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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\slo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
slowpoke
Annotation Symbol
CG10693
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003429
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
slowpoke (slo) encodes the structural alpha subunit of a BK ('maxi K') calcium-activated potassium channel. It regulates neurotransmitter release at the synapse and maintain electrical excitability in neurons and muscle cells. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
dSlo, Slo1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,662,491..24,711,595 [+]
Recombination map
3-85
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the potassium channel family. Calcium-activated (TC 1.A.1.3) subfamily. Slo sub-subfamily. (Q03720)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SK AND SLO FAMILY POTASSIUM CHANNEL SUBUNITS -
Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels are tetrameric transmembrane channels specific for potassium and activated by intracellular calcium. KCa channel subunits possess six or seven transmembrane domains. (Adapted from FBrf0216279 and PMID:16382099).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Kinetics are determined by alternative splicing, phosphorylation status and its combination interaction with Slob and 14-3-3-zeta. While the interaction with Slob1 alone increases its activity, its interaction with both Slob1 and 14-3-3-zeta decreases its activity.
(UniProt, Q03720)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
slo: slowpoke (J.C. Hall)
Isolated in screen for third chromosomal temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants (Elkins et al., 1986); this one is uncoordinated and unable to climb when exposed to 38 but not completely paralyzed; four-minute exposure to that high temperature causes several minutes of motionlessness on return to 22. Legs shake when under ether anesthesia, as in Shaker mutants but less extreme. Unconditionally defective in behavior (e.g., diminished flight ability; tends to walk or fly in anomalous short hops when in large open container). Physiologically, the mutation abolishes Ca2+-dependent potassium current (IC), as shown, and analyzed further, in a variety of experiments involving recordings from dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) of adults (Elkins et al., 1986; Elkins and Ganetzky, 1988): DLM spikes abnormally broadened after stimulation of giant fiber nerve pathway (one of whose endpoints is DLMs) or of motor neurons synapsing on these muscles. From voltage clamp analyses, a peak of early outward current following a step pulse from -80 to -40 mV, as revealed by a Sh mutation, is absent in slo, though inward Ca2+ currents in same traces are normal; no early outward current seen when slo is treated with 4-aminopyridine (which phenocopies Sh) or combined with Sh14. (This double mutant has very low viability and severe impairment in locomotor activity); charybdotoxin, which blocks IC channels in wildtype DLMs, had no effect on outward currents in slo; delayed excitation of DLMs, observed in response to depolarizing currents delivered to wild-type (or Sh), absent in slo, and spike amplitudes increased; these abnormalities phenocopied by reducing IC in normal muscle by injecting EGTA into such cells or using low-Ca2+ saline; the lengthened muscle action potentials in slo indicate importance of IC in effecting repolarization of such potentials.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Ca-activated, voltage-activated potassium channel that functions to modulate ion flow in presynaptic nerve terminals, including those of the neuromuscular synapse
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
23
Number of Unique Polypeptides
23

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\slo or the JBrowse view of Dmel\slo for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084684
4896
1175
FBtr0084683
4712
1183
FBtr0084685
4712
1183
FBtr0100622
4896
1175
FBtr0100623
4896
1175
FBtr0100624
4896
1175
FBtr0100627
4896
1175
FBtr0100629
5010
1213
FBtr0100631
4911
1180
FBtr0100632
4863
1164
FBtr0100633
4932
1187
FBtr0100634
4962
1197
FBtr0100635
4971
1200
FBtr0100636
4863
1164
FBtr0100637
4863
1164
FBtr0100638
4896
1175
FBtr0301581
5120
1210
FBtr0301582
8854
1210
FBtr0330286
8130
1217
FBtr0330287
4896
1191
FBtr0334294
4568
1135
FBtr0334295
4640
1159
FBtr0334296
4619
1152
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
11, 5.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084064
130.3
1175
5.15
FBpp0084063
131.4
1183
5.37
FBpp0089227
131.4
1183
5.31
FBpp0100082
130.5
1175
5.20
FBpp0100083
130.3
1175
5.20
FBpp0100084
130.3
1175
5.11
FBpp0100086
130.3
1175
5.10
FBpp0100089
134.5
1213
5.51
FBpp0100091
130.8
1180
5.37
FBpp0100092
129.0
1164
5.24
FBpp0100093
131.6
1187
5.10
FBpp0100094
132.8
1197
5.11
FBpp0100095
133.1
1200
5.31
FBpp0100096
129.0
1164
5.19
FBpp0100097
129.0
1164
5.24
FBpp0100098
130.3
1175
5.15
FBpp0290796
134.3
1210
5.68
FBpp0290797
134.4
1210
5.68
FBpp0303318
135.2
1217
5.21
FBpp0303319
132.0
1191
5.11
FBpp0306409
125.9
1135
5.24
FBpp0306410
128.5
1159
5.19
FBpp0306411
127.7
1152
5.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1235, 1175, 1166 (aa)
Comments
This is the A1/C2/E2/G5/I0 form of the slo protein. See sloA1C2E2G5I0 for a functional analysis of the protein.
