General Information
Symbol
Dmel\skd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
skuld
Annotation Symbol
CG9936
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003415
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Skuld (Skd) is a subunit of the kinase module of the mediator complex. Skd is not required for all the transcriptional functions of mediator, but links it to a set of transcription factors that are involved in developmental signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2017-02-09]
Also Known As
pap, Med13, bli, TRAP240, l(3)rK760
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,992,814..21,027,434 [-]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Mediator complex subunit 13 family. (Q7KTX8)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
MEDIATOR COMPLEX -
The Mediator (MED) complex serves as a hub for transcriptional signaling events. MED bridges transcriptional activators and repressors. This large multi-protein complex has a central core conserved from yeast to humans. The core is composed of three modules: head, middle, and tail. A separate module, the Cdk8 kinase module, composed of Cdk8, CycC, kto and skd, serves as a regulator. (Adapted from FBrf0226415 and FBrf0191850).
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors (By similarity). Required for leg and eye development and macrochaete specification or differentiation. Negatively regulates sex comb development. Required for activated transcription of the MtnB and MtnD genes.
(UniProt, Q7KTX8)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
skd: skuld (J.A. Kennison)
Isolated as a dominant suppressor of Pc mutations. Associated with recessive lethality at the larval-pupal transition. Also interacts with Pcl, Scr, and Ubx mutations. May weakly suppress AntpNs.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\skd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\skd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078329
11414
2618
FBtr0078328
10465
2618
FBtr0112830
10703
2768
FBtr0333284
9982
2601
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077985
280.0
2618
6.54
FBpp0077984
280.0
2618
6.54
FBpp0111743
295.7
2768
6.82
FBpp0305479
278.2
2601
6.53
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2618 aa isoforms: skd-PC, skd-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Cdk8 module of the Mediator complex, composed of CycC, Cdk8, kto and skd.
(UniProt, Q7KTX8)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\skd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VW47
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P25008
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000310508
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:22474
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Scr; FB:FBgn0003339
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Scr; FB:FBgn0003339
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000310508
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:22474
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:MED17; FB:FBgn0038578
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycC; FB:FBgn0004597, FLYBASE:Cdk8; FB:FBgn0015618
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:22474
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000310508
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:MED17; FB:FBgn0038578
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycC; FB:FBgn0004597, FLYBASE:Cdk8; FB:FBgn0015618
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\skd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 46 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of skd
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
    Other relevant insertions
    miscellaneous insertions
    Name
    Expression Data
    Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of skd
    Allele of skd
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of skd
    Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    15 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    12 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    15 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    12 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
    13 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 13
    No
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
    8 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    7 of 12
    No
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    10 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190074 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915006K )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00R7 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00PR )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00AP )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 1 )
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the Cdk8 module of the Mediator complex, composed of CycC, Cdk8, kto and skd.
    (UniProt, Q7KTX8 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of canonical Wnt signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-47
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:20,992,814..21,027,434 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    78A2-78A2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}fngEP3082&P{lacW}skdL7062 and P{lacW}l(3)L5541L5541
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    78A1-78A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 78A2--3 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    78A-78A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    78A1-78A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 78A2--3
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Shows low recombination frequency with Ki mutants.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (27)
    Genomic Clones (30)
    cDNA Clones (49)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: pap CG9936
    Source for merge of: pap l(3)L7062
    Source for merge of: pap bli l(3)rK760
    Source for merge of: skd pap
    Source for merge of: pap flytrap
    Additional comments
    snoRNA:skd-a is encoded in an intron of skd.
    Source for merge of pap flytrap was sequence comparison ( date:000315 ).
    Other Comments
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.
    Both skd and kto are required to establish normal cell affinity differences at the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral compartment boundaries of the wing disc.
    skd and kto seem to act together to promote specific cell fate decisions, transmitting either a novel signal or a combination of signals.
    skd is required for the normal progression of photoreceptor differentiation in the eye disc and for the normal patterning of other imaginal discs.
    Loss of skd function appears to arrest cells in the eye disc at an early stage of their differentiation.
    skd is required for viability.
    P-element-induced mutations have been isolated as dominant modifiers in combination with pb gain-of-function transgenes (HSPB). These modifiers are selected by their effects on specific cell identities sensitive to Ras85D signaling activities. One modifier, skd, favors the appearance of sex comb teeth on the more distal second tarsal segment of the T1 leg. skd also modifies the action of pb hypomorphs in mouthparts development, favoring the appearance of sex comb teeth on the adult labial palps. Animals lacking zygotic function die at the end of embryogenesis with mouthparts defects. Hypomorphic alleles from imprecise P excisions show abdominal defects and female sterility.
    Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
    skd is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Kennison, 1984.
    Etymology
    'poils aux pattes' is French for 'hairy legs'.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 64 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Srb9/AMIB/PAP/TRAP240
    l(3)L7062
    pap/dTRAP240
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0024200
    • FBgn0024569
    • FBgn0024577
    • FBgn0037043
    • FBgn0041162
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (142)