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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rdgB
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
retinal degeneration B
Annotation Symbol
CG11111
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003218
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
P-type Ca(2+) transporter (7.2.2.10)
Gene Snapshot
retinal degeneration B (rdgB) encodes a member of the Class IIA Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) family. It supports multiple biochemical functions involving lipid transfer during G-protein coupled phospholipase C activation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
ota1, RdgBα
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:13,762,752..13,779,488 [+]
Recombination map
1-46
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the PtdIns transfer protein family. PI transfer class IIA subfamily. (P43125)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O + Ca(2+)(Side 1) = ADP + phosphate + Ca(2+)(Side 2) (7.2.2.10)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
May control phosphatidylinositol concentration in transport vesicles from the subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) to the rhabdomere. May function as a calcium transporter.
(UniProt, P43125)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ota1: olfactory-trap-abnormal-1 (J.C. Hall)
Poor odor responses in tests involving an olfactory trap; entry into such traps was subnormal when odorant was food medium or ethyl acetate. Phenotype also subnormal in odor-induced jump responses (using ethyl acetate, propionic acid, or benzaldehyde as stimulant). Electroretinogram abnormal; very weak light induced depolarization and no light-on or light-off transients.
rdgB (J.C. Hall)
Photoreceptors in each facet of compound eye show light-induced degeneration; morphology is essentially normal on eclosion, but maintenance of mutant adults on diurnal light regime causes severe degeneration within approximately one week (Harris and Stark, 1977); the cell bodies and axons of photoreceptors begin to look ultrastructurally abnormal after three days (Stark and Carlson, 1982); the various rdgB mutations tend to cause the outer photoreceptors (R1-6) in each facet to degenerate more than the inner two cells (R7,8), such that rdgB9 and rdgB1 have R7,8 preserved in nearly all ommatidia, rdgB6 and rdgB8 retain most central cells, and rdgB7 plus rdgB5 show progressively worse degeneration of R7,8 with rdgB5 retaining these cells in only 10% of the facets according to Harris and Stark (1977); degeneration of R7,8 not confirmed, however, by Stark et al. (1983). After R1-6 have degenerated and the central cells have or have not, depending on the allele, R7,8 retain at least quasi-normal function as indicated by electroretinograms (Stark, 1977, J. Comp. Physiol. 115: 47-59); degeneration is photoreceptor autonomous in mosaics (Hotta and Benzer, 1970; Harris and Stark, 1977); autonomous in mixed ommatidia at the electron-microscope level (Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega, 1976, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 179: 275-89); ultrastructural details of degeneration include electron-dense cytoplasm with liposomes, lysosome-like bodies, myeloid bodies and vacuoles, and electron-dense reticulum and degenerate mitochondria, electron opaque photoreceptor axons lacking synaptic vesicles and containing seemingly none of the typical presynaptic structures (Stark and Carlson, 1982). Degenerating photoreceptors are associated with degeneration in the first order optic ganglion (the lamina), though the second order medulla is spared (Stark et al., 1983); high temperature treatments accelerate degeneration, whereas homozygosity for an Acph-1-null mutation delays it slightly (Harris and Stark, 1977). After rearing of rdgB animals in room light, the R1-6 cells are physiologically non-functional at eclosion (revealed by ERGs), in spite of apparently normal cellular structure (Harris and Stark, 1977). Prolonged depolarizing afterpotentials (induced by strong blue light) are abnormally short-lived and cannot be reversed by orange light, unlike the response of wild-type (Harris and Stark, 1977); degeneration of the photoreceptors is dramatically retarded by rearing in the dark followed by maintenance of adults under this condition (Harris and Stark, 1977); the same retardation of the mutations' effects occur when an rdgB mutation is linked to an ERG-minus norpA mutation (Harris and Stark, 1977), although degeneration does eventually occur in the double mutants (Stark et al., 1983); three norpA mutations were induced based on their inhibition of rdgB-induced degeneration (Harris and Stark, 1977), with two of the new mutations leading to very small ERGs but the third, norpAsuII, allowing for apparently normal retinal physiology (also see Stark et al., 1983); this mutation revealed as a norpA allele, based on uncoverage of its degeneration-suppressing effects by an ERG-minus norpA mutation (Harris and Stark, 1977); norpA56's suppressing effects are allele-specific, to the extent that rdgB9-induced degeneration is retarded (and this was the rdgB allele used to isolate this suppressor), but the effects of another allele, rdgB1, are not (Harris and Stark, 1977); ort1 ninaE1 (formerly oraJK84), an opsin-deficient genotype, also blocks light induced degeneration of receptor cells in rdgB9 (Stark and Carlson, 1985, DIS 61: 162-64). Two rdgB alleles (unspecified) are associated with premature death of adults exposed to 29 (Homyk, Pye and Pak, 1981, Genetics 97: s50); further indications of pleiotropic action of this gene come from isolation of a hypoactive rdgB allele [originally hypoF (Homyk, Szidonya and Suzuki, 1980, Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 553-65)]; this mutation (mapping between v and f, as does rdgB) was shown to be an rdgB allele by Homyk and is now called rdgB23; it causes adults to be somewhat inactive in their general movements and their jumping ability to be weak; there are no light-on or light-off transient spikes in the ERG, and optomotor responses are eliminated; two polypeptide spots observed in two-dimensional gel analysis of eye-specific proteins are reduced in intensity in an rdgB mutant -- the same spots as affected by rdgA [(Hotta, 1979, Mechanisms of Cell Change (Ebert and Okada, eds.). John Wiley, New York, pp. 169-82].
