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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pum
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pumilio
Annotation Symbol
CG9755
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003165
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
pumilio (pum) encodes a founding member of the PUF family of RNA binding proteins. It is an essential factor in the translational regulation of hb mRNA in the early embryo. pum product also contributes to multiple processes, including germline stem cell identity maintenance, primordial germ cell proliferation and migration, synaptic plasticity, as well as learning and memory. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
ovarette, pumuckel, pkl, ovt, bem
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:9,066,343..9,237,682 [-]
Recombination map
3-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl) or acting on downstream effectors.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that acts as a post-transcriptional repressor by binding the 3'-UTR of mRNA targets. Binds to an RNA consensus sequence, the Pumilio Response Element (PRE), 5'-UGUANAUA-3', that is related to the Nanos Response Element (NRE) (PubMed:1459455, PubMed:1576962, PubMed:9404893, PubMed:9660969, PubMed:22345517). Mediates post-transcriptional repression of transcripts via different mechanisms: acts via direct recruitment of deadenylase complexes leading to translational inhibition and mRNA degradation (By similarity). Also mediates deadenylation-independent repression by promoting accessibility of miRNAs (PubMed:22345517). Mediates post-transcriptional silencing of E2f mRNA by binding to its 3'-UTR and promoting miRNA regulation (PubMed:22345517). Required for abdominal development and to support proliferation and self-renewal of germ cells. Pum is the only gene required for nos activity that is not also required for posterior localization of germline determinants. Pum is required during embryogenesis when nos activity apparently moves anteriorly from the posterior pole (PubMed:1459455, PubMed:1576962, PubMed:9404893, PubMed:9660969).
(UniProt, P25822)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
pum: pumilio
Wild-type allele of pum involved in development of the abdomen (embryos) and of the imaginal disks (larvae or pupae), perhaps having a function in signal transport. Embryos derived from pum/pum females (strong allele) form two instead of eight abdominal segments; head, thorax, and telson are normal. Pole cells are formed by the pum embryos and these cells function normally when transplanted into otherwise sterile embryos. There is no paternal rescue. Partial rescue of the pum abdominal phenotype (at the site of the injection) can be obtained with cytoplasm from the posterior pole of (1) wild-type embryos or (2) pum embryos. When pum is combined with tsl (mutant in which the abdominal region is placed next to the pole plasm), a rescue of abdominal segments may occur. pum opposite a deficiency or another pum allele results in a recessive zygotic visible phenotype; pum adult flies have additional postalar, dorsocentral, and scutellar bristles and reduced viability.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
novel posterior group gene - posttranscriptional repressor - binds and regulates mRNA - Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pum or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pum for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Stage-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081990
6661
1533
FBtr0081993
7473
1185
FBtr0081992
6809
1533
FBtr0081991
6659
1533
FBtr0081994
4685
935
FBtr0305197
4655
925
FBtr0333667
10223
1533
FBtr0333668
8057
921
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.833, 6.674 (longest cDNA)
>7.0 (unknown); 7.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081470
157.5
1533
7.69
FBpp0081473
123.5
1185
7.32
FBpp0081472
157.5
1533
7.69
FBpp0081471
157.5
1533
7.69
FBpp0081474
97.8
935
8.55
FBpp0293727
96.6
925
8.65
FBpp0305823
157.5
1533
7.69
FBpp0305824
96.2
921
8.76
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1533 aa isoforms: pum-PA, pum-PC, pum-PD, pum-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
156, 130 (kD observed)
1533 (aa); 160 (kD)
1533 (aa); 157 (kD predicted)
Comments
The doublet of 156 kD pum proteins observed in Western blots may be generated by posttranslational modification.
It is not known how the 130 kD pum isoform is generated; it may be generated by an alternate transcript, or by post-translational modification of the 156 kD isoform. Antibodies generated against exons 4, exons 4-13 and exons 11-13 of the 156 kD pum isoform cross-react with the 130 kD isoform.
RNA-protein and protein-protein interaction assays indicate that nos protein forms a ternary complex with the RNA-binding domain of pum protein and the NREs (nanos response element) in the 3'' UTR of maternal hb mRNA.
A 165 kD protein identified as pum protein binds the nanos response elements (NRE) in the 3' UTR of hb mRNA.
A 165 kD protein identified as pum protein binds the nanos response elements (NRE) in the 3'' UTR of hb mRNA.
The carboxy-terminus of the protein contains eight repeated units which are strikingly similar to a region of eight repeats in the S. cerevisiae YGL023 gene.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with nos and brat. Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb.
