Su(b), CAD, fs(1)M34
Gene model reviewed during 6.01
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
7.3 (northern blot)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\r using the Feature Mapper tool.
r transcripts are initiated from 5 closely spaced transcription start sites. The relative levels of these transcripts remain constant through development.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\r in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for merge of: r CG18572
Source for merge of r CG18572 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
Allele records report three classifications of complementation groups, using three different naming systems (Carlson (FBrf0022687), Falk (FBrf0029196), and Rawls and Porter (FBrf0033165)). A of FBrf0033165 corresponds to C of FBrf0029196 and I of FBrf0022687. B of FBrf0033165 corresponds to III of FBrf0022687. C of FBrf0033165 corresponds to B of FBrf0029196 and VI of FBrf0022687. D of FBrf0033165 corresponds to A of FBrf0029196 and VII of FBrf0022687.
Duplicate transcripts identified and eliminated during the migration of annotations from the release 5 genome assembly to the release 6 assembly.
A conserved Glu residue in the second ATP binding site of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of r plays an essential role in the feedback inhibition of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase enzyme by UTP.
Two alleles of r that are not caused by insertions of gypsy are suppressed by mutations at su(Hw). Phenotypic suppression correlates with enhanced levels of transcription in both cases.
Detailed molecular analysis of r indicates that transcription initiates at 5 sites within a 50bp region, that falls within a nuclease susceptible region. Additional nuclease sensitive regions in 1st exon and 1st intron coincide with insertion sites of P elements in r mutant alleles. Relative levels of 5 differently initiated messages stay the same during development. r has a previously unreported 5' exon, the 5' end of which is only 350 bp from the neighbouring, divergently transcribed gene.
The organisation of amplified DNA, which includes the r region, in Drosophila cells resistant to 10mM N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate has been studied.
Comparison of the r gene sequence with genes involved in the pyrimidine pathway of prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes suggests that r encodes four enzymatically different functions; glutamine amido transferase (GATase), carbamyl phosphate synthase (CPSase), dihydro-orotase (DHOase) and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase), which are organised on the peptide chain in the following order; NH2-GATase-CPSase-DHOase-ATCase-COOH.
PALA (N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate) resistant Drosophila cell lines show an increase in enzyme activity encoded by r (aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase activity).
A cell line resistant to N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) shows amplification of the r gene and surrounding regions.
The activity of the three enzymes encoded by r (carbamyl phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydroorotase) during ovarian development has been studied.
A study of putative regulatory mutations of the r locus supports the hypothesis that the three enzyme activities encoded by the locus (carbamyl phosphate synthase, aspartyl transcarbamylase and dihydroorotase) are part of a trifunctional polypeptide or that their genes are transcribed together as parts of a multicistronic transcript.
Complementation units A, B, C and D correspond to units I, III, VI and VII, respectively, of FBrf0022687.
The complementation behavior of a collection of new r alleles generated with different mutagens supports the premise that the CPSase-ATCase-DHOase complex is translated from a single mRNA.
Complementation analysis divides a group of twelve alleles into three groups based on wing phenotype and two groups based on pyrimidine auxotrophy.
Alleles of r reside in a number of recombinationally separable sites and display a complex pattern of interallelic interaction.
Fine structure of the locus examined by both recombination and complementation (Carlson, 1971). Carlson defines seven complementing regions, whereas Fahmy and Fahmy (1959) recognized six, Green (1963) at least three, Falk (1976) three, and Rawls and Porter (1979) four. Region D of Rawls and Porter corresponds to regions VII and C of Carlson and Falk respectively and identifies the DHO domain; region C of Rawls and Porter corresponds to regions VI and B of Carlson and Falk and identifies the CPS domain; and region D of Rawls and Porter corresponds to region I and C of Carlson and Falk and identifies the ACT domain. The genetic map and the complementation map are roughly colinear. Noncomplementing alleles map to both the 5' and 3' ends of the gene (Carlson's numbers 5 and 6 at the 5' end and numbers 35, 37 and 42-45 at the 3' end, where numbers refer to approximate linear order of alleles on the genetic map). Complementation maps constructed using wing phenotype and survival on unsupplemented medium not identical (Falk, 1976).
Homozygotes and hemizygotes are pyrimidine auxotrophs (Norby, 1969). A complex locus encoding a 220kD polypeptide containing the first three enzyme activities in the pyrimidine synthetic pathway: glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) (Jarry and Falk, 1974), aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) (Norby, 1969) and dihydroorotase (DHO) (Rawls and Fristrom, 1975). Probably exists as a homomultimer. These three activities cosediment and copurify (Brothers, Tsubota, Germeraad and Fristrom, 1978); also the developmental profiles of the three activities are the same, maximal in the egg, dropping until the time of hatching, increasing again during the first larval instar and then leveling off at a low level (Mehl and Jarry, 1978); high activity in egg attributable to maternal expression. Wings of homozygous females and hemizygous males obliquely truncated posteriorly; phenotype varies from wings that are wrinkled and blistered and do not extend beyond the tip of the abdomen to normal, with intermediate phenotypes having wings truncated to various degrees but not wrinkled or blistered, or normal wings with irregularly spaced marginal hairs. Wing cells smaller than normal (Fausto-Sterling and Hsieh, 1975); oblique truncation attributed to cell death in distal portion of presumptive wing blade (Fausto-Sterling, 1980). Homozygous females usually sterile when crossed to r male; occasionally give a few offspring, virtually all daughters plus a few exceptional males, when outcrossed. r39 females produce many malformed eggs and unfertilized eggs with normal morphology; ovarian development often retarded or fails; yolk deposition affected; lethal effect in progeny results from generalized disturbance in differentiation 13-16 hr after fertilization at 25oC; surviving embryos hatch late and may produce larvae that neither move nor feed (Counce, 1956). Eggs produced by r9 parents fail to hatch, but can be rescued by the injection of preblastoderm eggs with cytoplasm from either fertilized or unfertilized wild-type eggs or with pyrimidine nucleosides (Okada et al., 1974). r/0 tissue in gynandromorphs produced by r/r females confined to abdomen; no such constraint when produced by r/+ females (Fausto-Sterling, 1971). Mosaic studies of Falk (1977) indicate nonautonomy of r+ within the wing and the ovary, and that normal wing and ovarian development depend on pyrimidine synthesis within those organs. Female-sterile but not truncated-wing aspect of phenotype partially alleviated by administration of cytidine during development (Bahn, 1970); administration of 6-azauracil or 6-azauridine, competitive inhibitors of pyrimidine synthesis, causes rudimentary phenocopies (Rizki and Rizki, 1965; Stroman et al., 1973). Sex-linked recessive mutants selected on the basis of inability to survive on medium deficient in pyrimidines all map to the rudimentary locus; the majority have the rudimentary phenotype, but some are phenotypicially normal and are designated subliminal alleles. Subliminal alleles exhibit strongly depressed survival on pyrimidine-free medium; standard alleles do not survive in the absence of pyrimidine; relative survival of r/+ heterozygotes varies from 5 to 70% depending on severity of allele (Falk and Nash, 1974).