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
11
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\rdgB or the JBrowse view of Dmel\rdgB for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073822
6945
1259
FBtr0073823
4573
1250
FBtr0100194
6965
1259
FBtr0100195
6907
1259
FBtr0301532
5305
1241
FBtr0301533
4529
1250
FBtr0301534
4490
1237
FBtr0301535
4568
1263
FBtr0331716
7435
1277
FBtr0331717
4506
1297
FBtr0340289
4352
1284
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
9.5, 7.9, 7.2, 4.8, 3.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073653
138.9
1259
6.60
FBpp0073654
137.8
1250
6.49
FBpp0099560
138.9
1259
6.60
FBpp0099561
138.9
1259
6.60
FBpp0290747
136.8
1241
6.56
FBpp0290748
137.8
1250
6.49
FBpp0290749
136.5
1237
6.51
FBpp0290750
139.3
1263
6.74
FBpp0304105
140.9
1277
6.94
FBpp0304106
142.7
1297
6.65
FBpp0309250
141.2
1284
6.41
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1259 aa isoforms: rdgB-PA, rdgB-PC, rdgB-PD
1250 aa isoforms: rdgB-PB, rdgB-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1054 (aa); 116 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rdgB using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (21 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004177
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000069712
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000069712
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000069712
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000069712
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000069712
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
rdgB transcripts are expressed in adult heads but not bodies.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rdgB in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 43 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rdgB
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rdgB
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919012N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500LM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00E5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00NX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0BMT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
4 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-46
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:13,762,752..13,779,488 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    12C1-12C4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1354&P{EP}EP790 and P{EP}CG33174EP1101
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    12C1-12C1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (26)
    cDNA Clones (40)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Mutant analysis suggests that rdgA and rdgB proteins function on the ocellar subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) in a similar manner to that in which they function in compound eyes.
    Mutation affects olfactory physiology in the maxillary palp in a manner analogous to that for the antenna: delay in the return to the resting potential following odorant stimulation.
    The calcium content of light and dark raised flies demonstrates that calcium accumulation is a secondary effect, rather than primary effect, in the degeneration process.
    The pattern of expression of rdgB protein in the adult Drosophila head has been studied.
    Retarding the light induced photoreceptor degeneration in rdgB mutants by calcium channel blockers suggests that toxic increase in intracellular calcium by means of voltage gated calcium channel leads to photoreceptor degeneration in mutants.
    rdgB gene product is required for normal response in the peripheral olfactory system. rdgB is required for both visual and olfactory physiology suggesting that visual and olfactory transduction share at least one common molecular step.
    Sequence analysis shows that rdgB encodes a putative integral membrane protein, that has sequences in common with proposed functional domains of Ca2+-ATPase, and may therefore act as a Ca2+ transporter.
    rdgB mutants exhibit a light-induced retinal degeneration.
    rdgB mutations, especially those causing R1-6-specific degeneration (notably rdgB9), frequently used in experiments aimed at assessing behavioral and physiological significance of light input through central photoreceptors only; hence, phototaxis mediated by R7,8 (Willmund and Fischbach, 1977; Broda and Willmund, 1981; Hu and Stark, 1980; Miller, Hansen and Stark, 1981); optomotor responses eliminated by degeneration of R1-6 (Heisenberg and Buchner, 1977); visual learning not impaired; intensity discrimination less acute than in wild type; no positive indication of color discrimination (Bicker and Reichert, 1978). Visual pigment specific to outer photoreceptors (Harris et al., 1976); absence of physiological effects of rdgB on ocelli (Hu et al., 1978); and physiological effects of a trp mutation on the central photoreceptors (Chen and Stark, 1983).
