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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\RpII215
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
RNA polymerase II 215kD subunit
Annotation Symbol
CG1554
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003277
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
DNA-directed RNA polymerase (2.7.7.6)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

RNA polymerase II, Pol II, RNAPII, PolII, CTD

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,562,800..11,570,326 [-]
Recombination map

1-35

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:11562800..11570326
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the RNA polymerase beta' chain family. (P04052)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
DNA binding; contributes_tocontributes_to RNA polymerase II activity
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1) (2.7.7.6)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RNA POLYMERASE II -
The RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) is a multi-subunit enzyme that transcribes protein-coding genes to produce mRNAs. RNAPII also transcribes various other types of RNAs, including snRNA, small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), microRNA, piRNA and long noncoding RNA. For transcription initiation, RNAPII assembles with the general transcription factors at promoter DNA to form the pre-initiation complex. (Adapted from FBrf0228779, FBrf0213652, PMID:25693126, PMID:23463798 and PMID:17318225).
RNA POLYMERASE II CATALYTIC CORE SUBUNITS -
DNA-directed RNA polymerases catalyze the synthesis of RNA from DNA templates. Nuclear DNA is transcribed by three different multi-subunit polymerases, RNA Pol I, II and III. RNA Pol II synthesizes messenger RNAs. Although composed of 12 subunits, RNA Pol II contains a ten-subunit catalytic core, of which several subunits are shared with RNA Pol I and III. (Adapted from PMID:22365827 and PMID:19540940.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing (By similarity).
(UniProt, P04052)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
RpII215: RNA polymeraseII-215 kd subunit
The structural gene encoding the 215 kd subunit of RNA polymerase II [RNA nucleotidyl transferase (EC 2.7.7.6)]. This subunit highly conserved as inferred from the cross reaction of antiserum from the large subunit of calf RNA polymerase II with enzyme isolated from Drosophila as well as that from yeast and wheat germ (Carrol and Stollar, 1983, J. Mol. Biol. 170: 777-90); also amino-acid sequence homology detected with the β' subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase (Biggs, Searles, and Greenleaf, 1985, Cell 42: 611-21). Dosage compensated at the level of transcription (Faust, Penkawitz-Pohl, Falkenberg, Gasch, Biabjah, Young, and Bautz, 1986, EMBO J. 5: 741-46).
RpII2154
This allele was selected as an amanitin resistant mutation; RpII2154/+ females produce equal amounts or amanitin-sensitive and -resistant enzyme and are themselves amanitin resistant. Generally a viable allele, but survival in combination with RpII21563 and RpII21586 reduced, and with RpII21551 and RpII21578 survival is zero. RNA polymerase isolated from embryos homozygous for this allele is 250 times less sensitive to inhibition by alpha amanitin than that from wild type; resistance attributable to reduced amanitin binding; otherwise RNA polymerase normal in all respects except that there is some reduction in activity in the presence of Mg2+; stable to thermal denaturation (Coulter and Greenleaf, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 157: 1945-52). Flies carrying both RpII2154 and RpII215+ display an Ultrabithorax-like phenotype, with enlarged halteres, and an enhancing effect on expression of Ubx [Greenleaf et al., 1980; Voelker, Wisely, Huang, and Gyurkovics, 1985, Mol. Gen. Genet. 201: 437-45 (fig.)]. Measurements of haltere size in TM6/+ females of various constitutions produced the following: 4/+/+ > 4/+ > 4/4/+ > 4/4 = 4/0 = +/+. The haltere effect of RpII2154 is abolished in heteroallelic combination with RpII2157, RpII215H1, and RpII215K2. RpII2154 decreases the Ubx effect of RpII215Ubl. Heterozygotes also exhibit increased numbers of duplicated bristles in Dl/+ (Mortin et al.). Males carrying RpII2154 on their X plus a normal allele on Dp(1;Y)BS-v+y+ are nearly sterile, and those carrying the normal allele instead on Dp(1;2)v65b are sterile (Voelker et al.).
RpII2157
Cold-sensitive lethal; survives at 28 with nearly wild-type viability, but is lethal at lower temperatures. Surviving males are fertile, whereas homozygous females are sterile. Displays slight increase in haltere size in RpII2157/+; Ubx/+ females. Lethal in combination with RpII215Ubl. Ubx effect inhibited in trans heterozygotes with other interacting alleles. In viable heterozygotes, causes an increase in the number of duplicated bristles in Dl/+ and, in males carrying a duplicated normal allele, produces sex combs on the middle legs.
RpII215106
Homozygous lethal; RpII215106/RpII215106 females with a duplication for RpII215+ display about 50% normal viability, and are fertile when crossed to wild type, but nearly sterile in crosses to RpII215Ubl males with a duplication for RpII215+; all surviving progeny of the latter cross display a hyperabdominal-like phenotype; the females lack metathoracic legs and/or halteres in addition to having extra abdominal tissue; this phenotype barely detectable in offspring of crosses to normal males.
RpII215109
