General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pu
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Punch
Annotation Symbol
CG9441
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003162
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (3.5.4.16)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
GTPCH, upi
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:21,175,315..21,182,608 [+]
Recombination map
2-93
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the GTP cyclohydrolase I family. (P48596)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
GTP + H(2)O = formate + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3- trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphate (3.5.4.16)
Predictions / Assertions
GTP + H(2)O = formate + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3- trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphate (3.5.4.16)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Isoform B is required for eye pigment production, Isoform C may be required for normal embryonic development and segment pattern formation.
(UniProt, P48596)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Pu: Punch
The structural gene for guanosine triphosphate 7,8-8,9-dehydrolase = GTP cyclohydrolase [GTP CH (EC 3.5.4.16)], which catalyzes the first step in pteridine biosynthesis, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin with the release of formic acid; GTP CH activity proportional to the number of Pu+ alleles. Purification and characterization by Weisberg and O'Donnell (1986, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 1453-58); the active complex has an apparent molecular mass of 575,000 daltons comprised of 39,000-dalton subunits. Developmentally regulated with a short-lived activity peak at or shortly before eclosion; 80-90% of activity found in the head; activity not detectable in embryos. Dominant alleles are embryonic lethal as homozygotes and in heterozygotes produce dilute purple eye color; Appear to be antimorphic in that GTP CH activity in heterozygotes reduced to less than the 50% normal levels observed in deficiency heterozygotes, at least in adult tissues, and is but 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to the mutant allele, two doses of Pu+. Most are associated with a chromosome rearrangement with one breakpoint in 57 and the other in or near centric heterochromatin. A few recessive alleles are viable and fertile and exhibit reduced GTP CH activity in the head but normal or near-normal levels in prepupae and adult body; however, the majority are embryonic lethals and have reduced activity in prepupae, adult body, and head when heterozygous with viable alleles; rare lethal alleles are defective in neither eye-pigment production nor in postembryonic enzyme activity. Viable alleles complement lethal alleles for viability, at least partially; in combination with each other and with lethal alleles they display a wide range of eye pigmentation; some pairs of lethal alleles complement fully or partially for both viability and eye color; prepupal enzyme levels are variably reduced in these combinations in ways that are uncorrelated with survival; heteroallelic survivors are fertile; heteroallelic survival markedly reduced or absent when reared at 16. Homozygous deficiencies [Df(2R)F36] die as fully formed larvae, but prior to hatching; mouth parts and setae completely unpigmented; setae and sensory structures poorly differentiated; cuticle thin and fragile; head involution and differentiation frequently incomplete, beginning at the time of germ-band shortening. Class II mutants display variably similar phenotypes as do class III alleles, but to a less severe extent. 50% of class V mutants die before blastoderm, the remaining 50% dying during late embryogenesis, but with fully pigmented mouth parts and setae and with normal head development; fusions and deletions of abdominal denticle belts, or the normal number of belts, but all of identically abnormal structure, retaining only the two posterior setal rows; pre-blastoderm nuclear divisions asynchronous, abnormally distributed in embryos, and nuclei misshapen (Reynolds and O'Donnell, 1987, Genetics 116: s14). Embryos homozygous for class IV alleles resemble class V mutants, but with additional features characteristic of class II embryos, including unpigmented setae and mouth parts. In crosses of class V bearing genotypes to Df(2R)F36/+, the Df(2R)F36/Pu embryos resemble class V embryos when the deficiency is maternally inherited and deficiency homozygotes when the Pu allele is maternally inherited.
Pu2
Eye color of Pu2/+ purplish, resembling pr; GTP CH activity reduced to less than 50% normal levels, in prepupae, adult body, and adult head, i.e. lower than observed in deficiency heterozygotes. Activity 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to Pu2, two doses of Pu+; Homozygous lethal with death occurring in the embryonic stage; slight transient dilution of eye color in such heterozygotes at eclosion.
PuK5-2
Slightly dominant eye-color phenotype. Survives in heterozygous combination with SM1, but behaves as a dominant lethal or displays delayed development in combination with most other second chromosomes tested.
Pur1
Homozygous viable recessive allele. GTP CH activity moderately reduced in prepupae and nearly normal in adult bodies of homozygotes; activity appears to be virtually absent in adult heads. Slight transient dilution of eye color in freshly emerged heterozygotes.
Pur331
Homozygous viable recessive allele. GTP CH activity in Pur331/Pu+ same as wild type; somewhat reduced in homozygotes.
PurP43
Homozygous lethal; however, GTP CH activity in heterozygotes nearly normal. In heteroallelic combination with PurZ19 the enzyme produced is unstable at 53; other combinations produce relatively heat-stable enzyme.
PuSHC
Similar to but less severe that that of PuK5-2. Apparent dominant lethal effects more severe when inherited maternally than when inherited paternally.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pu or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pu for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071580
1793
324
FBtr0071578
1625
273
FBtr0071579
1744
308
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.75, 1.7 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071507
35.5
324
6.60
FBpp0071505
29.8
273
6.31
FBpp0071506
33.9
308
6.24
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
308, 274 (aa); 40, 39 (kD observed); 34, 30 (kD predicted)
Comments
The Pu antibody detects a 52 kD protein in 0-2 hr embryos.
Pu+P274 is hydrophobic, while Pu+P308 has a unique hydrophilic region.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Toroid-shaped homodecamer, composed of two pentamers of five dimers.
(UniProt, P48596)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pu using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001474, InterPro:IPR018234
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000121833
