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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
rolled
Annotation Symbol
CG12559
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003256
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (2.7.11.24)
Gene Snapshot
rolled (rl) encodes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase, core component of the RAS/MAPK pathway. It is inactivated by the phosphatases encoded by PTP-ER and Mkp3. It phosphorylates a diverse set of downstream cytoplasmic and nuclear effectors, which impact cell fate decisions in a wide array of tissues. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
MAPK, ERK, dpERK, MAP kinase, pERK
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:1,071,462..1,125,927 [+]
Recombination map
2-55
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily. (P40417)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CONVENTIONAL MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES -
Conventional Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinases that are components of the MAPK signaling cascade. MAPKs are activated by dual phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr residues within a conserved Thr-X-Tyr motif located in the activation loop by MAPK kinases. (Adapted from PMID:21372320).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Insulin-like Receptor (IR) signaling pathway in Drosophila is initiated by the binding of an insulin-like peptides to the Insulin-like receptor (InR). (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989.)
Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathway Core Components -
PDGF/VEGF-receptor related (Pvr) encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by the binding of PDGF- and VEGF-related factors (Pvf1,Pvf2 or Pvf3). Pvr has been shown to activate the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade, the PI3K kinase pathway, TORC1 (FBrf0222697), Rho family small GTPases (FBrf0221764, FBrf0180198) and the JNK cascade (FBrf0180198), in a context-dependent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0222697 and FBrf0221727).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway to regulate poliferation, differentiation and effect cell fate decisions in various tissues (PubMed:8157002, PubMed:19965758, PubMed:22140578, PubMed:27552662). Required downstream of phl/Raf in the sev/sevenless, tor/torso, and EGF receptor homolog Egfr signal transduction pathways (PubMed:8157002). Required for embryonic epithelial tissue repair (PubMed:22140578). During larval development, mediates Ptth/tor signaling leading to the production of ecdysone, a hormone required for the initiation of metamorphosis (PubMed:19965758).
(UniProt, P40417)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
rl: rolled
Most alleles lethal. The viable allele, rl1, has wing edges rolled downward; margins somewhat frayed; L4 interrupted distal to posterior crossvein. Eyes small, dark, and rough. Most extreme at 26, less extreme above and below that temperature (Lakovaara, 1963, Proc. Intern. Congr. Genet., 11th., Vol. 1: 175). Temperature sensitive period for eye phenotype during larval stages with most sensitive stage about 60 hr after hatching, i.e., at the beginning of the third-instar (Hackman and Lakovaara, 1966, DIS 41: 92). Effects of dosage of rl and rl+ on eye pigment deposition investigated by Lakovaara (1966, Hereditas 56: 1-19). rl1 lethal in combination with all lethal alleles except rl6, with which it is fully viable and exhibits a rl phenotype. Hemizygotes for lethal alleles, except for rl6, die as third-instar larvae completely devoid of imaginal disks; when heterozygous for rl1 or rl6, the lethal alleles lead to pupal lethality (Hilliker, 1976, Genetics 83: 765-82).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Component of Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway - involved in establishment of the dorsoventral polarity of the egg shell and the embryo - acts in specification of terminal structures immediately after fertilization - Gain-of-function mutants produce extra R7 photoreceptors and extra wing veins
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\rl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\rl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0113701
1412
190
FBtr0113703
1614
376
FBtr0113702
1795
376
FBtr0113700
1573
376
FBtr0329919
2347
331
FBtr0329920
6472
266
FBtr0345337
2072
376
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.6 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0112424
22.0
190
5.83
FBpp0112426
43.2
376
5.98
FBpp0112425
43.2
376
5.98
FBpp0112423
43.2
376
5.98
FBpp0302952
38.4
331
6.44
FBpp0302953
30.8
266
6.24
FBpp0311493
43.2
376
5.98
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

376 aa isoforms: rl-PC, rl-PD, rl-PE, rl-PI
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
376 (aa); 44 (kD observed)
Comments
Antibody made to phosphorylated Erk
rl protein was shown to phosphorylate Jra protein in Drosophila. The substrates for rl protein were identified as Jra residues Ser82, Thr92 and Thr107 in vitro. Ser82 and Thr92 were shown to be in vivo targets as well and Thr 107 was weakly labelled both in vitro and in vivo.
rl protein is rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine via stimulation of the insulin receptor in S2 cells.
