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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\shn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
schnurri
Annotation Symbol
CG7734
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003396
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
schnurri (shn) encodes a zinc finger C2H2 transcription factor involved in Dpp signaling. It contributes to multiple processes including ectoderm and midgut development, wing disc patterning and morphogenesis of Malpighian tubules and dendrites. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-13] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

quo, l(2)04738, EP2359

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:11,159,086..11,217,394 [+]
Recombination map
2-63
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:11159086..11217394
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (24 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002914906
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002914906
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003604
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dpp; FB:FBgn0000490
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dpp; FB:FBgn0000490
involved_in midgut development
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002914906
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002914906
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
schnurri (shn) encodes a zinc finger C2H2 transcription factor involved in Dpp signaling. It contributes to multiple processes including ectoderm and midgut development, wing disc patterning and morphogenesis of Malpighian tubules and dendrites. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-13]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Pathway (FlyBase)
BMP Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is one of two branches of Transforming Growth Factor-β family signaling in Drosophila. The binding of a BMP family dimer to a heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex results in the phosphorylation of Mad, a member of the Smad family. Mad forms a complex with the co-Smad, Med. This complex translocates into the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes in concert with other nuclear cofactors. (Adapted from FBrf0236482.)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
shn: schnurri
Embryonic lethal. Embryos lack dorsal hypoderm. Internal organs appear normal and extruded through the open dorsal side of the embryo. Ventral hypoderm contracted.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - zinc finger - target of Dpp - the activity of the Mad/Schnurri complex is modulated in a promoter specific fashion to active or repress gene transcription - corepressor Schnurri protects epithelial cells from JNK-induced apoptosis in drosophila embryos.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\shn for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088098
8940
2532
FBtr0088099
9552
2532
FBtr0088100
9026
2532
FBtr0088101
9886
2577
FBtr0330619
9011
2532
FBtr0330620
9886
2587
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

9.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087200
271.9
2532
9.12
FBpp0087201
271.9
2532
9.12
FBpp0087202
271.9
2532
9.12
FBpp0089118
276.8
2577
9.27
FBpp0303469
271.9
2532
9.12
FBpp0303470
278.0
2587
9.26
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2532 aa isoforms: shn-PA, shn-PB, shn-PC, shn-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\shn using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

shn protein is detected in the endoderm and in the foregut of germ band retracted embryos.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\shn in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 80 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of shn
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of shn
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 17 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
1  
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900DV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915007L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01LA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01JD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02DY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
BMP Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is one of two branches of Transforming Growth Factor-β family signaling in Drosophila. The binding of a BMP family dimer to a heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex results in the phosphorylation of Mad, a member of the Smad family. Mad forms a complex with the co-Smad, Med. This complex translocates into the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes in concert with other nuclear cofactors. (Adapted from FBrf0236482.)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-63
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:11,159,086..11,217,394 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
47D6-47D7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}shnEP2359&P{EP}shnEP644 and P{PZ}rM547
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
47D5-47D6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47E1-47E2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47D3-47D6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47D3-47D6
47D5--6 47D7--8 47E1--2
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (40)
Genomic Clones (57)
cDNA Clones (39)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: shn BEST:SD06302

Additional comments
Other Comments

DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for shn protein in 2-3 hr embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_shn collection report.

shn has an essential role in dpp signal transduction in the wing.

One of five genes identified as encoding downstream components of the dpp signalling cascade which is necessary for blocking salivary gland gene activation by Scr in the dorsal region of parasegment 2.

Loss of function alleles of tkv, put, Mad, Med and shn suppress the CycEJP mutant eye phenotype in combination with dppd-ho.

shn and put are required to limit transient amplification of germ cells. Mosaic analysis demonstrates shn and put act within somatic cyst cells that surround germ cells, rather than in germ cells. Thus a cyst-cell-derived signal restricts germ cell proliferation and this signal is initiated by input from a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Thus, a signal relay regulates progression through the germline stem cell lineage.

dpp receptors put and tkv, or the shn transcription factor, are autonomously required for cell proliferation in the entire developing wing.

shn mutations enhance the weak dpp mutations.

Genetic interactions and the strikingly similar phenotypes in shn and dpp receptors encoded by tkv and put suggest the shn plays a downstream role in dpp signalling.

shn is required for the proper development of the midgut and dorsal ectoderm. shn may represent a direct target of the dpp signalling pathway and respond to its stimulation by the activation or repression of dpp responsive genes.

shn represents the first identified downstream component of the signal transduction pathway used by dpp and its receptors.

shn function is critical for cells to respond properly to dpp.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 96 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BEST:SD06302
shn
(Guzman et al., 2021, Winbush and Singh, 2021, Aboukilila et al., 2020, Feuillette et al., 2020, Geigges et al., 2020, Mahmud et al., 2020, Robles-Murguia et al., 2020, Bieser et al., 2019, Mortensen et al., 2018, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Upadhyay et al., 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Baëza et al., 2015, Beckwith and Ceriani, 2015, Charbonnier et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Morozova et al., 2015, Nadimpalli et al., 2015, Organista et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Svendsen et al., 2015, Van Bortle et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Beckwith et al., 2013, Curtis et al., 2013, Enuameh et al., 2013, Gafner et al., 2013, Iyer et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Kelsey et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Spokony, 2012.12.12, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Johnson et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Campos et al., 2010, Cook et al., 2010.2.12, Lowery et al., 2010, Vuilleumier et al., 2010, Cai and Laughon, 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Telonis-Scott et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.9.3, Christensen et al., 2008.10.20, McClure and Schubiger, 2008, Yao et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.10.29, Christensen et al., 2007.10.29, Christensen et al., 2007.10.29, Fernández et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Walsh and Carroll, 2007, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Chen and Schupbach, 2006, Chertemps et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Friedman and Perrimon, 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Yao et al., 2006, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Staudt et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Pyrowolakis et al., 2004)
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0010584
  • FBgn0013727
  • FBgn0043359
Datasets (2)
Study focus (2)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
  • bait_protein
ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
  • bait_protein
Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
References (309)