplications ( 88 )
      Disrupted in
      Phenotypes
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
       
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      13 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
      12 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
      2 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
      9 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190GZE )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150C9K )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0GP3 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0HIM )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0TKH )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        suppressible
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Homohexamer formed of two homotrimers in a head to head fashion.
        (UniProt, P48611 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        External Data
        Linkouts
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        2L
        Recombination map
        2-54
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        2L:20,073,719..20,075,458 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        38B3-38B3
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}barrk14014 and P{EP}nebEP642
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (669)
        Genomic Clones (15)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (23)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments
          The P{lacW}l(2)k09314bk09314b insertion maps between pr and neb, mapping between the predicted neb promoter and transcription start site.
          Other Comments
          Transcription unit identified during molecular analysis of the neb genomic region.
          pr gene product is very complex and exists as higher multimeric forms.
          v pr mutants are able to synthesize xanthurenic acid 8-glucoside when fed with xanthuretic acid and the activity required for its synthesis via xanthuretic acid are found.
          The enzyme sepiapterin synthase A, is involved in early steps leading to the synthesis of the drosopterins.
          Sepiapterin and the drosopterins are markedly reduced relative to wild type in pr1 and prbw the effect being greater in prbw than in pr1.
          When pr+ has been translocated into the Y chromosome <up>T(Y;2)prC5</up>, the T(Y;2)prC5, cn1/prC4,cn1 flies show a variegated eye color.
          Mutants deficient in pteridines. Sepiapterin and the drosopterins are markedly reduced relative to wild type in pr1 and prbw, the effect being greater in prbw than in pr1. The suppressors su(s)2 and su(pr)3 restore the pyrimidine level of pr1 and prbw to that of wild-type or nearly wild-type.
          Mutants deficient in pteridines. When pr+ has been translocated into the Y chromosome <up>T(Y;2)prC5</up>, the T(Y;2)prC5, cn1/prC4, cn1 flies show a variegated eye color. The suppressors su(s)2 and su(pr)3 restore the pyrimidine level of pr1 and prbw to that of wild-type or nearly wild-type.
          Mutants deficient in pteridines.
          Eye color ruby at hatching, darkening to purplish ruby with age.
          Orange in combination with st, reddish brown in combination with bw.
          Larval Malpighian tubules wild-type in color.
          pr eye color autonomous in larval optic discs transplanted into wild-type hosts.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
          MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (130)