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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sca
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
scabrous
Annotation Symbol
CG17579
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003326
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
scabrous (sca) encodes a secreted glycoprotein with partial homology to fibrinogen and its relatives. It is a transcriptional target of proneural bHLH proteins and a useful marker for proneural regions and cells. It contributes to neural patterning and interacts with the Notch pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,780,541..12,802,010 [+]
Recombination map

2-67

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:12780541..12802010
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (9 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000441395
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000441162
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000441162
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in regulation of neurogenesis. May encode a lateral inhibitor of R8 differentiation. In conjunction with Gp150, promotes Notch activation in response to Delta by regulating acquisition of insensitivity to Delta in a subset of cells.
(UniProt, P21520)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sca: scabrous
Eyes large and rough. Ocellar bristles 85% absent at 25 and 10% absent at 18. Postverticals occasionally missing. Bristle effect more extreme in male at 21 and in female at 28. Most bristles subject to twinning. May be extra rows of acrostichal hairs. Mosaic experiments suggest that sca affects the spacing of R8 cells in the eye (Baker, Mlodzik, and Rubin, 1990, Science 250: 1370-77). RK1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

secreted glycoprotein - fibrinogen family - regulates spacing of photoreceptors - a Notch pathway inhibitory signal secreted by photoreceptor precursors in response to Egfr signaling - transcriptional target of proneural bHLH proteins and a useful marker for proneural regions and cells - contributes to neural patterning

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sca or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sca for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087855
2876
799
FBtr0087856
3796
799
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086968
90.1
799
5.75
FBpp0086969
90.1
799
5.75
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

799 aa isoforms: sca-PA, sca-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Possesses five pairs of dibasic residues that may be the target of proteolytic processing.

(UniProt, P21520)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sca using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sca transcripts are first detected in all cells at the cellular blastoderm stage. By the end of stage 5 a pattern of stripes is seen with a large anterior stripe in the head and seven ventrolateral stripes in the presumptive trunk neurectoderm. By the end of stage 8, expression is seen in 14 segmentally repeated cell clusters in the neurectoderm. In stages 9 and 10, sca is expressed in neuroblasts as they delaminate from the ectoderm and at a reduced level in epidermoblasts. At stage 10, sca is seen in the six longitudinal rows of neuroblasts on either side of the midline. Expression ceases in the segregated neuroblasts by stage 11. sca expression is observed at stage 10 in one cell per parasegment thought to be the P cell. In early stage 11, expression is apparent in an increasing number of SMCs but ceases by stage 12. sca is also expressed in neural precursors along the ventral midline. sca expression is observed transiently in stage 12 in clusters of 8-10 ectodermal cells in the thoracic segments. These may correspond to sense organ precursors in the thoracic segments.

The highest levels of sca transcripts are found in embryos, pupae, and third instar imaginal discs. In embryos, sca transcripts are first detected at 3 hrs of development and by gastrulation, are prominent in the neurogenic ectoderm. During germ band extension, sca transcripts are seen in alternating domains of high and low expression along the anterior-posterior axis. By the early germ band extended stage, expression is restricted to the neurogenic region. During CNS development, expression is higher in neuroblasts than in epidermal precursor cells. Expression is later seen in regions of ectoderm that will give rise to the PNS. In 3rd instar larvae, sca is expressed in the optic lobes, the ventral nerve cord, and in scattered cells in the imaginal discs. Its expression in the eye disc (predominantly in photoreceptor cell R8) and in the wing disc (in sensory bristle precursors) was described in detail.

No sca transcripts are detectable in scaBP2 homozygotes.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sca protein is expressed in the sensory mother cells along the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary of the wing disc.

Both sca and Gp150 protein were detected in late endosomes in eye discs. sca protein was frequently found in large particles in these endosomes.