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Dually phosphorylated on Thr-198 and Tyr-200, which activates the enzyme (By similarity). Phosphorylated on tyrosine residue(s) in response to insulin.
(UniProt, P40417)
Domain
The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.
(UniProt, P40417)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (49 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001934972
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (39 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (36 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from high throughput genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ras85D; FB:FBgn0003205
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Dsor1; FB:FBgn0010269
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ras85D; FB:FBgn0003205
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Raf; FB:FBgn0003079
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:tor; FB:FBgn0003733
inferred from expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001172432
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
At embryonic stage 15, an antibody to the phosphorylated form of rl stains pericardial precursor cells, several muscle cells, and ectodermal muscle attachment cells.
Activated rl (MAPK) is first detected along the dorsal midline of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis stage S9/10. At stage 10A it is found in two dorsolateral patches of the follicular epithelium, excluding a triangular region near the oocyte nucleus. At stage 10B, it is found in two L-shaped domains at the dorsoanterior region of the follicular epithelium but not in posterior regions. The pattern of activated rl (MAPK) staining was compared across Drosophila subgenera.
Expression of phosphorylated rl protein is observed in the dorsal pharyngeal head mesoderm, and later in the three invaginations of the developing stomatogastric nervous system.
rl protein was observed inboth the nucleus and the cytoplasm of S2 cells. In about 10% of thestained cells, rl protein was excluded from the nucleus. Inphotoreceptor cells, rl protein is observed in the cytoplasm.
rl protein is observed in the invaginated mesoderm in cells that contact the ectoderm and later in cells at the leading edge of the mesoderm as it spreads over the ectoderm. It is observed in tracheal cells as migration begins.
An antibody to the double phosphorylated form of rl was used in these experiments. Prominent staining at both poles is detected at cycle 13/14. At stage 8, expression is observed in the dorsal-most 3-4 rows of the mesoderm and is later restricted to the dorsal-most 1-2 rows. At stage 10, expression is observed in the tracheal placodes and then at stage 11 is seen broadly in the tracheal pits. As migration of the branch tips begins, expression is observed in the migrating tip cells. Prominent staining is observed in the visceral mesoderm at stage 11. It is first seen as segmental patches, before fusion of the visceral arches from each segment, and is subsequently observed as a continuous waved line. Finally, staining is observed at stage 15 in several muscle attachment cells on the ectoderm and in the ventral transverse muscles (VT1).
rl protein expression is observed in embryos, eye discs, adult head and adult body on western blots. Immunolocalization shows expression in all cells of the developing eye imaginal disc.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 72 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 36 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rl
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rl
Deletions and Duplications ( 111 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
 
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
 
3 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (10)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (20)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
Yes
No
4 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (6)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909BX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505JO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05LM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X05HR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08QL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
 
One copy of rl1 ameliorates the size defects seen in Nf1E2 mutant flies when in combination with phl12/+.
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Insulin-like Receptor (IR) signaling pathway in Drosophila is initiated by the binding of an insulin-like peptides to the Insulin-like receptor (InR). (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989.)
Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathway Core Components -
PDGF/VEGF-receptor related (Pvr) encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by the binding of PDGF- and VEGF-related factors (Pvf1,Pvf2 or Pvf3). Pvr has been shown to activate the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade, the PI3K kinase pathway, TORC1 (FBrf0222697), Rho family small GTPases (FBrf0221764, FBrf0180198) and the JNK cascade (FBrf0180198), in a context-dependent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0222697 and FBrf0221727).
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-55
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:1,071,462..1,125,927 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
h41-h41
Left limit from inclusion within Df(2R)IR42 (FBrf0094580) Right limit from inclusion within Df(2R)IR7 (FBrf0094580)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
h41-h41
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
h38R-h46
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
45A-45A
(in error; corrected in FBrf0075158) (determined by in situ hybridisation)
Confirmed by genetic analysis (unpublished data).
Maps to the distal end of h41.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (24)
Genomic Clones (22)
cDNA Clones (63)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: rl CG12559
    Source for merge of: rl CG18732
    Source for merge of: rl BcDNA:RE08694
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of rl BcDNA:RE08694 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    rl is necessary for axon contact dependent inhibition of W dependent cell death of midline glial cells.
