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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
scalloped
Annotation Symbol
CG8544
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003345
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
scalloped (sd) encodes a DNA binding protein of the TEAD class. It requires co-factor proteins ,such as the products of vg and yki, to act as a transcription factor, and is modified by Hippo and Wingless signalling. It is involved in wing and neuronal specification. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
l(1)G0483, sp, spatula, l(1)G0239, l(1)G0262
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,804,370..15,827,682 [+]
Recombination map
1-52
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TEA DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The TEA domain transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These transcription factors are characterized by TEA/ATTS domain, which contains three α-helices, two of which have been demonstrated to be important for DNA binding. (Adapted from FBrf0174698).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor which plays a key role in the Hippo/SWH (Sav/Wts/Hpo) signaling pathway, a signaling pathway that plays a pivotal role in organ size control and tumor suppression by restricting proliferation and promoting apoptosis. The core of this pathway is composed of a kinase cascade wherein Hippo (Hpo), in complex with its regulatory protein Salvador (Sav), phosphorylates and activates Warts (Wts) in complex with its regulatory protein Mats, which in turn phosphorylates and inactivates the Yorkie (Yki) oncoprotein. The Hippo/SWH signaling pathway inhibits the activity of the transcriptional complex formed by Scalloped (sd) and Yki and the target genes of this pathway include cyclin-E (cycE), diap1 and bantam. Sd promotes nuclear localization of Yki. Involved in the regulation of cell-specific gene expression during development, particularly in the differentiation of the nervous system. When in combination with vestigial (vg) it acts as a transcriptional activation complex that regulates gene expression in the wing. Binding to vg switches the DNA target selectivity of sd. Required autonomously for cell proliferation and viability within the wing blade. Required for proper sensory organ precursor (SOP) differentiation at the wing margin; required for correct expression of sens.
(UniProt, P30052)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sd: scalloped (S. D. Campbell and A. Chovnick)
thumb
sd: scalloped
From Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Wing margins scalloped and veins thickened. Eyes slightly roughened. Does not overlap wild type. Additional defects noted are uplifting of posterior scutellar bristles, haltere diminution, and ectopic bristles on the wing blade. RK1.
*sd2
More extreme than sd. Wings small and scalloped. Like vg at high temperatures. Crossing over inhibited. RK2A?
*sd56j
More extreme than sd. Expression enhanced by high temperature. Visible in prepupal wing buds. Interacts with Bx and bi. RK1.
sd58d
Wings reduced to vestiges, like vg. Halteres and bristles also like vg. sd58d/sd has strap-shaped wing. Temperature sensitive; effects of temperature pulses at different developmental stages suggest that wing areas eliminated in a specific order (Simpson, Lawrence, and Maschat, 1981, Dev. Biol. 84: 206-11). RK2A.
sd[ry+]
Extreme allele of sd associated with the insertion of a P element carrying ry+ at 13F. In hemizygous males, wings reduced to mere vestiges similar to vg; in homozygous females the wings are narrow and strap-like. One or both scutellar bristles are sometimes truncated, and halteres appear somewhat reduced in males. Severity of wing defect may vary with temperature. Under dysgenic conditions, excision of the P element leads to the loss of ry+ and amelioration of the sd phenotype (i.e., wild type or nibbled wings); the molecular lesions of a number of such derivatives have been characterized (Daniels, McCarron, Love, and Chovnick, 1985, Genetics 109: 95-117). One derivative was used as a "tag" for cloning the sd region (Campbell et al.).
*sds: scalloped-sterile
Wings divergent and slightly nicked. Male sterile. RK2.
sdsp: scalloped-spatula
Wings cut at tips and along both margins. sdsp +/+ Bxr give slight nicking of wings. RK1A.
sdts
Wings vestigial-like at 29; also capitellum of haltere extremely reduced; some crippling of legs. At 22 wings have parts of wing blade or wing margin or both missing; halteres normal. Viability and fertility good at 22. Increases incidence of pattern duplications and deficiencies in l(1)ts504.
*sdUCI
Extreme vestigial-like wing (as in sd58d) with erect postscutellar bristles. Halteres greatly reduced in size. In some flies, outgrowths of tissue found on one side of the metanotum; in extreme cases, these outgrowths can be recognized as mirror-image pattern duplications of the notum and ventral hinge and reduction of the wing blade. Pupation delayed until about 168 hr after oviposition, with four days being spent as third-instar larvae. Average size of mature wing disk about 56% normal; reduction in size and pattern duplication attributable to extensive cell death in the wing imaginal disk. Wing margins of sdUCI/Basc females frequently incised; such females also produce significant numbers of patroclinous males. (Vyse and James, 1972, DIS 49: 39; James and Bryant, 1981, Dev. Biol. 85: 39-54).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - human TEF-1 homolog - a downstream effector molecule in the Wingless pathway of wing imaginal discs - partners Vestigial and Yorkie to act as a transcription factor - modified by Hippo and Wingless signalling - involved in wing and neuronal specification.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
21
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074100
2677
370
FBtr0074099
3194
440
FBtr0074101
2841
370
FBtr0112824
3288
410
FBtr0112825
3252
440
FBtr0112826
3047
440
FBtr0112827
3139
440
FBtr0301543
3237
435
FBtr0301544
3280
435
FBtr0308128
4045
410
FBtr0308129
3113
440
FBtr0308130
2527
370
FBtr0308131
5331
435
FBtr0308132
3471
370
FBtr0308133
3781
410
FBtr0308134
3355
410
FBtr0310311
3670
625
FBtr0310312
3076
440
FBtr0310313
3164
440
FBtr0340115
2666
375
FBtr0346799
6005
410
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.5, 3.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073915
42.5
370
7.09
FBpp0073914
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0089157
42.5
370
7.09
FBpp0111736
46.5
410
6.78
FBpp0111737
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0111738
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0111739
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0290758
49.0
435
6.28
FBpp0290759
49.0
435
6.28
FBpp0300450
46.5
410
6.78
FBpp0300451
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0300452
42.5
370
7.09
FBpp0300453
49.0
435
6.28
FBpp0300454
42.5
370
7.09
FBpp0300455
46.5
410
6.78
FBpp0300456
46.5
410
6.78
FBpp0301994
69.1
625
7.61
FBpp0301995
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0301996
49.7
440
6.03
FBpp0309110
43.1
375
6.78
FBpp0312377
46.5
410
6.78
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

