General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Sce
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Sex combs extra
Annotation Symbol
CG5595
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003330
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
dRING, dRING1, Ring, RING1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,680,431..27,682,029 [-]
Recombination map
3-94
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RING FINGER DOMAIN PROTEINS -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
dRING-ASSOCIATED FACTORS -
The Drosophila Polycomb group complex dRING-associated factors (dRAF) catalyzes histone H2A K119 ubiquitination and H3K36me2 removal. Therefore, dRAF removes an active mark from histone H3 and adds a repressive one to H2A. (Adapted from FBrf0215737).
POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 (CORE SUBUNITS) -
The Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is a Polycomb group complex. It binds to histone H3K27me3 (histone H3 K27 methylation is catalyzed by PRC2) and monoubiquitinates H2A on K119. This leads to chromatin compaction, RNA polymerase II stalling and gene silencing. (Adapted from FBrf0179742 and FBrf0228921).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates monoubiquitination of 'Lys-118' of histone H2A, thereby playing a central role in histone code and gene regulation. H2A 'Lys-118' ubiquitination gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Polycomb group (PcG) protein. PcG proteins act by forming multiprotein complexes, which are required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins are not required to initiate repression, but to maintain it during later stages of development. PcG complexes act via modification of histones, such as methylation, deacetylation, ubiquitination rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility. May play a role in meiotic sister chromatid cohesion.
(UniProt, Q9VB08)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Sce: Sex combs extra
A dominant enhancer of Mcp in the BXC. Sce/Sce zygotes from Sce/+ mothers die as first instar larvae with weak posteriorly directed transformations, i.e., A7 displays some A8 characteristics. Heterozygous offspring normal. Sce/Sce embryos from clones of homozygous oocytes produced by pole-cell transplantation display extreme posteriorly directed segmental transformation. Ventral setal belts of all abdominal and thoracic segments transformed toward A8; head involution blocked; abdominal type denticle belts also found anterior to T1 in the presumptive labial and maxillary segments; in addition an extensive belt of abdominal denticles of unknown derivation forms on the anterodorsal surface of the embryo. Keilin's organs and ventral pits suppressed in thoracic segments; wart-like sensilla normally found in A8 formed anteriorally as far as A2. Tracheal branches in A1-7 resemble those normally found more posteriorly. Sce/+ offspring from homozygous germ line clones in the mothers may survive to adulthood or die as pharate adults; they show patches of tissue transformed toward A8.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Sce or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Sce for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085245
1542
435
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084614
47.3
435
7.14
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with ORD. Component of PRC1 complex, which contains many PcG proteins like Pc, ph, Scm, Psc, Sce and also chromatin remodeling proteins such as histone deacetylases. This complex is distinct from the Esc/E(z) complex, at least composed of esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Rpd3 and Caf1. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing.
(UniProt, Q9VB08)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Sce using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24434
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10061
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: maternal component at stage 5

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

imaginal disc

Comment: Ubiquitous Sce expression observed in all imaginal discs.

Additional Descriptive Data
At stage 14 of development, Sce protein but not mRNA is observed in the epidermis, suggesting that Sce translation or stability might be spatially regulated.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
imaginal disc

Comment: Ubiquitous Sce expression observed in all imaginal discs.

western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
At stage 14 of development, Sce protein but not mRNA is observed in the epidermis, suggesting that Sce translation or stability might be spatially regulated.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Sce in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 6 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Sce
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
      Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      13 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      12 of 15
      No
      Yes
       
       
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
      11 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      9 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
      12 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      8 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      No
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
      14 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
      7 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      No
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
      4 of 9
      Yes
      Yes
      3 of 9
      No
      Yes
      1 of 9
      No
      No
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
      1 of 12
      Yes
      No
      1 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CNM )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila suzukii
      Spotted wing Drosophila
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507YG )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08G0 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08BJ )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06VO )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Dmel gene
        Ortholog showing functional complementation
        Supporting References
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Interacts with ORD. Component of PRC1 complex, which contains many PcG proteins like Pc, ph, Scm, Psc, Sce and also chromatin remodeling proteins such as histone deacetylases. This complex is distinct from the Esc/E(z) complex, at least composed of esc, E(z), Su(z)12, Rpd3 and Caf1. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing.
        (UniProt, Q9VB08 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        3R
        Recombination map
        3-94
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        3R:27,680,431..27,682,029 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        98B1-98B1
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sda03884 and P{PZ}btzrL203
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        98A-98A
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        98B-98B
        (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99C (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Clones hybridise to both 98B and 99C, probably as a result of a repeated sequence. The hybridisation to 98B is very slightly stronger than to 99C, though both are strong.
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (8)
        Genomic Clones (13)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (64)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: Sce Ring
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Sce protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
        Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.
        Sce is required for normal neuroblast survival and proliferation in postembryonic central nervous system development.
        Silencing activity of the iab-7PRE in the bithorax complex is dependent upon proteins from the Polycomb group.
        In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Scm and Sce have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.
        Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
        Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic Sce product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.
        The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.
        Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that Sce is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        Ding
        Dring
        Rnf2
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0020911
        Datasets (3)
        Study focus (3)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • transgene_used
        Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
        • bait_protein
        Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        • bait_protein
        Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        References (192)