PCR analysis has demonstrated that many alternate coding sequences exist for the slo protein. Conserved amino acids 18-326 encode the first five and part of the sixth transmembrane domain and are followed by domains A-J. The variable A, C, E, G, and I domains have alternate forms and the B, D, F, H, and J domains are conserved. The A domains (A1-A3) are 30aa long, B is 37aa, C1 and C2 are 35aa, D is 104aa,E1 and E2 are 37aa, F is 79aa, G1-G6 are 60, 27, 13, 47, 22, and 59 aa long, respectively, H is 65aa, I0 and I1 are 0 and 22 aa, respectively,and J is 440aa. It is not known how many of the 144 potential forms of the protein are actually used in the fly head but evidence for at least 31 has been obtained. Results suggest that the different isoforms are functionally diverse.
This is the A1/C2/E1/G3/I0 form of the slo protein. See sloA1C2E1G3I0 for a functional analysis of the protein.
slo protein has seven hydrophobic domains near the amino terminus, a structure that is similar to other known K+-channel polypeptides. Similarities are observed between the slo protein and other voltage-gated channels in the S4 domain which is thought to mediate voltage sensitivity. The greatest similarity to other K+-channel polypeptides is in the H5 domain, an integral part of the ion conduction pore. Outside of these two regions, the slo protein is distinct from all known K+ channels. A putative EF-hand domain and an ATP-binding site were identified. The protein sequence is probably incomplete at the amino terminus.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homotetramer; which constitutes the calcium-activated potassium channel (By similarity). Interacts with Slip1. Interacts with Slob, and, indirectly with 14-3-3-zeta via its interaction with Slob. Interacts with Pka-C1 and Src kinases, which can bind simultaneously to it.
(UniProt, Q03720)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation may be mediated by both PKA and SRC kinases, which activate the channel activity. Phosphorylation by PKA is however unclear. Indeed, although modulation of channel activity requires Pka-C1, it does not interacts with the whole PKA holoenzyme. Moreover, modulation of activity does not depend upon phosphorylation of Ser-978.
(UniProt, Q03720)
Domain
The S4 segment, which is characterized by a series of positively charged amino acids at every third position, is part of the voltage-sensor. The pore-forming domain (also referred as P region) is imbedded into the membrane, and forms the selectivity filter of the pore. It contains the signature sequence of potassium channels that displays selectivity to potassium (By similarity). The RCK N-terminal domain mediates the homotetramerization, thereby promoting the assembly of monomers into functional potassium channel. It includes binding sites for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (By similarity). The calcium bowl constitutes one of the Ca(2+) sensors and probably acts as a Ca(2+)-binding site.
(UniProt, Q03720)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\slo using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Slob; FB:FBgn0264087
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P12370
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MR31
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002224803
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002224803
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000002875
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
microinjection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
RNA-seq data show that slo is enriched in the acidic region of the larval midgut.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
slo protein is detected in the neuronal tracts in the adult brain including the mushroom body peduncle, but not in the mushroom body lobes, calyx or ellipsoid body. There is strong colocalisation with dysc.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\slo in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 31 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of slo
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of slo
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190116 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506IO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07S4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07NO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G148D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homotetramer; which constitutes the calcium-activated potassium channel (By similarity). Interacts with Slip1. Interacts with Slob, and, indirectly with 14-3-3-zeta via its interaction with Slob. Interacts with Pka-C1 and Src kinases, which can bind simultaneously to it.
(UniProt, Q03720 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-85
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,662,491..24,711,595 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
96A14-96A17
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}crb07207&P{PZ}BRWD305842 and P{EP}CycB3EP3127
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
96A17-96A17
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (23)
Genomic Clones (33)
cDNA Clones (101)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: slo CG10693
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: slo BcDNA:GH10751
Additional comments
Source for merge of slo BcDNA:GH10751 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
Other Comments
ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.
The flight defect of slo null mutants arises from a lack of slo expression in muscle, whereas the "sticky-feet" phenotype arises from a lack of slo expression in nervous tissue.
14-3-3ζ can interact with and modulate slo via Slob.
Slob is identified as a protein that binds to the carboxy-terminal domain of slo in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Slob and slo co-immunoprecipitate from heads and heterologous host cells, suggesting they interact in vivo.
The region downstream of promoter C2 (exon C2 and exon C3) contains elements required for CNS expression, modulates expression in a developmental stage-specific manner and directs expression to the eye.
slo promoters are physically mapped and sequences responsible for the expression in the CNS, muscles and tracheal and midgut cells are functionally mapped.