    Photoreceptors in each facet of compound eye show light-induced degeneration; morphology is essentially normal on eclosion, but maintenance of mutant adults on diurnal light regime causes severe degeneration within approximately one week (Harris and Stark, 1977); the cell bodies and axons of photoreceptors begin to look ultrastructurally abnormal after three days (Stark and Carlson, 1982); the various rdgB mutations tend to cause the outer photoreceptors (R1-6) in each facet to degenerate more than the inner two cells (R7,8), such that rdgB9 and rdgB1 have R7,8 preserved in nearly all ommatidia, rdgB6 and rdgB8 retain most central cells and rdgB7 plus rdgB5 show progressively worse degeneration of R7,8 with rdgB5 retaining these cells in only 10% of the facets according to Harris and Stark (1977); degeneration of R7,8 not confirmed, however, by Stark et al. (1983). After R1-6 have degenerated and the central cells have or have not, depending on the allele, R7,8 retain at least quasi-normal function as indicated by electroretinograms (Stark, 1977); degeneration is photoreceptor autonomous in mosaics (Hotta and Benzer, 1970; Harris and Stark, 1977); autonomous in mixed ommatidia at the electron-microscope level (Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega, 1976); ultrastructural details of degeneration include electron-dense cytoplasm with liposomes, lysosome-like bodies, myeloid bodies and vacuoles and electron-dense reticulum and degenerate mitochondria, electron opaque photoreceptor axons lacking synaptic vesicles and containing seemingly none of the typical presynaptic structures (Stark and Carlson, 1982). Degenerating photoreceptors are associated with degeneration in the first order optic ganglion (the lamina), though the second order medulla is spared (Stark, Chen, Johnson and Frayer, 1983); high temperature treatments accelerate degeneration, whereas homozygosity for an Acph-1-null mutation delays it slightly (Harris and Stark, 1977). After rearing of rdgB animals in room light, the R1-6 cells are physiologically non-functional at eclosion (revealed by ERGs), in spite of apparently normal cellular structure (Harris and Stark, 1977). Prolonged depolarizing afterpotentials (induced by strong blue light) are abnormally short-lived and cannot be reversed by orange light, unlike the response of wild-type (Harris and Stark, 1977); degeneration of the photoreceptors is dramatically retarded by rearing in the dark followed by maintenance of adults under this condition (Harris and Stark, 1977); the same retardation of the mutations' effects occur when an rdgB mutation is linked to an ERG-minus norpA mutation (Harris and Stark, 1977), although degeneration does eventually occur in the double mutants (Stark et al., 1983); three norpA mutations were induced based on their inhibition of rdgB-induced degeneration (Harris and Stark, 1977), with two of the new mutations leading to very small ERGs but the third, norpA56, allowing for apparently normal retinal physiology (also see Stark, Chen, Johnson and Frayer, 1983); this mutation revealed as a norpA allele, based on uncoverage of its degeneration-suppressing effects by an ERG-minus norpA mutation (Harris and Stark, 1977); norpA56's suppressing effects are allele-specific, to the extent that rdgB9-induced degeneration is retarded (and this was the rdgB allele used to isolate this suppressor), but the effects of another allele, rdgB1, are not (Harris and Stark, 1977); ort1 ninaE1 (formerly "oraJK84"), an opsin-deficient genotype, also blocks light induced degeneration of receptor cells in rdgB9 (Stark and Carlson, 1985). Two rdgB alleles (unspecified) are associated with premature death of adults exposed to 29oC (Homyk, Pye and Pak, 1981); further indications of pleiotropic action of this gene come from isolation of a hypoactive rdgB allele <up>originally hypoF (Homyk et al., 1980)</up>; this mutation (mapping between v and f, as does rdgB) was shown to be an rdgB allele by Homyk and is now called rdgB23; it causes adults to be somewhat inactive in their general movements and their jumping ability to be weak; there are no light-on or light-off transient spikes in the ERG and optomotor responses are eliminated; two polypeptide spots observed in two-dimensional gel analysis of eye-specific proteins are reduced in intensity in an rdgB mutant -- the same spots as affected by rdgA (Hotta, 1979)
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 82 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Pathways - Pathways from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
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      References (184)