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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Rh4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Rhodopsin 4
Annotation Symbol
CG9668
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003250
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

rhodopsin

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:16,852,527..16,862,517 [-]
Recombination map

3-45

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:16852527..16862517
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (9 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000856
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000662115
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily. (P08255)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RHODOPSINS -
Rhodopsins, visual photoreceptors, are Class A GPCRs composed of the seven transmembrane protein (opsin) covalently linked to the chromophore retinal. A photon of light stimulates the isomerization of retinal resulting in a conformational change in opsin and activation of an intracellular heterotrimeric G protein. Different rhodopsins are activated at different peak wavelengths. (Adapted from FBrf0218480 & FBrf0217353).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Visual pigments are the light-absorbing molecules that mediate vision. They consist of an apoprotein, opsin, covalently linked to cis-retinal.
(UniProt, P08255)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Rh4
Encodes the opsin moiety of a rhodopsin specific to the rhabdomere of the seventh photoreceptor cell; Rh3 and Rh4 are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of ommatidia; the distribution of the two types of R7 cells within the eye is irregular. Transcript first appears during the last 48 hr of the pupal stage and is found in newly eclosed adult heads. Also expressed in Bolwig's organ [Pollock and Benzer, 1988, Nature (London) 333: 779-82)]. RH4 is a 378 amino acid protein that is 35% homologous to the opsins found in R1-6 encoded by ninaE and in the ocelli, encoded by Rh2, but 72% homologous to the Rh3-encoded protein.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Rh4 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075338
1349
378
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075097
42.7
378
7.81
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region.

(UniProt, P08255)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Rh4 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

In the ventral and central regions of the eye, all R7 cells contain high levels of either Rh3 or Rh4 transcripts but not both. In the dorsal eye, all R7 cells contain Rh3 transcripts and some also contain Rh4 transcripts.

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

Rh3 and Rh4 transcripts are expressed in non-overlapping R7 ommatidia.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Rh4 is expressed in photoreceptor cells R7 of yellow ommatidium (yR), where ss is active and Rh3 is repressed. This group comprises 65% of all R7 cells.

A fraction of R7 cells co-express both Rh3 and Rh4 in a region that starts near the dorsal edge of the eye and extends toward the equator spanning approximately one-third of the eye. In the ventral region of the eye, Rh3 and Rh4 are expressed at high levels but never in the same cell. In the dorsal regions of the eye, all cells express Rh3, either alone or in combination with Rh4. About 10% of ommatidia have R7 cells that contain both Rh3 and Rh4. These are always coupled with Rh6-expressing R8 cells. The R7 cells that co-express Rh3 and Rh4 are of the yellow subtype of R7 cells.

Rh4 is expressed inabout 70% of the R7 photoreceptors. No overlap in expression pattern isseen for Rh4 and Rh3.

Wild type Rh4 protein is ectopically expressed in photoreceptors R1-R6 in the Rh1+4 allele.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Pan-R7-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Rh4.1900lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Rh4-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Rh4-lacZ.PD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Rh4 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Rh4
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Rh4
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
6 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
5 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (20)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AJ6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915069U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W056P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0537 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0ALC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-45

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:16,852,527..16,862,517 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    73D2-73D3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Baldspot02281 and P{PZ}blot01658
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    73C-73C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    73D3-73D5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (47)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    Confocal microscopy suggests that rhodopsin 4 is located in the pale fluorescent R7 cells.

    Promoter fusions generated to express Rh4 under control of ninaE promoter, in a ninaE background.

    In contrast to D.melanogaster, where the sina gene is located within an intron of Rh4, Dvir\sina and Dvir\Rh4 are widely separated in D.virilis. This different structural arrangement may have been caused by the translocation of the Dvir\Rh4 gene to a different chromosomal location by a retrotransposition event in D.virilis.

    Ecol\CAT reporter gene analysis has been used to identify the minimal R7 opsin regulatory regions of the Rh4 promoter region. The promoter region is a simple bipartite structure, the proximal region constitutes a functionally equivalent promoter core and the distal region determines cell-type specificity.

    Identified as a cDNA clone that is expressed exclusively or predominantly in the adult visual system.

    Encodes the opsin moiety of a rhodopsin specific to the rhabdomere of the seventh photoreceptor cell; Rh3 and Rh4 are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of ommatidia; the distribution of the two types of R7 cells within the eye is irregular. Transcript first appears during the last 48 hr of the pupal stage and is found in newly eclosed adult heads. Also expressed in Bolwig's organ (FBrf0048777). Rh4 encodes a 378 amino acid protein that is 35% homologous to the opsins found in R1-6 encoded by ninaE and in the ocelli, encoded by Rh2, but 72% homologous to the Rh3-encoded protein.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Rh4
    (Breda et al., 2020, Courgeon and Desplan, 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Hawkes et al., 2019, Schlichting et al., 2019, Senthilan et al., 2019, Gene Disruption Project members, 2018-, Heinloth et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Song and Lee, 2018, Anderson et al., 2017, Leung and Montell, 2017, Bernardo-Garcia et al., 2016, Blick et al., 2016, Crocker et al., 2016, Friedrich et al., 2016, Garbers and Wachtler, 2016, Saint-Charles et al., 2016, Viets et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Behnia and Desplan, 2015, Rister et al., 2015, Satoh et al., 2015, Hilbrant et al., 2014, Jagadish et al., 2014, Johnston and Desplan, 2014, Wernet et al., 2014, Johnston, 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Pandey et al., 2013, Paulk et al., 2013, Rister et al., 2013, Thanawala et al., 2013, Wells et al., 2013, Zhu, 2013, Hibbard and O'Tousa, 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Pak et al., 2012, Rosenbaum et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Sood et al., 2012, Terrell et al., 2012, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2011, Johnston et al., 2011, Rosenbaum et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Bina et al., 2010, Jukam and Desplan, 2010, Jumbo-Lucioni et al., 2010, McDonald et al., 2010, Mishra et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Xiang et al., 2010, Bao and Friedrich, 2009, Birkholz et al., 2009, Birkholz et al., 2009, Hsiao et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Ranade et al., 2008, Root et al., 2008, Bazigou et al., 2007, Bell et al., 2007, Bhutkar et al., 2007, Cooper, 2007, Lai et al., 2007, Landry et al., 2007, Langille and Clark, 2007, Langille and Clark, 2007, Pistillo et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Xie et al., 2007, Ahmad et al., 2006, Earl and Britt, 2006, Hummel and Klämbt, 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Rosenbaum et al., 2006, Wernet et al., 2006, Mikeladze-Dvali et al., 2005, Nelson et al., 2005, Sarfare et al., 2005, Wang and Montell, 2005, Yang et al., 2005, Zelhof et al., 2003, Aoyagi and Wassarman, 2001)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (249)