Protein is detected in the intermidiate clusters of the morphogenetic furrow as well as in the posterior single R8 cell precursors. In addition, sca-containing vesicles were detected in cytoplasmic extensions of these sca expressing cells upto ommatidial rows 6-8 corresponding to 15-25 cell diameters. This intracellularly transported sca protein was shown to be important in stopping ommatidial rotation at 90 degrees.

sca is expressed in R8 cell precursors. Certain antibodies detect sca protein several cell diameters away from its R8 cell source which may be important for signalling.

sca protein is detected in groups of 7-10 cells, equivalent to one column of ommatidia, at the anterior edge of the morphogenetic furrow. In the next column, sca protein becomes restricted to the R8 cell. Expression persists in R8 for 6-8hrs or about four columns of ommatidial development.

sca protein is first detected in the eye disc in clusters of cells preceding the morphogenetic furrow. It then becomes limited to R8 cell precursors. It remains in R8 cells for about 8 hours, disappearing as overt differentiation begins after the furrow.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}375.1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}scaP309
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}C253
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}sca109-68
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}sca537.4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}scaDB
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}scaT3
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lArB}58
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sca-Gal-4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sca in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sca
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sca
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult thorax & macrochaeta
chemosensory ventral triple row & microchaeta | ectopic
dorsal triple row & microchaeta | ectopic
leg & macrochaeta
microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum (with sca1)
microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum (with scaBP2)
microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum | supernumerary | somatic clone
morphogenetic furrow & filopodium | somatic clone
scutum & macrochaeta
wing & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (26)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
0  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
0  
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (24)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (25)
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (56)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (49)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903XC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505OY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02O9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02LG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03M1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map

2-67

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,780,541..12,802,010 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
49C3-49D3
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Nacα04329 and P{lacW}bick10712
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
49D1-49D3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
49D-49E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

2-66.7

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (60)
Genomic Clones (21)
cDNA Clones (119)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

monoclonal antibody

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: sca anon- EST:Liang-38

Additional comments

FlyBase curator comment: GS line 2038 ("P{GSV1}scaGS2038") was originally stated to be inserted close to "CG9328" in FBrf0107369. However, this location is incorrect and the insertion has since been mapped to near "sca" (see Aikagi, 2007.3.19, personal communication to FlyBase).

Dsim\py is orthologous to sca.

Other Comments

Dsim\py1/sca1 hybrid females show a sca-like (Dsim\py-like) phenotype.

Endosomal sca and Gp150 may promote N activation in response to Dl, by regulating acquisition of insensitivity to Dl in a subset of cells.

sca functions non-autonomously to stop ommatidial rotation by suppressing nmo activity during the second ommatidial rotation.

sca has a role in the spacing of bristles in the adult notum and may provide cues that allow sensory organ precursors to remain evenly spaced after they have segregated.

Secreted sca protein associates with and stabilizes N at the cell surface, acting to regulate N activity to sharpen proneural cluster boundaries and ensure establishment of single pioneer neurons.

sca is not required for inhibition of cells situated adjacent to the bristle precursor cells, but is needed, non-autonomously, for inhibition of cells not adjacent to the precursor.

Immunoprecipitation assay, cell binding assays and cell aggregation assays demonstrate there is no interaction between sca and N (or Dl) proteins.

Two additional alleles have been derived by Δ2-3 mobilization of P{lArB} during an analysis of quantitative trait loci effects on bristle number.

The conserved fibrinogen related domain (FReD) of the sca protein is essential for wild type sca function and results suggest the domain may interact with other proteins. Genetic interactions identify N and Dl as potential interacting proteins.

Genetic interactions suggest that cno participates with members of the N pathway in regulating adhesive cell-cell interactions for the determination of cell fate.

Quantitative differences in the level of sca product plays a role in establishing the spacing pattern within the morphogenetic furrow.

sca appears to be involved in a feedback loop affecting its own transcription in the morphogenetic furrow.

sca is directly activated in proneural clusters of the late third-instar wing imaginal disc by protein complexes that include the ac and sc bHLH proteins.

hh acts upstream of gl, sca, h and dpp in the developing eye.

Mutations affect eye morphology.

The pattern of sca transcription during embryogenesis has been analysed.

Mosaic experiments suggest that sca affects the spacing of R8 cells in the eye.

sca is required for the formation of the embryonic nervous system and the generation of the adult eye and sensory bristles.

sca is a suppressor of 'spl' alleles of N.

The sca gene product encodes an inhibitory signal in lateral inhibition during early PNS development in the imaginal discs.

The products of vg and sca act in conjunction with N, in a dosage sensitive manner, to stimulate the differentiation of specific cell types.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer

Ives, 2nd Oct. 1934.

Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 77 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
anon-EST:Liang-38
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0025943
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (308)