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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\px
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
plexus
Annotation Symbol
CG4444
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003175
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
plexus (px) encodes a ubiquitously expressed nuclear matrix protein required to restrict excess wing vein development by repressing transcription of the pro-vein gene rho. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
l(2)k08316
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:22,494,297..22,562,065 [-]
Recombination map
2-100
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    -
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    px: plexus
    thumb
    px: plexus
    From "Edith M. Wallace, unpublished."
    Wings have network of extra veins, especially towards tips and margins; L4 vein bent near tip. Semidominant with some Minutes. Suppressed by S (Bedichek, 1936, DIS 4: 24); suppresses expression of ve (Thompson, 1973, DIS 50: 59). Venation effect caused by inadequate contraction of wing during pupal stage, leaving spaces between epithelial layers (Waddington, 1940). Vein patterns of px flies studied in lines selected for increased or decreased expression (Thompson, 1974).
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    4
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    4

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\px or the JBrowse view of Dmel\px for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
    Gene model reviewed during 5.45
    Gene model reviewed during 5.48
    Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0071838
    6842
    1995
    FBtr0112820
    5214
    1535
    FBtr0331941
    4365
    944
    FBtr0331942
    8360
    1916
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    7.3, 5.8, 5.3 (northern blot)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0071749
    213.9
    1995
    8.77
    FBpp0111732
    164.1
    1535
    8.94
    FBpp0304274
    98.7
    944
    9.10
    FBpp0304275
    206.0
    1916
    8.80
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    1990 (aa); 213 (kD predicted)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\px using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (2 terms)
    Molecular Function (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    7.3kb px transcripts are detected in embryos and larvae on northern blots.
    5.3kb px transcripts are detected in embryos and larvae on northern blots.
    5.8kb px transcripts are detected in embryos and larvae on northern blots.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    px protein is ubiquitously distributed in the third instar larval wing disc.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\px in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 57 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of px
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of px
    Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919011P )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501JM )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W022I )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0200 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0ENV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      suppressible
      suppressible
      suppressible
      enhanceable
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-100
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:22,494,297..22,562,065 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      58E4-58E8
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k13211k13211&P{EP}EP827 and P{PZ}l(2)rG270rG270
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      58E1-58E2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation) 59B1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      58E1-58E2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      The cytological location of either the P{lacW}pxk08316 insert (58E1-58E2) or the P{lacW}pxk08134 insert (59B1-59B2) must be wrong, but this has not been resolved.
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (96)
      Genomic Clones (42)
      cDNA Clones (65)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: px CG4444
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: l(2)k08316 l(2)k08134
      Source for merge of: px l(2)k08316
      Additional comments
      l(2)k08320 may correspond to px: the P{lacW}l(2)k08320k08320 insertion maps within the transcription unit.
      Other Comments
      The px gene product may regulate transcription of vein and intervein genes by tethering transcriptional regulators to specific locations in the nucleus.
      px encodes an essential component of a global repressor of vein differentiation. px acts downstream of kni.
      Mutations in px allow ectopic venation in the intervein regions of the wing.
      Extra vein mutations cause enhancement of rhohs.PSt ectopic vein phenotype and suppression of the rhove-1 loss of vein phenotype.
      Mutants display hyperplastic phenotype, showing tissue overgrowth in mitotic recombination clones.
      A screen that identified Dominant enhancers of the wing phenotype associated with Dl9P and DlFE32 identified one new px allele.
      Mutations in px cause extra longitudinal or transverse veins with plexated vein phenotypes. Px, px, net, dsr and emc belong to the same synergistic group and act synergistically against kn, fu and shf.
      Px, net, dsr, px and emc loci belong to the plexus phenotypic group within the 'excess-of-vein' mutant class. Extra veins occur parallel to and between normal veins that connect to each other by crossveins, forming plexi. Plexi are distal. Proximal regions shift to the margin leaving a central area devoid of veins. Sensilla and chaetae appear shifted. Combinations of mutations produce superadditive phenotypes.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (147)