440 aa isoforms: sd-PB, sd-PE, sd-PF, sd-PG, sd-PK, sd-PR, sd-PS
370 aa isoforms: sd-PA, sd-PC, sd-PL, sd-PN
410 aa isoforms: sd-PD, sd-PJ, sd-PO, sd-PP, sd-PU
435 aa isoforms: sd-PH, sd-PI, sd-PM
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
The C-terminus of sd interacts with the C-terminal serine-rich protein domain of vg, to form a complex which acts as a selector for wing development. Interacts (via C-terminus) with yki (via N-terminus) and this interaction enhances its transcriptional activity.
(UniProt, P30052)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (25 terms)
Molecular Function (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:vg; FB:FBgn0003975
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:vg; FB:FBgn0003975
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016361
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000216669
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
sd transcripts are observed in many cells in the developing embryo. Elevated levels are seen in the heart region of the dorsal vessel and in somatic muscle in stage 13 embryos. Elevated sd levels are no longer seen in somatic muscle by stage 16. Expression is observed in the salivary glands at stage 16.
sd expression is first observed in embryos at stage 9 in cephalic neuroblasts. Expression continues weakly in the CNS throughout embryogenesis and includes sheath cells. Expression in the PNS is first observed at stage 11. By stage 14, intense staining is seen in ventral and lateral sense organs along the trunk and in the antennomaxillary complex. During head involution, strong expression is observed in the antennomaxillary complex and in the labral sense organs. In larvae, expression is observed in a restricted set of cells in the optic proliferation centers, the cerebral hemispheres and the ventral ganglion. The cells are probably not neuroblasts and may be glia or sheath cells. sd expression is observed in all of the imaginal discs except the labial disc. Expression in the wing disc occurs in regions that will give rise to the adult wing blade, the scutellum, and the mesopleura. In the eye disc, expression initiates immediately behind the morphogenetic furrow. In adults, sd expression is observed in discrete regions of the adult brain including cell bodies in the suboesophageal ganglion, nuclei lying medial to the antennal neuropile and within the lobular plate, cell bodies in the calyx of the mushroom bodies and cell bodies in the protocerebrum. Expression is also observed in the proboscis in two cells per sensillum that are thought to be the sheath cell and the glial cell. The sacculus and a subset of cells in the olfactory sensilla show expression as well as photoreceptor cells and restricted cells in the ventral ganglion. Finally, expression is observed in the jump muscle and in hairs located all over the adult cuticle. The expression pattern was observed from in situ hybridization experiments and deduced from the enhancer trap expression pattern. The probe used does not distinguish between sd transcripts.
sd transcripts are detected in RNA from embryos, larvae, and adults.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In abdominal segments of a stage 12 embryo, most sd-expressing cells are elav-positive sensory neurons.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}sdSG29.1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lArB}sdETX4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal medial indirect flight muscle
nucleus

Comment: reference states 21 hr APF

myoblast | subset
nucleus

Comment: myoblasts surrounding dorsal medial muscle; reference states 21 hr APF

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 180 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 38 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sd
Deletions and Duplications ( 21 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
macrochaeta & wing
wing (with sdΔB)
wing (with sdΔC)
wing & macrochaeta
wing vein & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
 