    A gradient of rl activity controls differential gene expression and the establishment of various cell fates.
    rl is bound by and inactivated by PTP-ER; however, PTP-ER is unable to dephosphorylate and down regulate rlSem.
    Gain-of-function alleles of rl have moderate dominant activities in the tor signalling pathway.
    The C-terminal portion of cnk regulates phl, a component of rl (MAPK) signalling while the N-terminal portion of cnk is involved in a rl-independent pathway.
    Activation of the Egfr/Ras85D/rl pathway specifically inhibits the proapoptotic activity of W.
    Mutants demonstrate a reduced mitotic index in the larval central nervous system. No interaction with polo, mgr and aur is evident though asp mutants interact with rl and Dsor1 mutants.
    The rl gene product may regulate microtubule behavior during mitosis and mediate the checkpoint that assesses the integrity of the mitotic spindle.
    The MAPK cascade is required for Ras85D mitogenic response, loss of function mutations in phl, Dsor1, rl and ksr dominantly suppress hyperplastic growth, as do mutations in the Ras85D effector loop that disrupt the Ras85D-phl interaction.
    Phylogenetic and functional relationships of MAPKs is studied based on 93 non-redundant full length sequences, 2 atomic structures and known functions of MAPKs.
    rl1 shows hypersensitivity to oxidative stress (paraquat), presumably as a consequence of reduced Sod2 expression.
    rl undergoes polytenization in salivary gland chromosomes to a degree comparable to that of euchromatic genes, despite its deep heterochromatic location. Bari1 sequences located to the left are severely underrepresented and thus appear to be α-heterochromatin. rl is transcribed in polytene tissues. Together these results indicate that functional sequences located within the proximal constitutive heterochromatin can undergo polytenization, contributing to the formation of β-heterochromatin.
    Identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of the phl::tor12D.sev rough eye mutant phenotype.
    Biochemical characterisation of rl and rlSem.
    Jra is a substrate for rl, part of the receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction pathway which triggers photoreceptor differentiation during eye development. Mutant analysis implicates Jra phosphorylation in the choice between neuronal and non-neuronal fate during eye development.
    Studies of interaction between argos and members of the Ras/MAPK pathway demonstrate the argos gene product is a negative regulator of signal transduction that acts upstream of the Ras/MAPK cascade.
    By comparing methylation by Ecol\dam methylase between euchromatic and heterochromatic genes it was determined that the heterochromatic state does not prevent methylase accessibility in vivo.
    Tyrosine phosphorylation of rl and Erk-B increases during heat shock. MAP kinase activation is an immediate early response to heat shock and the increased activity is maintained throughout heat shock treatment.
    Strong dominant enhancement of the Egfr phenotype by rl suggests that the MAPK pathway is involved in the induction of posterior follicle cell fate.
    Phosphorylation of aop by rl map kinase affects the stability and subcellular localisation of aop resulting in rapid down regulation of aop activity. Map kinase mediated down regulation of aop function appears to be critical for the proper differentiation of both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues throughout development. This suggests that aop is an essential component of a general timing mechanism controlling the competence of a cell to respond to inductive signals.
    The profile of rl kinase activation provides an assay for Egfr activation.
    A screen to identify mutations affecting the Ras85D signalling pathway identified alleles of phl, Dsor1, rl, aop, βggt-I, mts, ksr and phyl.
    Mutations of rl can suppress a constitutively active form of phl expressed in the R7 equivalence group thereby establishing a role for rl in the sev signal transduction pathway.
    Activation of the rl MAP kinase by the rlSem mutation is both necessary and sufficient to activate multiple signalling pathways controlled by receptor tyrosine kinases.
    MAP kinase activity, encoded by the rl locus, induces neuronal differentiation by simultaneously inhibiting the aop repressor and stimulating the pnt activator.
    rl encodes a homolog of MAP kinase and the gene product is required for sev mediated signalling.
    rl functions downstream of phl to suppress dl repression, it is possible that additional unidentified intracellular signalling components also participate in this process.
    "h38R--h46 (determined by in situ hybridisation)" was stated as revision.
    In contrast to the euchromatic genes, the heterochromatic genes, including the α-heterochromatic rl gene, require proximity to heterochromatin to function properly.
