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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\S
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Star
Annotation Symbol
CG4385
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003310
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Star (S) encodes a type II transmembrane protein that facilitates trafficking of transmembrane Egfr ligands from the endoplasmic reticulum to the late secretory compartment. It is involved in growth regulation, cell survival and developmental patterning. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

floater, l(2)07056, Star/asteroid, fltr, l(2)05671

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:1,049,674..1,077,815 [-]
Recombination map

2-1.5

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:1049674..1077815
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    -
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Pathway (FlyBase)
    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Production -
    Factors required for the proteolytic cleavage and/or secretion of transforming growth factor-α-like Egfr ligands spi, Krn or grk.
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Involved in EGF receptor signaling. Has an early role in photoreceptor development. Interacts with the receptor torpedo in the eye.
    (UniProt, P42519)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    S: Star
    Eyes slightly smaller and narrower than wild type; texture somewhat rough from rounded, irregular facets. Arrangement of hairs on surface of eye irregular. S/ast has small rough eyes; S ast/+ + is like S/+. Enhanced by E(S); partially suppresses px and net (Bedichek, 1936, DIS 5: 24; Lewis, 1945). Homozygote dies in late embryonic stage (Sivertzev-Dobzhansky, 1927, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 109: 535-48; Sonnenblick and Huettner, 1938, Genetics 23: 169). A member of the so-called spitz group of mutants; embryos lack structures derived from ventral-lateral region of blastoderm. Denticle bands narrow and ventral arms of head skeleton fused. Anal pads reduced. Transverse commisures of ventral nervous system reduced; Keilin organs, maxillary and antennal sense organs strongly reduced. Lethal in homozygous clones in female germ line (Nusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus, and Kluding, 1984, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 193: 267-82; Mayer and Nusslein-Volhard). RK1.
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    type II transmembrane protein - Rhomboid and Star facilitate Egfr signaling by processing membrane-bound Spitz to an active, soluble form - facilitates trafficking of transmembrane EGFR ligands from the endoplasmic reticulum to the late secretory compartment - growth regulation, cell survival and developmental patterning

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\S or the JBrowse view of Dmel\S for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

    Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

    Gene model reviewed during 5.45

    Gene model reviewed during 5.56

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0077994
    2267
    597
    FBtr0077993
    5206
    597
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    4.0 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0077659
    65.8
    597
    7.98
    FBpp0077658
    65.8
    597
    7.98
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    597 aa isoforms: S-PA, S-PB
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    597 (aa); 66 (kD predicted)

    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

    Interacts with Spitz via the lumenal domain and mediates its transport to the Golgi.

    (UniProt, P42519)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\S using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (24 terms)
    Molecular Function (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (18 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Cellular Component (6 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    organism

    Comment: maternally deposited

    ectoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    mesectoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    ventral ectoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    visual anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    antennal anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    antennal anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    central brain anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    dorsal head epidermis anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    visual anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    antennal primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    central brain primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    visual primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    dorsal head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    lateral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    ventral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    Additional Descriptive Data

    S transcripts are expressed throughout embryonic development. S transcripts are initially detected at ~stage 4 in a ventrolateral domain 7-9 cells wide. As gastrulation proceeds, the expression domain moves ventrally and is located in a 5-7 cell wide band on either side of the ventral midline. By stage 8 a single band 2-4 cells wide is stained along the midline and by stage 9,10, expression is refined to a single band of cells 1-2 cells wide that corresponds to the mesectoderm. The midline expression is further refined to small clusters of cells that are thought to be midline glia. Expression is also observed in ventrolateral stripes and in the optic lobe anlage. In the eye disc, S transcripts are observed at the morphogenetic furrow in a narrow band that is only one cluster wide. Immediately posterior to the furrow, the level of S transcripts drops dramatically for three to four columns before being expressed again at high levels in the developing photoreceptor cell clusters. Initially, the transcript is expressed strongly in three cells that are likely to be R2, R5, and R8. Later, other photoreceptor cells also express S.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\S in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 4-6
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    larval sense organ & antennal segment
    larval sense organ & maxillary segment
    mesothoracic tarsal segment 1 & bract
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908WG )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507Q2 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06KB )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06G1 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    suppressible
    enhanceable
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Spitz via the lumenal domain and mediates its transport to the Golgi.
    (UniProt, P42519 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Production -
    Factors required for the proteolytic cleavage and/or secretion of transforming growth factor-α-like Egfr ligands spi, Krn or grk.
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-1.5

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:1,049,674..1,077,815 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    21E4-21E4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k09610k09610&P{lacW}Sk09538a and P{PZ}l(2)1068510685&P{lacW}Tango14k00619
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    21D2-21D3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    21E1-21E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    21E-21F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    21C6-21C7
    21E1--2 21E1--3 21E2--3 21E3--4
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (110)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (77)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: S CG4385

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: S l(2)k09538

    Source for merge of: S l(2)c00080

    Additional comments

    Shs.8 (FBrf0073598) rescues the embryonic lethality of S104E and S1, and the rough eye phenotype of ast, even in the absence of heat shock. On the basis of this rescue, ast and S merged to same gene. Split again on the basis of molecular data (FBrf0085372) Many deficiencies were formerly described as alleles (see Df(2L)S).