(UniProt, P25822)
Domain
The pumilio repeats mediate the association with RNA by packing together to form a right-handed superhelix that approximates a half donut. RNA-binding occurs on the concave side of the surface. Pum is composed of 8 pumilio repeats of 36 residues; each repeat binds a single nucleotide in its RNA target. Residues at positions 12 and 16 of the pumilio repeat bind each RNA base via hydrogen bonding or van der Waals contacts with the Watson-Crick edge, while the amino acid at position 13 makes a stacking interaction. The recognition of RNA by pumilio repeats is base specific: cysteine and glutamine at position 12 and 16, respectively, bind adenine; asparagine and glutamine bind uracil; and serine and glutamate bind guanine.
(UniProt, P25822)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pum using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (33 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Ace; FB:FBgn0000024
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dlg1; FB:FBgn0001624
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: extended 3' UTR isoform

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Zygotic-specific isoforms of pum with long 3' UTR extensions were observed. The 3' UTR extension isoforms are highly enriched in nervous system tissues.
pum expression at embryonic stages 1-4 is localized to the posterior pole of the embryo.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
pum protein is detected in a broad pattern in the CNS with enriched expression in the calyx of the mushroom body.
pum protein is detected in germarium region 1, with highest levels in germline stem cells, and lower levels in in dividing cystoblasts.
pum protein is expressed in early embryos. There is no apparent asymmetry in the distribution of pum protein along the anteroposterior axis in the preblastoderm embryo or after the pole cells have formed. It is concentrated in a subcortical region of the embryo.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacZ}pummilord-1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}pummilord-2
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind

Comment: adult brain cortex, higher around central brain and in a subset of cells in the optic lobe

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pum in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 131 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 31 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pum
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pum
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
dendritic arborising neuron & dendrite | somatic clone
dendritic arborising neuron & dendritic tree, with Scer\GAL45-78
dendritic arborising neuron & dendritic tree, with Scer\GAL4477
germ cell & germarium
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (12)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190310 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502S0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02IA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02FO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04QO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 7 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with nos and brat. Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb.
    (UniProt, P25822 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl) or acting on downstream effectors.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-48
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:9,066,343..9,237,682 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85C4-85D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L4740L4740 and P{EP}D1EP473
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    85D2-85D3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85D1-85D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85D-85D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85C-85D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (87)
    Genomic Clones (115)
    cDNA Clones (59)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: pum CG9755
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: pum bem
      Source for merge of: pum anon-WO0172774.19
      Additional comments
      The "bem1" mutation may be an allele of pum; pum13 fails to complement bem1 female sterility, bem1 female fertility is partially rescued by ovary specific expression of pum and one of three pum transcripts is absent from bem1 heads.
      Source for merge of pum anon-WO0172774.19 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
      Other Comments
      Affinity binding in extracts from adult ovaries reveals that 1090 genes are consistently associated with pum with a false discovery rate of <1%. Analysis on embryos identifies 165 genes that are associated with pum. The overlap between the two groups contains 31 genes.
      pum is an important regulator of synaptic growth and plasticity at the neuromuscular junction.
      nos and pum control the elaboration of high-order dendritic branches of class III and IV, but not class I and II, dendritic arborization neurons. nos and pum require each other to control dendrite morphogenesis, but hb is not required.
      pum has a role in long-term memory.
      pum is required for normal anterior development.
      pum has a role in neuronal excitability.
      pum plays multiple roles in germline development, gonadogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis.
      The nos gene product forms a ternary complex with the RNA-binding domain of pum and the hb NRE (nos response element).
      Maternally deposited nos is essential for germ cell migration. Lack of zygotic activity of nos and pum has a dramatic effect on germline development of homozygous females. nos and pum act in the germline, affecting germline stem cell development. nos function lies in the differentiation of the stem cell progeny, the cystoblast. nos and pum may interact with different partners in the germline.
      pum mutant ovaries fail to maintain stem cells and all germline cells differentiate into egg chambers.
      'ovarette' mutations of pum affect the assymetric division of germline stem cells.
      Mutations in pum specifically disrupt photoreceptor targetting.
      Isolated during a screen for mutations that disrupt Bolwig's organ or Bolwig's nerve development.
      A study of the mechanisms of nos-mediated translational repression indicates that nos and pum determine posterior morphology by promoting the deadenylation of maternal hb mRNA, thereby repressing its translation.
      The pum RNA-binding domain is an evolutionarily conserved, 334 amino acid region at the carboxy terminus of the protein.
      Nurse cell-specific genes are functional in the pseudonurse cells of otu mutants, but the transport of pum, otu, ovo and bcd RNAs to the cytoplasm is affected. The nuclear localisation of otu and pum mRNA correlates with chromosome polytenisation.
      nos response elements (NRE) in the hb mRNA mediate nos repression of hb maternal transcript translation. pum protein is an NRE binding factor, pum recognises the NRE and recruits nos, the resulting complex is thought to inhibit some component of the translation machinery.