11 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
 
11 of 15
Yes
No
10 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907OI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504C4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06UX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06QA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08YE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    enhanceable
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    The C-terminus of sd interacts with the C-terminal serine-rich protein domain of vg, to form a complex which acts as a selector for wing development. Interacts (via C-terminus) with yki (via N-terminus) and this interaction enhances its transcriptional activity.
    (UniProt, P30052 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-52
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:15,804,370..15,827,682 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    13F1-13F4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}BEST:RE35685EP1581&P{EP}sdEP1088 and P{EP}Gβ13FEP1071
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    13F1-13F4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 13E13--F2 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 13F1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    13F1-13F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    13F-13F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    13F1-13F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 13E13--F2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    13E-13F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    1-51.5
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (81)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (63)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: sd CG8544
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: sd EP1088
    Source for merge of: sd l(1)G0239 l(1)G0262 l(1)G0309 l(1)G0483
    Source for merge of: sd anon- EST:Liang-2 .14
    Additional comments
    Hsap\TCF13 can substitute for sd function.
    Other Comments
    sd function is not required for the establishment of the flight appendage primordia.
    It appears that sd must be functional for proper sens expression, and ultimately for sensory organ precursor development.
    Binding of vg protein to sd protein switches the DNA-binding selectivity of sd.
    sd and vg-dependant cell adhesion may contribute to separation of the wing blade from the wing hinge and to a gradient of cell affinities along the dorsal-ventral axis of the wing.
    Specific interactions between vg and sd are required to promote wing tissue proliferation.
    vg and sd function coordinately to control the expression of genes required for wing development.
    Targeted expression of sd does not induced proliferation in imaginal discs, wing outgrowths in adult tissues or vg expression. Thus sd plays a subordinate role to vg in wing development.
    sd, mam and Chi cooperate synergistically to regulate ct expression.
    vg is required for the proper pattern of expression of ap, sd and Ser.
    The wg product is required to restrict the expression of the apterous gene to dorsal cells in the developing wing and to promote the expression of the vestigial and scalloped genes that demarcate the wing primordia and are required for the development of the wing proper. The pro-wing vg and sd genes regulate each other.
    Expression of an sd enhancer trap line suggests that sd gene product participates in a regulatory network controlling the differentiation of the nervous system.
    sd is essential for normal development. Mutation analysis suggests that sd might be haploinsufficient for both the wing margin and ectopic bristle traits.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 158 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    EP1088
    anon-EST:Liang-2.14
    l(1)G0315
    l(1)HF394
    l(1)III
    sd
    (Guo et al., 2019, Rohith and Shyamala, 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Gene Disruption Project members, 2018-, Gou et al., 2018, Powers and Srivastava, 2018, Tsai et al., 2018, Wang and Baker, 2018, Chandler et al., 2017, Ferguson and Martinez-Agosto, 2017, Houtz et al., 2017, Katheder et al., 2017, Pimmett et al., 2017, Rohith and Shyamala, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Zhang et al., 2017, Boone et al., 2016, Chan et al., 2016, Jukam et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Park et al., 2016, Dent et al., 2015, Di Cara et al., 2015, Keder et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Zhu et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Choi et al., 2014, Ferguson and Martinez-Agosto, 2014, Housden et al., 2014, Lin et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Robbins et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Djiane et al., 2013, Guss et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Koontz et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Schuettengruber and Cavalli, 2013, Bejarano et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Nagaraj et al., 2012, Poon et al., 2012, Bao et al., 2011, Carreira et al., 2011, Debat et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Grimberg et al., 2011, Magico and Bell, 2011, Marygold et al., 2011, Oh and Irvine, 2011, Pastor-Pareja and Xu, 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, Schönbauer et al., 2011, Takemura and Adachi-Yamada, 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Chan et al., 2010, Deng et al., 2010, Neto-Silva et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Ren et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Ziosi et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Bernard et al., 2009, Carreira et al., 2009, Christensen et al., 2009.2.28, Christensen et al., 2009.5.6, Deng et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, González et al., 2009, Blumenthal, 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.9.29, Christensen et al., 2008.12.28, Fedorova et al., 2008, Goulev et al., 2008, Ray et al., 2008, Tussey et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Garg et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Grimaud et al., 2006, Kavi et al., 2006, Legent et al., 2006, Manak et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Otsuna and Ito, 2006, Ayyub et al., 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Angulo et al., 2004, Delanoue et al., 2004, Delanoue et al., 2002, Lawrence et al., 2000)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0025967
    • FBgn0026840
    • FBgn0027221
    • FBgn0027225
    • FBgn0027247
    • FBgn0027258
    • FBgn0040146
    • FBgn0062702
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Interaction map generated by purification of Hippo pathway factors, with identification of copurifying proteins by mass spectrometry.
    References (412)