    A rl cDNA has been cloned and sequenced.
    Lethal phenotype of mutations at rl have reduced and malformed wings, legs and halteres due to cell death.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 181 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (85)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:RE08694
    CG18732
    ERK
    (Bangi et al., 2019, Ben-Zvi and Volk, 2019, Hwang et al., 2019, Meschi et al., 2019, Ogura et al., 2019, Post et al., 2019, Goyal et al., 2018, Hayashi and Kondo, 2018, Inoue et al., 2018, Ly et al., 2018, Miyashita et al., 2018, Tseng et al., 2018, Xu et al., 2018, Busto et al., 2017, Goyal et al., 2017, Louradour et al., 2017, Lusk et al., 2017, Ozasa et al., 2017, Warren et al., 2017, Willoughby et al., 2017, Xiang et al., 2017, Yang and Veraksa, 2017, Chen et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Niwa and Niwa, 2016, Snee et al., 2016, Beck et al., 2015, Grifoni et al., 2015, Lim et al., 2015, Pasco et al., 2015, Sansone et al., 2015, Sopko et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Fauré et al., 2014, Matsuoka et al., 2014, Roy et al., 2014, Sun et al., 2014, Truscott et al., 2014, Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho et al., 2014, Brown et al., 2013, Eguchi et al., 2013, Lim et al., 2013, Park et al., 2013, Pronovost et al., 2013, Rohrbough et al., 2013, Tran et al., 2013, Vanderheyden et al., 2013, Walker et al., 2013, Yamanaka et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Bridon et al., 2012, Fransson et al., 2012, Justiniano et al., 2012, Maeng et al., 2012, Miller et al., 2012, Eliazer et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Geiger et al., 2011, Gouzi et al., 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Jiang et al., 2011, Kim and McGinnis, 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Letizia et al., 2011, Mariappa et al., 2011, Ou et al., 2011, Razzell et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Bhuin and Roy, 2010, Buchon et al., 2010, Csiszar et al., 2010, Freeman et al., 2010, Gutzwiller et al., 2010, Rendina et al., 2010, Ren et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Slack et al., 2010, Tipping et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Yan et al., 2010, Zeng et al., 2010, Guha et al., 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Kadam et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Rewitz et al., 2009, Terriente-Félix and de Celis, 2009, Wairkar et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Bakal et al., 2008, Coppey et al., 2008, Cui et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Liévens et al., 2008, Mahalingam et al., 2008, McNeill et al., 2008, Miura et al., 2008, Mouchel-Vielh et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Xia et al., 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Ambrus et al., 2007, Doroquez et al., 2007, Foltenyi et al., 2007, Friedman and Perrimon, 2007, Griffiths et al., 2007, Hashimoto and Yamaguchi, 2007, James et al., 2007, Jovceva et al., 2007, Liu et al., 2007, Mogila et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Sackton et al., 2007, Toledano-Katchalski et al., 2007, Friedman and Perrimon, 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Oishi et al., 2006, Uhlirova and Bohmann, 2006, Walker et al., 2006, Hariharan, 2005, Lievens et al., 2005, Marques, 2005, Read et al., 2005, Rodrigues et al., 2005, Sackton et al., 2005, Sanyal et al., 2005, Vrailas et al., 2005, Wech and Nagel, 2005, Wilson et al., 2005, Frankfort and Mardon, 2004, Griffiths and Hidalgo, 2004, Gryzik and Muller, 2004, Rusconi et al., 2004, Smallhorn et al., 2004, Yoshida et al., 2004, Hoeffer et al., 2003, Li et al., 2003, Loren et al., 2003, Sanyal et al., 2003, Sathyanarayana et al., 2003, Shilo, 2003, Yang et al., 2003, Anselmo et al., 2002, Prober and Edgar, 2002, Schulz et al., 2002, Duchek and Rorth, 2001, Duchek et al., 2001, Glazer and Shilo, 2001, Hsiao et al., 2001, Kockel et al., 2001, Loren et al., 2001, Shim et al., 2001, Yang and Baker, 2001, Kiger et al., 2000, Zeidler et al., 2000, Amin et al., 1999, Chen and Chien, 1999, Imam et al., 1999, Millward et al., 1999, zur Lage and Jarman, 1999, Dumstrei et al., 1998, Hafen, 1998, Schnepp et al., 1998, Vincent et al., 1998, Yarnitzky et al., 1998, Kockel et al., 1997, Biggs et al., 1994)