Cloned slo channels in excised patches from Xenopus oocytes can exhibit large variability in gating properties, both within a single channel and among channels.
Mutation of slo causes a reduction of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The slo mutation partially suppresses the increase in transmitter release caused by Sh mutants. The mutations confers suppression by reducing calcium influx into the nerve terminal.
Developmental and tissue-specific expression of slo.
Protein phosphorylation modulates the activity of slo channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Mutant channel protein can block the modulation by ATP-γS demonstrating that phosphorylation of the slo channel protein itself modulates channel activity.
Alternate splicing of a common slo RNA precursor contributes to the functional diversity of the encoded large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel. The variable region of the slo channel subunit comprises modular, yet interactive functional domains which influence the essential features of unit conductance, calcium sensitivity and gating of the channel.
Using PCR with nested primers and cloning from cDNA libraries, alternatively spliced versions predicting up to 144 different coding combinations were found. The existence of 31 of these was directly demonstrated. Excised inside out patch recordings show opening of the channel only when the Ca2+ is on the cytoplasmic side: opening increases both with depolarization and with increasing Ca2+ concentration. Single channel conductance is 126pS. Mean open times are different for different splice variants, proving that slo encodes a large family of functionally diverse Ca2+-activated K+ channels.
Effects of potassium channel blocking drugs on the presynaptic action potential repolarization after electrotonic stimulation was studied. At least four K+ currents contribute to repolarization of the nerve terminal.
Mutation analysis reveals that the slo polypeptide is essential for the expression or function of the channel mediating the fast Ca2+ activated K+ current.
Isolated in screen for third chromosomal temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants (Elkins, Ganetzky and Wu, 1986); this one is uncoordinated and unable to climb when exposed to 38oC but not completely paralyzed; four-minute exposure to that high temperature causes several minutes of motionlessness on return to 22oC. Legs shake when under ether anesthesia, as in Shaker mutants but less extreme. Unconditionally defective in behavior (e.g., diminished flight ability; tends to walk or fly in anomalous short hops when in large open container). Physiologically, the mutation abolishes Ca2+-dependent potassium current (IC), as shown, and analyzed further, in a variety of experiments involving recordings from dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) of adults (Elkins, Ganetzky and Wu, 1986; Elkins and Ganetzky, 1988): DLM spikes abnormally broadened after stimulation of giant fiber nerve pathway (one of whose endpoints is DLMs) or of motor neurons synapsing on these muscles. From voltage clamp analyses, a peak of early outward current following a step pulse from -80 to -40 mV, as revealed by a Sh mutation, is absent in slo, though inward Ca2+ currents in same traces are normal; no early outward current seen when slo is treated with 4-aminopyridine (which phenocopies Sh) or combined with Sh14. (This double mutant has very low viability and severe impairment in locomotor activity); charybdotoxin, which blocks IC channels in wild-type DLMs, had no effect on outward currents in slo; delayed excitation of DLMs, observed in response to depolarizing currents delivered to wild-type (or Sh), absent in slo and spike amplitudes increased; these abnormalities phenocopied by reducing IC in normal muscle by injecting EGTA into such cells or using low-Ca2+ saline; the lengthened muscle action potentials in slo indicate importance of IC in effecting repolarization of such potentials.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 125 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BcDNA:GH10751
slo
(Harbison et al., 2019, Kulik et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Al-Ramahi et al., 2018, Bollinger et al., 2018, Hall et al., 2018, Walcott et al., 2018, Aw et al., 2017, Ghezzi et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, VanKirk et al., 2017, Ding et al., 2016, Dopico et al., 2016, Krishnan et al., 2016, Saur et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Kadas et al., 2015, Kern et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Babcock and Ganetzky, 2014, Bettinger and Davies, 2014, Gertner et al., 2014, Ghezzi et al., 2014, Iyengar and Wu, 2014, Jepson et al., 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Westholm et al., 2014, Wolfram et al., 2014, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Stocker et al., 2013, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Jepson et al., 2012, Kaun et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Savva et al., 2012, Tsubouchi et al., 2012, Venables et al., 2012, Ghezzi and Atkinson, 2011, Guan et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Montell, 2011, Qian et al., 2011, Sandstrom, 2011, Sheldon et al., 2011, Ghezzi et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Qian and Bodmer, 2009, Shahidullah et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Al-Hasan et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Li and Atkinson, 2008, Ranade et al., 2008, Scholl et al., 2008, Yang et al., 2008, de la Paz Fernandez et al., 2007, Haerty et al., 2007, Peng and Wu, 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Berke et al., 2006, Cowmeadow et al., 2006, Pym et al., 2006, Yu and Hardin, 2006, Cowmeadow et al., 2005, Glazov et al., 2005, Gleason, 2005, Guan et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Kuebler et al., 2001, Brenner et al., 2000)
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0046797
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (286)