      Mutation in pum increases neuronal excitability, possibly as a result of a defect in an ion channel structural or regulatory gene.
      Flies defective in pum display uncoordination, inability to fly and greatly reduced fertility. Mutant larvae display a more rapid onset of a phenomenon called long term facilitation so causes increased neuronal excitability.
      The pum gene product recognises and binds directly to the nanos response elements (NREs) in the 3' region of hb. The nos gene product then binds to pum and this complex interferes with translation of hb mRNA.
      Distribution of tud protein in mutant embryos has been studied.
      The pumilio gene is expressed maternally. pumilio RNA is enriched at the posterior pole of the egg, but is not required for either the expression of nanos protein or its transport to the presumptive abdomen. Amorphic alleles show that the function of pumilio is absolutely required for abdomen formation.
      pum gene product affects the asymmetric division of the female germline stem cell (GSC).
      Cloning, molecular characterization and analysis of pum mRNA and protein expression reveals that pum does not act in a spatially restricted fashion.
      The pum mutant phenotype can be rescued by extra maternal copies of osk.
      pum is critical for pole plasm formation but not required for the initial localization or synthesis of the posterior signal. The abdominal phenotype of pum embryos can be partially rescued by cytoplasmic transplantation of wild type posterior pole plasm into the abdominal region. The signal required for abdominal segmentation is present in the pole plasm from pum embryos but cannot reach the abdominal region.
      Mutations in maternal posterior class gene pum do not interact with RpII140wimp.
      Mature follicles are immunologically stained for asymmetric distribution of ecdysteroid-related antigen. During late oogenesis localisation of the antigen changes dramatically suggesting the antigen plays a role in early embryogenesis and, perhaps, in pattern formation.
      pum gene function is not required for pole cell formation.
      pum plays a role in polar granule formation.
      Transplantation experiments suggest that pum is involved in the transport of a signal required in the abdomen from the pole plasm to the abdominal region.
      Wild-type allele of pum involved in development of the abdomen (embryos) and of the imaginal discs (larvae or pupae), perhaps having a function in signal transport. Embryos derived from pum/pum females (strong allele) form two instead of eight abdominal segments; head, thorax and telson are normal. Pole cells are formed by the pum embryos and these cells function normally when transplanted into otherwise sterile embryos. There is no paternal rescue. Partial rescue of the pum abdominal phenotype (at the site of the injection) can be obtained with cytoplasm from the posterior pole of (1) wild-type embryos or (2) pum embryos. When pum is combined with tsl (mutant in which the abdominal region is placed next to the pole plasm), a rescue of abdominal segments may occur. pum opposite a deficiency or another pum allele results in a recessive zygotic visible phenotype; pum adult flies have additional postalar, dorsocentral and scutellar bristles and reduced viability. Most mutant alleles are semi-lethal and have abnormal bristles when homozygous.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 114 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      anon-WO0172774.19
      fs(3)02003
      pum
      (Asaoka et al., 2019, Rivera et al., 2019, Whittle and Extavour, 2019, Hara et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2018, Reichardt et al., 2018, Wharton et al., 2018, Ashton-Beaucage and Therrien, 2017, Bonneaud et al., 2017, Ghezzi et al., 2017, Lin et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vallejos Baier et al., 2017, Bhogal et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, McMahon et al., 2016, Schmid et al., 2016, Schwartz et al., 2016, Chartier et al., 2015, Duff et al., 2015, Flores et al., 2015, Gehrke et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Laver et al., 2015, Lin et al., 2015, Loedige et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Miles et al., 2014, Montgomery et al., 2014, Olesnicky et al., 2014, Singari et al., 2014, Westholm et al., 2014, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Joly et al., 2013, Robinson and Atkinson, 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Hilgers et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Miles et al., 2012, Olesnicky et al., 2012, Takahashi et al., 2012, Ardehali et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Harris et al., 2011, Hilgers et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Reis et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Jiang et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Menon et al., 2009, Vardy et al., 2009, Weiler and Chatterjee, 2009, Branco et al., 2008, Burgio et al., 2008, Chau et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Muraro et al., 2008, Buszczak et al., 2007, Ford et al., 2007, Kadyrova et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Maines et al., 2007, Sofola et al., 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Vardy and Orr-Weaver, 2007, Weiler, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Brandt, 2006, Otsuna and Ito, 2006, Schulz et al., 2006, Xie et al., 2005, Ghosh and Feany, 2004, Mee et al., 2004, Menon et al., 2004, Sano et al., 2001, Wang et al., 1994)
      Name Synonyms
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004871
      • FBgn0010759
      • FBgn0014132
      • FBgn0015529
      • FBgn0046414
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (419)