Homozygous lethal; RpII215109/RpII215109 /Dp(1;1)RpII215+ females display about 50% normal viability, are fertile when crossed to wild type, but fertility only 50% normal in crosses to RpII215Ubl/Dp(1;1)RpII215+ males; offspring from the latter cross have darkened eyes, thin bristles, and are sterile.
RpII215H1
Homozygous and hemizygous viable. Exhibits slight enhancement of Ubx when heterozygous to + but not in heteroallelic combination with any of the interacting mutant alleles; it decreases the enhancing effects of RpII215Ubl. Increases the number of duplicated bristles of Dl/+ in all genotypes.
RpII215K1
Temperature-sensitive recessive lethal; flies survive at 19 but not at 29. Although not displaying the Ubx-enhancing effect in combination with +, it does inhibit the effect of RpII2154 at 29 but not at 25 or 19.
RpII215K2
Homozygous and hemizygous viable; homozygous females sterile. Exhibits slight enhancement of Ubx when heterozygous to + but not in heteroallelic combination with any of the interacting mutant alleles; it decreases the enhancing effects of RpII215Ubl. Increases the number of duplicated bristles of Dl/+ in all genotypes. Temperature-sensitive period for effects on both Ubx and Dl from third larval instar until mid-pupal stage.
RpII215ts
Encodes a heat labile RNA polymerase subunit, as measured in vitro (Coulter and Greenleaf, 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 157: 1945-52) and by sterilizing effects on females and lethal effects on embryos. Females shifted from 22 to 29 become sterile, although their eggs laid during the first 24 hr appear normal morphologically; after 24 hr, embryonic development is visibly abnormal. Embryonic abnormalities include holes in the ventral cuticle and abnormal pharyngeal structures. Partial rescue of the sterility can be achieved by shifting newly laid eggs to 22 or by fertilization of eggs of RpII215ts females with wild-type sperm; the degree of rescue decreases as the time that the females have been held at 29 increases. Abnormalities of embryos dying despite rescue attempts mimic the phenotypes of pair-rule and segment-polarity mutants; surviving adults resemble Hab in lacking one or both halteres and metathoracic legs. In RpII215ts/+//RpII215ts/0 gynandromorphs, the RpII215ts/0 tissue appears to occupy more territory than expected, as though it had a proliferative advantage over the RpII215ts/+ tissue (Mortin, Perrimon, and Bonner, 1985, Mol. Gen. Genet. 201: 437-45).
RpII215Ubl: Ultrabithorax-like
Homozygous and hemizygous lethal. Heterozygotes mimic Ubx in adding several hairs to and enlarging the capitellum of the haltere; females homozygous for RpII215Ubl, surviving by virtue of a duplication for RpII215+, more severely affected with capitellum approximately three times the size of that observed in RpII215Ubl/+ and with two or more rows of bristles; about 10% normal viability; poorly fertile in crosses to wild type; sterile when crossed to RpII215Ubl males with a duplication of RpII215+. Similarly males with one mutant and one normal allele are more extreme than females with one mutant and two normal alleles. Acts as a dosage sensitive enhancer of Ubx, transforming halteres into wing-like structures; enhancement by RpII215Ubl/RpII215Ubl/+ > RpII215Ubl/+ > RpII215Ubl/+/+. RpII215Ubl/+ interacts with heterozygotes for bx3 and bx7 but not bx1 to produce enlarged capitellum, and with bxd100/+ to transform halteres into wing-like structures; extra doses of Ubx+ counteract the enhancing effects of RpII215Ubl. A second interaction with Ubx/+ is the production of miscadestral-like pigmentation. Ubx enhancement by RpII215Ubl reduced in trans heterozygotes with other interacting alleles (Mortin et al.). Furthermore in RpII215Ubl/+//RpII215Ubl/0 gynandromorphs, the X0 tissue is without any RpII215Ubl phenotype, displaying neither enlarged halteres nor enhancement of Ubx expression, whereas the XX tissue exhibits both enlarged halteres and Ubx enhancement (Mortin, Perrimon, and Bonner, 1985, Mol. Gen. Genet. 201: 437-45). RpII215Ubl/+ also display increased frequencies of duplicated bristles in Dl/+, and in some crosses causes Sb/+ flies to exhibit shortened and broadened wings whose longitudinal veins fail to reach the margin (Mortin et al.). RpII215Ubl in heterozygous combination with deficiencies for either ct or sno is lethal and with lethal alleles of ct produces a strong cut phenotype; produces a mutant phenotype of allele specific severity in heterozygous combination with deficiencies for or lethal alleles of br, N, dm, slc, bi, oc, m, sd, and sw; interacts with heterozygotes for mutant alleles of oc, sno, and sw, but not the others; no interaction with dor, sn, ras, or g deficiencies. Influence of the maternal genotype apparent since patroclinous RpII215Ubl/Y and RpII215Ubl/0 males from non mutant mothers survive at 20% the expected rate; they are phenotypically normal but are sterile (Voelker et al.).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

large subunit of the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template - context-dependent conformational switches and biased dephosphorylation suggest a mechanism for the selective recruitment of cis-proline-specific regulatory factors and region-specific modulation of the C-terminal domain code that may augment gene regulation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\RpII215 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\RpII215 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073542
6736
1887
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073387
209.2
1887
7.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex consisting of 12 subunits.