    Other Comments

    Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).

    S protein appears to traffic the spi precursor while cycling between the endoplasmic reticulum and late endosomes in S[[2]]R[+] cells.

    Cleavage of the S protein (by rho or ru protein) leads to its inactivation as a spi chaperone.

    S may have a role in spi processing or transmission.

    S interacts directly with spi.

    S is required to export spi protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.

    rho and S function in a synergistic and co-dependent manner, that is independent of spi, to promote vein development through the Egfr/MAPK signalling pathway.

    Four EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

    S protein is likely to be involved in spi ligand processing.

    6 "ES2-4" alleles of S have been isolated in a screen for dominant modifiers of the sinaGMR.PN eye phenotype.

    Genetic interaction studies suggest the S gene may participate in Egfr signalling in the ovary.

    In vivo culture of mutant discs from genotypes that are normally embryonic lethal demonstrates S has no role in wing disc growth.

    Identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of the phl::tor12D.sev rough eye mutant phenotype.

    The function of spi, rho and S appears to be non-autonomous; expression of the precursor only in the midline is sufficient for patterning the ventral ectoderm. Facilitating the expression of spi, rho and S is the only sim-dependent contribution of the midline to patterning the ventral ectoderm, since the mutant sim ectodermal defects can be overcome by expression of secreted spi in the ectoderm. These results suggest a mechanism for generating a graded distribution of secreted spi, which may subsequently give rise to graded activation of Egfr in the ectoderm.

    Studies of interaction between argos and members of the Ras/MAPK pathway demonstrate the argos gene product is a negative regulator of signal transduction that acts upstream of the Ras/MAPK cascade.

    S mutants show a suppressive effect on mutant argos phenotypes.

    The spi product triggers the Egfr signaling cascade. Graded activation of the Egfr pathway may normally give rise to a repertoire of discrete cell fates in the ventral ectoderm and graded distribution of spi may be responsible for the graded activation. The rho and S products may act as modulators of Egfr signaling. Epistatic relationships suggest that rho and S may normally facilitate processing of the spi precursor.

    Alleles of S and of ro have been identified in a screen for abnormal numbers of R8 cells.

    The interaction of rap and rg with S is synergistic and dosage sensitive.

    Mutations can act as dominant modifiers of the activated N eye phenotype (FBrf0064452).

    Rescue analysis of mutant alleles with heat inducible S constructs shows that the asteroid mutants are a viable class of alleles in the S gene.

    Loss of function mutations in S act as suppressors of R7 development in a sensitized genetic background involving Sos, and overexpression of S enhances R7 development in this genetic background.

    S plays an early role in photoreceptor development, and interacts with Egfr in the developing eye. S may also have a later role in photoreceptor development including the recruitment of the R7 cell through the sev pathway.

    The differentiation of individual mesectoderm cells (MECs) lineages is traced. S is necessary for determining the correct number of cells in many neuronal MEC lineages. The correct number of midline glia are determined but later become apoptotic in embryos mutant for S.

    S function is required for the reception of a signal and/or the execution of a developmental program that leads to the neuronal differentiation of photoreceptors R8, R2 and R5. S is also required for the formation of the wing veins. Dosage-dependent genetic interaction between S and sev, Ras85D and Sos (involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling) supports a role for S in cell-cell signalling.

    Molecular data and phenotypic interactions are consistent with the interpretation that S and ast mutations are lesions within the same gene or within genes that are functionally related.

    rho gene product acts synergistically with Egfr signalling components.

    A screen that identified Dominant suppressors of the wing phenotype associated with Dl9P and DlFE32 identified 14 new S alleles.

    S mutants have a weak salivary placode phenotype: the placodes are separated by two cells instead of four.

    Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.

    rho, pnt, S and spi all function in the formation of the same chordotonal organs.

    ve, vn, ci, cg, svs, ast (S), H, Vno and vvl belong to the vein phenotypic group (Puro, 1982, D. I. S. 58:205--208 ) within the 'lack-of-vein' mutant class. Loss-of-function alleles at these loci remove stretches of veins in two or more longitudinal veins. Double mutations within members of this group remove all veins, have smaller, slightly lanceolate wings, no sensilla and extra chaetae.

    Eyes slightly smaller and narrower than wild type; texture somewhat rough from rounded, irregular facets. Arrangement of hairs on surface of eye irregular. S/ast has small rough eyes; S ast/+ + is like S/+. Enhanced by E(S); partially suppresses px and net (Bedichek, 1936; Lewis, 1945). Homozygote dies in late embryonic stage (Sivertzev-Dobzhansky, 1927; Sonnenblick and Huettner, 1938). A member of the so-called spitz group of mutants; embryos lack structures derived from ventral-lateral region of blastoderm. Denticle bands narrow and ventral arms of head skeleton fused. Anal pads reduced. Transverse commissures of ventral nervous system reduced; Keilin organs, maxillary and antennal sense organs strongly reduced. Lethal in homozygous clones in female germ line (Nusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus and Kluding, 1984; Mayer and Nusslein-Volhard, 1988).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 46 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    E(Raf)2B
    l(2)21Eb
    l(2)c00080
    l(2)k09538
    l(2)rK134
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010102
    • FBgn0010674
    • FBgn0069199
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (370)