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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pu
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Punch
Annotation Symbol
CG9441
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003162
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (3.5.4.16)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

GTPCH, GTP cyclohydrolase, GTP cyclohydrolase I, unpigmented, upi

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:21,175,315..21,182,608 [+]
Recombination map

2-93

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:21175315..21182608
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the GTP cyclohydrolase I family. (P48596)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
GTP + H(2)O = formate + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3- trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphate (3.5.4.16)
Predictions / Assertions
GTP + H(2)O = formate + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3- trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphate (3.5.4.16)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Isoform B is required for eye pigment production, Isoform C may be required for normal embryonic development and segment pattern formation.
(UniProt, P48596)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Pu: Punch
The structural gene for guanosine triphosphate 7,8-8,9-dehydrolase = GTP cyclohydrolase [GTP CH (EC 3.5.4.16)], which catalyzes the first step in pteridine biosynthesis, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin with the release of formic acid; GTP CH activity proportional to the number of Pu+ alleles. Purification and characterization by Weisberg and O'Donnell (1986, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 1453-58); the active complex has an apparent molecular mass of 575,000 daltons comprised of 39,000-dalton subunits. Developmentally regulated with a short-lived activity peak at or shortly before eclosion; 80-90% of activity found in the head; activity not detectable in embryos. Dominant alleles are embryonic lethal as homozygotes and in heterozygotes produce dilute purple eye color; Appear to be antimorphic in that GTP CH activity in heterozygotes reduced to less than the 50% normal levels observed in deficiency heterozygotes, at least in adult tissues, and is but 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to the mutant allele, two doses of Pu+. Most are associated with a chromosome rearrangement with one breakpoint in 57 and the other in or near centric heterochromatin. A few recessive alleles are viable and fertile and exhibit reduced GTP CH activity in the head but normal or near-normal levels in prepupae and adult body; however, the majority are embryonic lethals and have reduced activity in prepupae, adult body, and head when heterozygous with viable alleles; rare lethal alleles are defective in neither eye-pigment production nor in postembryonic enzyme activity. Viable alleles complement lethal alleles for viability, at least partially; in combination with each other and with lethal alleles they display a wide range of eye pigmentation; some pairs of lethal alleles complement fully or partially for both viability and eye color; prepupal enzyme levels are variably reduced in these combinations in ways that are uncorrelated with survival; heteroallelic survivors are fertile; heteroallelic survival markedly reduced or absent when reared at 16. Homozygous deficiencies [Df(2R)F36] die as fully formed larvae, but prior to hatching; mouth parts and setae completely unpigmented; setae and sensory structures poorly differentiated; cuticle thin and fragile; head involution and differentiation frequently incomplete, beginning at the time of germ-band shortening. Class II mutants display variably similar phenotypes as do class III alleles, but to a less severe extent. 50% of class V mutants die before blastoderm, the remaining 50% dying during late embryogenesis, but with fully pigmented mouth parts and setae and with normal head development; fusions and deletions of abdominal denticle belts, or the normal number of belts, but all of identically abnormal structure, retaining only the two posterior setal rows; pre-blastoderm nuclear divisions asynchronous, abnormally distributed in embryos, and nuclei misshapen (Reynolds and O'Donnell, 1987, Genetics 116: s14). Embryos homozygous for class IV alleles resemble class V mutants, but with additional features characteristic of class II embryos, including unpigmented setae and mouth parts. In crosses of class V bearing genotypes to Df(2R)F36/+, the Df(2R)F36/Pu embryos resemble class V embryos when the deficiency is maternally inherited and deficiency homozygotes when the Pu allele is maternally inherited.
Pu2
Eye color of Pu2/+ purplish, resembling pr; GTP CH activity reduced to less than 50% normal levels, in prepupae, adult body, and adult head, i.e. lower than observed in deficiency heterozygotes. Activity 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to Pu2, two doses of Pu+; Homozygous lethal with death occurring in the embryonic stage; slight transient dilution of eye color in such heterozygotes at eclosion.
PuK5-2
Slightly dominant eye-color phenotype. Survives in heterozygous combination with SM1, but behaves as a dominant lethal or displays delayed development in combination with most other second chromosomes tested.
Pur1
Homozygous viable recessive allele. GTP CH activity moderately reduced in prepupae and nearly normal in adult bodies of homozygotes; activity appears to be virtually absent in adult heads. Slight transient dilution of eye color in freshly emerged heterozygotes.
Pur331
Homozygous viable recessive allele. GTP CH activity in Pur331/Pu+ same as wild type; somewhat reduced in homozygotes.
PurP43
Homozygous lethal; however, GTP CH activity in heterozygotes nearly normal. In heteroallelic combination with PurZ19 the enzyme produced is unstable at 53; other combinations produce relatively heat-stable enzyme.
PuSHC
Similar to but less severe that that of PuK5-2. Apparent dominant lethal effects more severe when inherited maternally than when inherited paternally.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pu or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pu for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.39

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071580
1793
324
FBtr0071578
1625
273
FBtr0071579
1744
308
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.75, 1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071507
35.5
324
6.60
FBpp0071505
29.8
273
6.31
FBpp0071506
33.9
308
6.24
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

308, 274 (aa); 40, 39 (kD observed); 34, 30 (kD predicted)

Comments

The Pu antibody detects a 52 kD protein in 0-2 hr embryos.