(UniProt, P04052)
Post Translational Modification

The tandem 7 residues repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) can be highly phosphorylated. The phosphorylation activates Pol II. Phosphorylation occurs mainly at residues 'Ser-2' and 'Ser-5' of the heptapeptide repeat. The phosphorylation state is believed to result from the balanced action of site-specific CTD kinases and phosphatase, and a 'CTD code' that specifies the position of Pol II within the transcription cycle has been proposed.

(UniProt, P04052)
Domain

The C-terminal domain (CTD) serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing.

(UniProt, P04052)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\RpII215 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000453465
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:9187
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000002299
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:9187
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000002299
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000453465
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\RpII215 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 180 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of RpII215
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of RpII215
Deletions and Duplications ( 19 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900F8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915009E )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W008D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X007S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00CH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
4 of 10
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex consisting of 12 subunits.
    (UniProt, P04052 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-35

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:11,562,800..11,570,326 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    10C6-10C6
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    10C1-10C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    8B1-8B4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    10C-10C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Mapping based on 320 recombinants between v and m.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (61)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: RpII215 CG1554

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: l(1)G0040 RpII215

    Additional comments

    Most alleles are recessive lethals. All enhance expression of Ubx in RpII215/+ heterozygotes with the effect of + (no effect) < RpII215H1 < RpII2157 < RpII215K2 < RpII2154 < RpII215Ubl. Heteroallelic combinations of these mutants produce either a reduced effect when RpII215Ubl is involved or no effect in other combinations.

    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    Suppressor mutations isolated on the basis of restoring viability to RpII215 and RpII140 mutants identify discrete domains in either subunit. The mutations recovered are not random and might provide insights into possible mechanisms for mutagenesis in eukaryotes.

    Used in a phylogenetic analysis, the tree in inferred by parsimony method from RpoB sequences, or homologous, multiple alignment.

    Hsf interacts directly with the general transcription factor Tbp and these two factor bind cooperatively to heat shock promoters. The acidic domain of RpII215 associates with Tbp in vitro and is specifically displaced from Tbp upon addition of Hsf.

    An assay for the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CTD-kinases has been developed and the localisation on polytene chromosomes of the phosphorylated (PolII0) and nonphosphorylated (PolIIA) forms of the enzyme compared.

    The distribution of different isoforms of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (encoded by RpII215) in Drosophila embryos has been analysed.

    The interaction between alleles in different classes of polymerase occurs even in the absence of transcription by the wild type polymerase and occurs prior to the elongation and/or translocation step that is blocked or slowed by α-amanitin.

    RpII215 protein interacts in vivo with Cdk8 protein.

    Removal of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RpII215) abolished productive elongation. Cdk9 can phosphorylate the CTD and this phosphorylation controls the transition from abortive into productive elongation mode.

    Removal of the entire CTD repeats renders RpII215 completely defective in vivo, whereas eliminating half of the CTD results in a polymerase with significant in vivo activity.

    RNA polymerase II is well suited for the elucidation of the evolutionary relationships among eukaryotes.

    The technique of paramagnetic particle-mediated selection of terminated run-on transcripts was used to examine RNA polymerase II pausing and 5' cap formation at high resolution on the heat shock genes Hsp70A, Hsp70B, Hsp26 and Hsp27. Results demonstrate that polymerases pause over a narrow region of each heat shock gene, not at a defined point. 5' capping occurs over a region coincidental with that of pausing.

    Protein complexes of RNA polymerase II localise to major developmental puffs and heat shock puffs.

    Mutations in zygotic gene RpII215 do not interact with RpII140wimp.

    RpII215 has been cloned and sequenced.

    The protein coding sequences and the 5' end of RpII215 have been located by sequencing 2582 bases of DNA from coordinates +0.4 to -2.18.

    P element reversion gives rise to different revertants that retain different levels of gene function.

    The structural gene encoding the 215kD subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA nucleotidyl transferase. This subunit highly conserved as inferred from the cross-reaction of antiserum from the large subunit of calf RNA polymerase II with enzyme isolated from Drosophila as well as that from yeast and wheat germ (Carrol and Stollar, 1983); also amino-acid sequence homology detected with the β' subunit of E.coli RNA polymerase (Biggs, Searles, and Greenleaf, 1985). Dosage compensated at the level of transcription (Faust, Renkawitz-Pohl, Falkenburg, Gasch, Bialojan, Young and Bautz, 1986).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 81 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (78)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Pol II Ser5P
    Pol II0ser2
    Pol II0ser5
    Pol IIoSer2
    Ser5-P Pol II
    l(1)10Ca
    l(1)DC912
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0001616
    • FBgn0026704
    Datasets (3)
    Study focus (3)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of essential replication factors characterized by ChIP-Seq and ChIP-chip.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (382)