General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Scm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Sex comb on midleg
Annotation Symbol
CG9495
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003334
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Su(z)302
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:9,633,359..9,637,611 [-]
Recombination map
3-49
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the SCM family. (Q9VHA0)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. PcG proteins act by forming multiprotein complexes, which are required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins are not required to initiate repression, but to maintain it during later stages of development. They probably act via the methylation of histones, rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility.
(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Scm: Sex combs on midleg
Presumably Scm/+ males form sex combs on the mesothoracic legs; does not appear to have been explicitly described. Homozygous embryos show posteriorly directed transformations; A1 resembles A2 and A2-7 transformed into more posterior segments, head and thorax normal. Pcl Scm double homozygotes exhibit transformation of all segments toward A8; Keilin's organs retained in thoracic segments; head involution does not occur; prominant abdominal denticle band seen on dorsal surface of head. Homozygous embryos derived from transplanted homozygous maternal germ-cell precursors display A8 morphology in all thoracic and abdominal segments; head seems to resemble that of Pcl Scm double homozygotes produced by heterozygous mothers; heterozygous adults from homozygous oocytes show patchy transformations of A4 to A5 and of A6 and A7 to A8; similar transformation infrequently seen in heterozygous offspring of heterozygous mothers.
ScmK1
Strong dominant enhancer of the extra sex combs phenotype of Pc heterozygotes. Allelism to Scm inferred from phenotype and location.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Scm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Scm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082102
4069
877
FBtr0306008
3767
877
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.1, 3.8 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081580
93.6
877
8.71
FBpp0297150
93.6
877
8.71
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

877 aa isoforms: Scm-PA, Scm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
100 (kD observed)
877 (aa); 94 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Scm associates with the PRC1 core complex containing PSC, PC, PH and Sce/RING1. Forms homotypic and heterotypic interactions. Interacts with the SAM domain of ph-p via its SAM domain in vitro. Interacts with corto in vitro.
(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Domain
The SAM domain is essential for function.
(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Scm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VHA0
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sfmbt; FB:FBgn0032475
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P39769
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P41046
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR010507, InterPro:IPR012313
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ph-p; FB:FBgn0004861
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred by curator from GO:0016458
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004092
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0016458
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Scm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 30 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Scm
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Scm
      Allele of Scm
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Scm
      Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      12 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      11 of 15
      No
      Yes
      5 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      13 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      6 of 15
      No
      Yes
      5 of 15
      No
      Yes
      2 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
      9 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      6 of 13
      No
      Yes
      3 of 13
      No
      Yes
      1 of 13
      No
      Yes
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
      10 of 12
      Yes
      Yes
      4 of 12
      No
      Yes
      2 of 12
      No
      Yes
      1 of 12
      No
      Yes
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
      7 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      4 of 15
      No
      Yes
      3 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      1 of 15
      No
      Yes
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903JE )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501TV )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Lucilia cuprina
      Australian sheep blowfly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03KR )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03HK )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strigamia maritima
      European centipede
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Tetranychus urticae
      Two-spotted spider mite
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05BW )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Gallus gallus
      Domestic chicken
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Scm associates with the PRC1 core complex containing PSC, PC, PH and Sce/RING1. Forms homotypic and heterotypic interactions. Interacts with the SAM domain of ph-p via its SAM domain in vitro. Interacts with corto in vitro.
        (UniProt, Q9VHA0 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        3R
        Recombination map
        3-49
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        3R:9,633,359..9,637,611 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        85E2-85E2
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CrcEP3006 and P{lacW}s2681
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        Location from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (15)
        Genomic Clones (20)
        cDNA Clones (39)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        Scm is required for normal neuroblast survival and proliferation in postembryonic central nervous system development.
        Silencing activity depends upon a protein interaction domain in tethered Scm protein.
        Pc-G proteins can silence gene expression at a large number of chromosomal locations, affecting both enhancer-activated and basal w transcription. Repression is observed even with separation distances of up to 3.0kb between target promoters and binding sites for tethered Pc-G proteins.
        Pc, Scm, Psc, ph-p and ph-d contribute to the PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1). PRC1 directly antagonizes ATP-dependent remodeling of nucleosomal arrays in a purified system and may directly modulate (and be modified by) SWI/SNF (brm/mor) activity.
        Silencing activity of the iab-7PRE in the bithorax complex is dependent upon proteins from the Polycomb group.
        The SPM domain of ph-p and Scm mediates direct interaction between these proteins, and is sufficient for these protein interactions.
        Scm encodes a zinc finger protein with similarity to the polyhomeotic proteins.
        In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Scm and Sce have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.
        Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
        The effect of mutations in the Scm locus on mutagenesis in the y2ns scme double superunstable system has been analysed.
        The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal bithorax complex context. The Pc group products apparently provide stable memory or imprinting of boundaries which are specified by gap and pair-rule regulators.
        Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.
        Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic Scm product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.
        The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.
        Dominant suppressor of z1 eye colour: yellow eye colour darken to an orange tan, and is also associated with homeotic transformations.
        Scm is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
        Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that Scm is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        l(3)85Ef
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (217)