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The Pu protein is detected in the nurse cell cytoplasm in stage S10B of oogenesis, and has been transferred to granules in the oocyte cytoplasm at stage S14 of oogenesis. The level of Pu protein is high in the unfertilized egg, declines through early embryogenesis, and is not detected after cellularization.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pu in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 77 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Pu
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
              Other relevant insertions
              Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
              Deletions and Duplications ( 20 )
              Summary of Phenotypes
              For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
              Lethality
              Allele
              Sterility
              Allele
              Other Phenotypes
              Allele
              Phenotype manifest in
              Allele
              eye (with Pu1)
              eye (with Purv)
              wing (with Pu1)
              wing (with Purv)
              Orthologs
              Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
              Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
              Species\Gene Symbol
              Score
              Best Score
              Best Reverse Score
              Alignment
              Complementation?
              Transgene?
              15 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
              Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
              Species\Gene Symbol
              Score
              Best Score
              Best Reverse Score
              Alignment
              Complementation?
              Transgene?
              14 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
              13 of 13
              Yes
              Yes
              Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
              12 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              1 of 12
              No
              Yes
              Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
              12 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              10 of 15
              No
              Yes
              Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
              15 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
              5 of 9
              Yes
              Yes
              Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
              14 of 15
              Yes
              Yes
              Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
              12 of 12
              Yes
              Yes
              Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CJ4 )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              AAA Syntenic Ortholog
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Drosophila melanogaster
              fruit fly
              Drosophila suzukii
              Spotted wing Drosophila
              Drosophila simulans
              Drosophila sechellia
              Drosophila erecta
              Drosophila yakuba
              Drosophila ananassae
              Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
              Drosophila persimilis
              Drosophila willistoni
              Drosophila virilis
              Drosophila mojavensis
              Drosophila grimshawi
              Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AN4 )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Musca domestica
              House fly
              Glossina morsitans
              Tsetse fly
              Lucilia cuprina
              Australian sheep blowfly
              Mayetiola destructor
              Hessian fly
              Mayetiola destructor
              Hessian fly
              Aedes aegypti
              Yellow fever mosquito
              Anopheles darlingi
              American malaria mosquito
              Anopheles gambiae
              Malaria mosquito
              Culex quinquefasciatus
              Southern house mosquito
              Culex quinquefasciatus
              Southern house mosquito
              Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AEU )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Bombyx mori
              Silkmoth
              Danaus plexippus
              Monarch butterfly
              Apis florea
              Little honeybee
              Apis florea
              Little honeybee
              Apis mellifera
              Western honey bee
              Bombus impatiens
              Common eastern bumble bee
              Bombus terrestris
              Buff-tailed bumblebee
              Linepithema humile
              Argentine ant
              Megachile rotundata
              Alfalfa leafcutting bee
              Nasonia vitripennis
              Parasitic wasp
              Dendroctonus ponderosae
              Mountain pine beetle
              Dendroctonus ponderosae
              Mountain pine beetle
              Tribolium castaneum
              Red flour beetle
              Pediculus humanus
              Human body louse
              Rhodnius prolixus
              Kissing bug
              Rhodnius prolixus
              Kissing bug
              Cimex lectularius
              Bed bug
              Acyrthosiphon pisum
              Pea aphid
              Zootermopsis nevadensis
              Nevada dampwood termite
              Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0ABE )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Strigamia maritima
              European centipede
              Ixodes scapularis
              Black-legged tick
              Stegodyphus mimosarum
              African social velvet spider
              Tetranychus urticae
              Two-spotted spider mite
              Daphnia pulex
              Water flea
              Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0PCE )
              Organism
              Common Name
              Gene
              Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
              Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
              Purple sea urchin
              Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
              Purple sea urchin
              Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
              Purple sea urchin
              Ciona intestinalis
              Vase tunicate
              Ciona intestinalis
              Vase tunicate
              Gallus gallus
              Domestic chicken
              Human Disease Model Data
              FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                Download
                Models ( 0 )
                Allele
                Disease
                Evidence
                References
                Interactions ( 0 )
                Allele
                Disease
                Interaction
                References
                Comments ( 0 )
                 
                Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                Homo sapiens (Human)
                Gene name
                Score
                OMIM
                OMIM Phenotype
                Complementation?
                Transgene?
                Functional Complementation Data
                Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                Interactions
                Summary of Physical Interactions
                esyN Network Diagram
                Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                Select Layout:
                Legend:
                Protein
                RNA
                Selected Interactor(s)
                Interactions Browser

                Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                protein-protein
                Interacting group
                Assay
                References
                Summary of Genetic Interactions
                esyN Network Diagram
                esyN Network Key:
                Suppression
                Enhancement

                Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                Starting gene(s)
                Interaction type
                Interacting gene(s)
                Reference
                Starting gene(s)
                Interaction type
                Interacting gene(s)
                Reference
                External Data
                Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
                Toroid-shaped homodecamer, composed of two pentamers of five dimers.
                (UniProt, P48596 )
                Linkouts
                BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                Pathways
                Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                External Data
                Linkouts
                KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
                Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
                Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                Chromosome (arm)
                2R
                Recombination map
                2-93
                Cytogenetic map
                Sequence location
                2R:21,175,315..21,182,608 [+]
                FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                Cytogenetic map
                Evidence for location
                57C7-57C8
                Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG4266EP2258 and P{EP}CG30394EP962&P{lacW}domk08108
                Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                Cytogenetic map
                Notes
                References
                57C-57C
                (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                Left of (cM)
                Right of (cM)
                Notes
                Stocks and Reagents
                Stocks (26)
                Genomic Clones (10)
                 

                Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

                cDNA Clones (60)
                 

                Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                cDNA clones, fully sequences
                BDGP DGC clones
                Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                RNAi and Array Information
                Linkouts
                DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                Antibody Information
                Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                 
                polyclonal
                Commercially Available Antibodies
                 