    Erk/Map kinase
    ErkA
    MAPK
    (Urwyler et al., 2019, Zhou et al., 2019, Rossi and Fernandes, 2018, Schwarz et al., 2018, Busto et al., 2017, Garcia-Garcia et al., 2017, Lusk et al., 2017, Suisse et al., 2017, Tue et al., 2017, Xiang et al., 2017, Ashton-Beaucage et al., 2016, Bandyopadhyay et al., 2016, Jussen et al., 2016, Xin et al., 2016, Qian et al., 2015, Baril et al., 2014, Macagno et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zemolin et al., 2014, Bergwitz et al., 2013, Ferrandon, 2013, Hahn et al., 2013, Liu et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Yamakawa et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Grigorian et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Liu and Geisbrecht, 2011, Macnamara et al., 2011, Yuva-Aydemir et al., 2011, Almudi et al., 2010, Beam and Moberg, 2010, Herr et al., 2010, Hsouna et al., 2010, Majumdar et al., 2010, Roignant and Treisman, 2010, Sample and Shvartsman, 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Berezhkovskii et al., 2009, Kadam et al., 2009, Klingseisen et al., 2009, Nagaraj and Banerjee, 2009, Nie et al., 2009, Pagani et al., 2009, Smith-Bolton et al., 2009, Wu et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Badrinath, 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Coppey et al., 2008, Coppey et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Kagesawa et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Lyulcheva et al., 2008, Miura et al., 2008, Nallamothu et al., 2008, Stephan et al., 2008, Ashton-Beaucage and Therrien, 2007, Cinnamon et al., 2007, Doroquez et al., 2007, Hsouna et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Kuranaga and Miura, 2007, Majumdar and Marenda, 2007, Monserrate and Baker Brachmann, 2007, Nagaraj and Banerjee, 2007, Weber et al., 2007, Yoneda et al., 2007, Douziech et al., 2006, Gilboa and Lehmann, 2006, Guichard et al., 2006, Hannan et al., 2006, Roignant et al., 2006, Vrailas et al., 2006, Ayala et al., 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Marenda et al., 2005, Rodrigues et al., 2005, Roignant et al., 2005, Sotillos and De Celis, 2005, Wilson et al., 2005, Yuan et al., 2005, Barolo and Posakony, 2004, Gilboa and Lehmann, 2004, Ivanovska et al., 2004, Leopold, 2004, Mandal et al., 2004, Martinho et al., 2004, Meister, 2004, Paquette et al., 2004, Voas and Rebay, 2004, Brachmann and Cagan, 2003, Carmena and Baylies, 2003, Douziech et al., 2003, Hasson et al., 2003, Hsu et al., 2003, Kumar et al., 2003, Matsuda et al., 2003, Nakamura and Matsuno, 2003, Oldham and Hafen, 2003, Pantalacci, 2003, Park et al., 2003, Rodrigues and Moses, 2003, Shilo, 2003, Stanewsky, 2003, Uv et al., 2003, Bradley et al., 2002, Carmena et al., 2002, Cripps and Olson, 2002, Davies, 2002, Dumstrei et al., 2002, Galindo et al., 2002, Galindo et al., 2002, Gorski and Marra, 2002, Hsiung and Moses, 2002, Koh et al., 2002, Mills and Rebay, 2002, Mlodzik, 2002, Morey et al., 2002, Nakato and Kimata, 2002, Ohshiro et al., 2002, Rebay, 2002, Richardson and Kumar, 2002, Roy et al., 2002, Smith et al., 2002, White, 2002, Dawes-Hoang and Wieschaus, 2001, Freeman, 2001, Kumar and Moses, 2001, Lloyd et al., 2001, Morrison, 2001, Su et al., 2001, Williams et al., 2001, Zheng and Sehgal, 2001, Bangs et al., 2000, Bergmann and Steller, 2000, Brennan and Moses, 2000, Carmena et al., 2000, Carthew et al., 2000, Conley et al., 2000, Flores et al., 2000, Gonzalez-Gaitan and Jackle, 2000, Halfon et al., 2000, Kuang et al., 2000, Kubota et al., 2000, Kumar and Moses, 2000, Martin-Bermudo, 2000, McEwen et al., 2000, Oldham et al., 2000, Tittel and Steller, 2000, Bergmann et al., 1999, Carmena et al., 1999, Chen and Chien, 1999, Daniel et al., 1999, Ghiglione et al., 1999, Guichard