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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sina
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
seven in absentia
Annotation Symbol
CG9949
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003410
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:16,853,751..16,858,712 [+]
Recombination map

3-45

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:16853751..16858712
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (19 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eff; FB:FBgn0011217
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:phyl; FB:FBgn0013725
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q27934
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000817023
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000817023
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:10857
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001841, InterPro:IPR013010, InterPro:IPR013323
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000817023
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000817023
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000817023
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SINA (Seven in absentia) family. (P21461)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER RING DOMAIN UBIQUITIN LIGASES -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is required for specification of R7 photoreceptor cell fate in the eye by mediating the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of Tramtrack (ttk) (PubMed:9267026, PubMed:9267027, PubMed:11526076, PubMed:12215542, PubMed:18160715). E3 Ubiquitin ligases accept ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the form of a thioester and then directly transfers the ubiquitin to targeted substrates (PubMed:12215542). Acts via the formation of a complex with ebi and phyl that ubiquitinates the transcription repressor ttk, a general inhibitor of photoreceptor differentiation, in a subset of photoreceptor cells in the eye, leading to the differentiation of cells into neurons (PubMed:9267026, PubMed:9267027, PubMed:11526076, PubMed:12215542). Also involved in external sensory organ development (PubMed:11526076).
(UniProt, P21461)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sina: seven in absentia (R. Carthew)
Photoreceptor cell R7 of eye transformed into a cone cell, resulting in the absence of R7 in adult ommatidia. In amorphic alleles, 40% of ommatidia also missing an additional photoreceptor cell and 10% of ommatidia also missing two photoreceptor cells. Eyes weakly rough; ocelli appear normal. Adult bristles sometimes missing and sometimes duplicated, arising from a common socket; occasionally three bristles arise from a common socket. Wings sometimes held outstretched. Adults eclose normally but fail to survive after 24 h; display lethargic behavior and are not fertile, though mature sperm and ova are produced.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

targets proteins to degradation - C3HC4 RING zinc-finger motif

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sina for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075332
3191
314
FBtr0075333
2482
314
FBtr0344230
3124
314
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075091
33.7
314
6.81
FBpp0075092
33.7
314
6.81
FBpp0310636
33.7
314
6.81
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

314 aa isoforms: sina-PA, sina-PB, sina-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

314 (aa); 34 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of some E3 complex at least composed of sina, ebi and phyl. Interacts with eff.

(UniProt, P21461)
Domain

The RING-type zinc finger domain is essential for ubiquitin ligase activity.

The SBD domain (substrate-binding domain) mediates the interaction with substrate proteins. It is related to the TRAF family.

(UniProt, P21461)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sina using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sina transcripts are expressed throughout the Drosophila life cycle with a peak in pupal stages.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cone cell

Comment: reference states 40 hr APF

ommatidium

Comment: reference states 40 hr APF

pigment cell

Comment: reference states 40 hr APF

retina

Comment: reference states 40 hr APF

Additional Descriptive Data

sina protein is expressed in the eye imaginal disc. A low level of staining is observed all over the disc with an elevated level in a stripe just anterior to the morphogenetic furrow and in subsets of cells posterior to the furrow. Staining was especially prominant in large rounded cells located on the apical surface of the epithelium that are thought to be cells undergoing mitosis just anterior and posterior to the furrow. Staining extends from the furrow to the posterior end of the disc and is intense in cells associated with developing ommatidia. The earliest stage of strong sina protein expression is at the five-cell precluster stage, three columns back from the furrow at which time strong sina expression is seen in R3 and R4 precursor cells. After the precluster stage, R1 and R6 cells stain as they associate with the cluster followed by staining of the R7 precursor cell. The nuclei of the cone cells also stain intensely as they join the cluster. As ommatidial development progresses, staining remains strong in cone cells, R3, R4, and R7. In addition, staining is observed in the peripodial epithelia of the eye-antennal, wing and leg discs as well as in midgut, hindgut, and fat tissues. In retinas from 40hr pupae, staining is evident in all ommatidial cells, including cone cells, photoreceptor cells R1-R8, and pigment cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sina in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sina
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sina
Deletions and Duplications ( 15 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult abdominal segment 3 & chaeta (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 3 & chaeta (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 3 & microchaeta (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 3 & microchaeta (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 3 & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 3 & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 3 & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 3 & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 4 & chaeta (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 4 & chaeta (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 4 & microchaeta (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 4 & microchaeta (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 4 & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 4 & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
adult abdominal segment 4 & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
adult abdominal segment 4 & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
mesothoracic tergum & chaeta (with sina2)
mesothoracic tergum & chaeta (with sina3)
mesothoracic tergum & microchaeta (with sina2)
mesothoracic tergum & microchaeta (with sina3)
mesothoracic tergum & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
mesothoracic tergum & tormogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
mesothoracic tergum & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina2)
mesothoracic tergum & trichogen cell | supernumerary (with sina3)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
9 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (6)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
No
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CW9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507U5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09O3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09KA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0BPY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of some E3 complex at least composed of sina, ebi and phyl. Interacts with eff.
    (UniProt, P21461 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-45

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:16,853,751..16,858,712 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    73D2-73D3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Baldspot02281 and P{PZ}blot01658
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    73C-73C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    73D3-73D5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 73D2--7 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (93)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    monoclonal, polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: sina anon- EST:fe2H7

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    CG13030 shares 45% amino acid identity with sina, a ring finger domain of the C3HC4 type and the same protein binding partners. The results of pathway analysis, together with the shared domain organisation, suggest that CG13030 may overlap with sina as a regulator of photoreceptor differentiation.

    sina is involved in external sensory organ development.

    msi and sina function redundantly in R1 and R6 to down-regulate ttk in the developing photoreceptor cells.

    sina binds to Hsap\DCC, as shown in yeast two-hybrid studies and in vitro binding and immunoprecipitation studies.

    Down-regulation of ttk protein expression in developing photoreceptor cells requires the presence of the phyl and sina proteins.

    Expression of the ttk TTK88 protein isoform represses neuronal fate determination in the developing eye. phyl protein acts to antagonise this repression by a mechanism that requires sina protein.

    phyl interacts with another nuclear factor, sina, to form a complex and both factors are involved in upregulating transcription of pros in the eye.

    Murine homologues of sina have been identified.

    sina function is required for the transformation of cone cells into R7 cells that is caused by the expression of svp in the pattern of sev.

    sev and sina act in a pathway required for neuronal development, rather than R7 cell fate per se.

    The phl serine/threonine kinase plays a crucial role in the R7 pathway: genetic evidence suggests that phl acts downstream of Ras85D and upstream of sina in this signal transduction pathway.

    Some aspect of R7 differentiation is independent of the genetic pathway involving sev, boss and sina as some P{HZ}klgH214 expression is present in R7 of sina mutants.

    In contrast to D.melanogaster, where the sina gene is located within an intron of Rh4, Dvir\sina and Dvir\Rh4 are widely separated in D.virilis. This different structural arrangement may have been caused by the translocation of the Dvir\Rh4 gene to a different chromosomal location by a retrotransposition event in D.virilis.

    sina has been identified and characterised. The sina gene product acts early in the specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell, at the time when R7 receives and interprets developmental signals from neighbouring cells. It may act by regulating gene expression. Function of the sina gene is only required in R7 for correct R7 cell development. The sina transcription unit is located completely within the intron of Rh4 and is orientated in the opposite direction to Rh4.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Carthew, 1988.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 58 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (189)