                Other Information
                Relationship to Other Genes
                Source for database identify of
                Source for database merge of
                Additional comments
                Recessive alleles are superscripted 'r' and revertants 'rv'.
                Other Comments
                The expression pattern of Pu protein in wild-type and mutant embryos has been determined.
                Pu has been cloned and sequenced, and the genomic organisation of the Pu locus has been characterised.
                Pu gene product is required for a vital functions at two distinct stages of embryogenesis and a pigmentation function in the eyes of young adults.
                Enzyme assays were used to determine if Aph and sepiapterin were effective inhibitors of Pu gene product.
                Germline clone analysis demonstrates that a product of the Pu locus is required during embryogenesis. The germline function of Pu is autonomous. Embryos derived from homozygous null clones can be rescued by a wild type paternal gene product.
                A mutant of Pu has been shown to influence the level of in vivo detectable 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroperin and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobioperin.
                A morphological analysis of Pu has been performed to define the early functions of the Pu locus. Pu has a late embryonic phenotype: loss of Pu function and an early embryonic phenotype: maternal and zygotic components and a segmentation pattern defect.
                Mutations at this locus comprise a complex of viable and lethal, recessive and dominant, complementing and noncomplementing alleles with different stage and tissue specific defects. A complementation map has been constructed, but recombinational fine structure has not been determined.
                The structural gene for guanosine triphosphate 7,8-8,9-dehydrolase = GTP cyclohydrolase (GTP CH) which catalyzes the first step in pteridine biosynthesis, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin with the release of formic acid; GTP CH activity proportional to the number of Pu+ alleles. Purification and characterization by Weisberg and O'Donnell (1986); the active complex has an apparent molecular mass of 575,000 daltons comprised of 39,000-dalton subunits. Developmentally regulated with a short-lived activity peak at or shortly before eclosion; 80-90% of activity found in the head; activity not detectable in embryos. Dominant alleles are embryonic lethal as homozygotes and in heterozygotes produce dilute purple eye color; Appear to be antimorphic in that GTP CH activity in heterozygotes reduced to less than the 50% normal levels observed in deficiency heterozygotes, at least in adult tissues and is but 80% normal in genotypes that carry, in addition to the mutant allele, two doses of Pu+. Most are associated with a chromosome rearrangement with one breakpoint in 57 and the other in or near centric heterochromatin. A few recessive alleles are viable and fertile and exhibit reduced GTP CH activity in the head but normal or near-normal levels in prepupae and adult body; however, the majority are embryonic lethals and have reduced activity in prepupae, adult body and head when heterozygous with viable alleles; rare lethal alleles are defective in neither eye-pigment production nor in postembryonic enzyme activity. Viable alleles complement lethal alleles for viability, at least partially; in combination with each other and with lethal alleles they display a wide range of eye pigmentation; some pairs of lethal alleles complement fully or partially for both viability and eye color; prepupal enzyme levels are variably reduced in these combinations in ways that are uncorrelated with survival; heteroallelic survivors are fertile; heteroallelic survival markedly reduced or absent when reared at 16oC. Homozygous deficiencies Df(2R)F36 die as fully formed larvae, but prior to hatching; mouth parts and setae completely unpigmented; setae and sensory structures poorly differentiated; cuticle thin and fragile; head involution and differentiation frequently incomplete, beginning at the time of germ-band shortening. Class II mutants display variably similar phenotypes as do class III alleles, but to a less severe extent. 50% of class V mutants die before blastoderm, the remaining 50% dying during late embryogenesis, but with fully pigmented mouth parts and setae and with normal head development; fusions and deletions of abdominal denticle belts, or the normal number of belts, but all of identically abnormal structure, retaining only the two posterior setal rows; preblastoderm nuclear divisions asynchronous, abnormally distributed in embryos, and nuclei misshapen (Reynolds and O'Donnell, 1987). Embryos homozygous for class IV alleles resemble class V mutants, but with additional features characteristic of class II embryos, including unpigmented setae and mouth parts. In crosses of class V bearing genotypes to Df(2R)F36/+, the Df(2R)F36/Pu embryos resemble class V embryos when the deficiency is maternally inherited and deficiency homozygotes when the Pu allele is maternally inherited.
                Origin and Etymology
                Discoverer
                Etymology
                Identification
                External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 69 )
                Crossreferences
                NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                Other crossreferences
                InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
                KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
                Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
                Linkouts
                BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
                DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
                Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
                Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
                FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
                Reported As
                Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  Datasets (0)
                  Study focus (0)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  References (171)