et al., 1999, Ikeya and Hayashi, 1999, Karim and Rubin, 1999, Lin et al., 1999, Lorenzen et al., 1999, Peri et al., 1999, Ridley, 1999, Stronach and Perrimon, 1999, Therrien et al., 1999, Tien et al., 1999, Wilson, 1999, Carmena et al., 1998, Hayashi et al., 1998, Karim and Rubin, 1998, Karim and Rubin, 1998, Kurada et al., 1998, Lu and Li, 1998, Mantrova and Hsu, 1998, Michelson et al., 1998, Perrimon and Duffy, 1998, Rochwerger et al., 1998, Schnepp et al., 1998, Anonymous, 1997, Freeman, 1997, Hou et al., 1997, Hsu and Mantrova, 1997, Karim et al., 1997, Sawamoto et al., 1997, Klämbt et al., 1996, Gonzalez-Reyes et al., 1995, Liaw et al., 1995, Rebay and Rubin, 1995, Schweitzer et al., 1995, Marshall, 1994)
    Su(Raf)2B
    rl
    (Chai et al., 2019, Huichalaf et al., 2019, Johnson and Toettcher, 2019, La Marca et al., 2019, Mao et al., 2019, Moreno et al., 2019, Ou et al., 2019, Duncan et al., 2018, Mattila et al., 2018, Swevers et al., 2018, Ashton-Beaucage and Therrien, 2017, Houtz et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Kim et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Ashton-Beaucage et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Malartre, 2016, Padash Barmchi et al., 2016, Schwartz et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Auer et al., 2015, Auer et al., 2015, Bosch et al., 2015, Dent et al., 2015, Futran et al., 2015, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Slack et al., 2015, Ashton-Beaucage et al., 2014, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Baril et al., 2014, Chuang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2014, Pereira et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Tchankouo-Nguetcheu et al., 2014, Tsuzuki et al., 2014, Zschätzsch et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Curtis et al., 2013, Park et al., 2013, Peters et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Vanderheyden et al., 2013, Dar et al., 2012, Inamdar et al., 2012, Jones et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Yue et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Eddison et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Gafuik and Steller, 2011, Geiger et al., 2011, Gouzi et al., 2011, Maher et al., 2011, Mouchel-Vielh et al., 2011, Murillo-Maldonado et al., 2011, Ragab et al., 2011, Aron et al., 2010, Ashton-Beaucage et al., 2010, Beam and Moberg, 2010, Bhuin and Roy, 2010, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Ichikawa et al., 2010, Tipping et al., 2010, Yan et al., 2010, Baril et al., 2009, Corl et al., 2009, Fischer et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Oishi et al., 2009, Sims et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Wairkar et al., 2009, Davis et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Jones et al., 2008, Liévens et al., 2008, Mensch et al., 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Yin et al., 2008, Bruinsma et al., 2007, Sackton et al., 2007, Zeng et al., 2007, Brandt, 2006, Cela and Llimargas, 2006, Guichard et al., 2006, Oishi et al., 2006, Walker et al., 2006, de Wit et al., 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Harrison et al., 2005, Wech and Nagel, 2005, Angulo et al., 2004, Morey et al., 2003, Lee et al., 2002, Gim et al., 2001, Gabay et al., 1997, Biggs et al., 1994)
    Name Synonyms
    ERK/rolled
    Enhancer of seven in absentia 7
    Erk MAP kinase
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
    Extracellular-regulated kinase A
    Extracellular-signal-related kinase A
    Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase
    extracellular signal-regulated kinase A
    mitogen activated protein kinase
    phospho-ERK
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0005693
    • FBgn0039983
    • FBgn0042217
    • FBgn0047177
    • FBan0012559
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Interaction map generated by purification of receptor tyrosine kinase pathway factors, with identification of copurifying proteins by mass spectrometry.
    References (968)