Pu+P274 is hydrophobic, while Pu+P308 has a unique hydrophilic region.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Toroid-shaped homodecamer, composed of two pentamers of five dimers.

(UniProt, P48596)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pu using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001474, InterPro:IPR018234
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The Pu protein is detected in the nurse cell cytoplasm in stage S10B of oogenesis, and has been transferred to granules in the oocyte cytoplasm at stage S14 of oogenesis. The level of Pu protein is high in the unfertilized egg, declines through early embryogenesis, and is not detected after cellularization.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pu in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye (with Pu1)
eye (with Purv)
wing (with Pu1)
wing (with Purv)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CJ4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AN4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AEU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0ABE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0PCE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Toroid-shaped homodecamer, composed of two pentamers of five dimers.
    (UniProt, P48596 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-93

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:21,175,315..21,182,608 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    57C7-57C8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG4266EP2258 and P{EP}CG30394EP962&P{lacW}domk08108
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    57C-57C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (60)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    Recessive alleles are superscripted 'r' and revertants 'rv'.

    Other Comments

    The expression pattern of Pu protein in wild-type and mutant embryos has been determined.

    Pu has been cloned and sequenced, and the genomic organisation of the Pu locus has been characterised.

    Pu gene product is required for a vital functions at two distinct stages of embryogenesis and a pigmentation function in the eyes of young adults.

    Enzyme assays were used to determine if Aph and sepiapterin were effective inhibitors of Pu gene product.

    Germline clone analysis demonstrates that a product of the Pu locus is required during embryogenesis. The germline function of Pu is autonomous. Embryos derived from homozygous null clones can be rescued by a wild type paternal gene product.

    A mutant of Pu has been shown to influence the level of in vivo detectable 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroperin and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobioperin.

    A morphological analysis of Pu has been performed to define the early functions of the Pu locus. Pu has a late embryonic phenotype: loss of Pu function and an early embryonic phenotype: maternal and zygotic components and a segmentation pattern defect.

    Mutations at this locus comprise a complex of viable and lethal, recessive and dominant, complementing and noncomplementing alleles with different stage and tissue specific defects. A complementation map has been constructed, but recombinational fine structure has not been determined.

    The structural gene for guanosine triphosphate 7,8-8,9-dehydrolase = GTP cyclohydrolase (GTP CH) which catalyzes the first step in pteridine biosynthesis, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin with the release of formic acid; GTP CH activity proportional to the number of Pu+ alleles. Purification and characterization by Weisberg and O'Donnell (1986); the active complex has an apparent molecular mass of 575,000 daltons comprised of 39,000-dalton subunits. Developmentally regulated with a short-lived activity peak at or shortly before eclosion; 80-90% of activity found in the head; activity not detectable in embryos. Dominant alleles are embryonic lethal as homozygotes and in heterozygotes produce dilute purple eye color; Appear to be antimorphic in that GTP CH activity in heterozygotes reduced to less than the 50% normal levels observed in deficiency heterozygotes, at least in adult tissues and is but 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to the mutant allele, two doses of Pu+. Most are associated with a chromosome rearrangement with one breakpoint in 57 and the other in or near centric heterochromatin. A few recessive alleles are viable and fertile and exhibit reduced GTP CH activity in the head but normal or near-normal levels in prepupae and adult body; however, the majority are embryonic lethals and have reduced activity in prepupae, adult body and head when heterozygous with viable alleles; rare lethal alleles are defective in neither eye-pigment production nor in postembryonic enzyme activity. Viable alleles complement lethal alleles for viability, at least partially; in combination with each other and with lethal alleles they display a wide range of eye pigmentation; some pairs of lethal alleles complement fully or partially for both viability and eye color; prepupal enzyme levels are variably reduced in these combinations in ways that are uncorrelated with survival; heteroallelic survivors are fertile; heteroallelic survival markedly reduced or absent when reared at 16oC. Homozygous deficiencies Df(2R)F36 die as fully formed larvae, but prior to hatching; mouth parts and setae completely unpigmented; setae and sensory structures poorly differentiated; cuticle thin and fragile; head involution and differentiation frequently incomplete, beginning at the time of germ-band shortening. Class II mutants display variably similar phenotypes as do class III alleles, but to a less severe extent. 50% of class V mutants die before blastoderm, the remaining 50% dying during late embryogenesis, but with fully pigmented mouth parts and setae and with normal head development; fusions and deletions of abdominal denticle belts, or the normal number of belts, but all of identically abnormal structure, retaining only the two posterior setal rows; preblastoderm nuclear divisions asynchronous, abnormally distributed in embryos, and nuclei misshapen (Reynolds and O'Donnell, 1987). Embryos homozygous for class IV alleles resemble class V mutants, but with additional features characteristic of class II embryos, including unpigmented setae and mouth parts. In crosses of class V bearing genotypes to Df(2R)F36/+, the Df(2R)F36/Pu embryos resemble class V embryos when the deficiency is maternally inherited and deficiency homozygotes when the Pu allele is maternally inherited.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 76 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (174)