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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\smo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
smoothened
Annotation Symbol
CG11561
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003444
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
smoothened (smo) encodes a critical component of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. It is regulated by phosphorylation, dimerization, and cell-surface accumulation upon Hedgehog stimulation. The product of smo is also regulated by ubiquitin and other small molecules such as phospholipids. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
dSmo, smooth
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:277,582..282,167 [+]
Recombination map
2-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor Fz/Smo family. (P91682)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SMOOTHENED-TYPE RECEPTORS -
smo is a Class F GPCR related to Frizzled GPCRs. It is a component of the hedgehog (hh) signaling pathway. smo is believed to signal via G protein independent and Gi-coupled pathways. (Adapted from FBrf0221081 and FBrf0201812).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The hedgehog signaling pathway is initiated by hedgehog (hh) ligand binding to the extracellular domain of patched receptor (ptc), leading to the derepression of smoothened (smo) activity. Activation of the atypical GPCR smo results in the accumulation of the transcriptional activator form of cubitus interruptus (ci) and the derepression/activation of hh target genes. In the absence of hh, smo is repressed by ptc and ci is processed to a truncated repressor form. (Adapted from FBrf0220683 and FBrf0231236).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Segment polarity protein required for correct patterning of every segment. G protein-coupled receptor that associates with the patched protein (ptc) to transduce the hedgehog (hh) signal through the activation of an inhibitory G-protein. In the absence of hh, ptc represses the constitutive signaling activity of smo through fused (fu). Essential component of a hh-signaling pathway which regulates the Duox-dependent gut immune response to bacterial uracil; required to activate Cad99C-dependent endosome formation, norpA-dependent Ca2+ mobilization and p38 MAPK, which are essential steps in the Duox-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to intestinal bacterial infection (PubMed:25639794).
(UniProt, P91682)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
smo: smoothened
Embryonic lethal. All denticles in abdominal segments point posteriorly. At 18 naked cuticle deleted and denticle belts of adjacent segments fused and locally arranged as mirror-image duplications.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
seven-pass transmembrane protein - the reception and transduction of the HH signal is mediated by its receptor Patched and by Smoothened - PTC and HH control SMO by regulating its stability, trafficking, and phosphorylation - SMO in turn interacts directly with Fused and Costal2, which interact with each other and with Cubitus interruptus in an intracellular Hedgehog transducing complex
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\smo or the JBrowse view of Dmel\smo for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078129
4008
1036
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.2 (northern blot)
4.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077788
116.6
1036
8.95
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with cos.
(UniProt, P91682)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylation by CkIalpha and PKA regulates smo accumulation at the cell surface and its signaling activity in response to hh.
(UniProt, P91682)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\smo using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:cos; FB:FBgn0000352
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sxl; FB:FBgn0264270
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:O16844
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017981
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dsh; FB:FBgn0000499
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ci; FB:FBgn0004859
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rbf; FB:FBgn0015799
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with axon
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000885245
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000139394
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pole plasm

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
smo is present in both the posterior optic lobe and adjacent anterior optic lobe cells in mid stage 11 embryos.
smo transcript is expressed throughout the wing disc.
smo transcripts are expressed at all developmental stages.
smo transcripts are detected in embryos, larvae, and pupae on northern blots. They are most abundant in early embryos and adult females.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
smo protein is localized to the anterior compartment of the wing disc; however, smo transcipt is distributed through the entire wing disc.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with axon
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\smo in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 22 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 185 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of smo
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of smo
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
lamina & neuron | precursor | somatic clone
morphogenetic furrow & nucleus | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell & neuron
photoreceptor cell R8 & eye disc | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (18)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (17)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
 
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
 
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (20)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (24)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190272 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915014E )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0359 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0325 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04OK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
enhanceable
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with cos.
(UniProt, P91682 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The hedgehog signaling pathway is initiated by hedgehog (hh) ligand binding to the extracellular domain of patched receptor (ptc), leading to the derepression of smoothened (smo) activity. Activation of the atypical GPCR smo results in the accumulation of the transcriptional activator form of cubitus interruptus (ci) and the derepression/activation of hh target genes. In the absence of hh, smo is repressed by ptc and ci is processed to a truncated repressor form. (Adapted from FBrf0220683 and FBrf0231236).
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-0.5
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:277,582..282,167 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
21B7-21B7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}spenk06805&P{lacW}l(2)k13604k13604 and P{lacW}U2af38k14504
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (31)
Genomic Clones (18)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (38)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
smo protein promotes the relocalisation of fu protein from vesicles to the plasma membrane in response to hh signaling and reciprocally, fu protein controls the stability and phosphorylation of smo protein.
A region in the C-terminus of smo protein is sufficient for its interaction with fu protein (spans amino acids 985 to 1036).
Phosphorylation activates smo protein by inducing a conformational switch. This occurs by antagonising multiple Arg clusters in the smo cytoplasmic tail. The Arg clusters inhibit smo protein by blocking its cell surface expression and keeping it in an inactive conformation that is maintained by electrostatic interactions. Phosphorylation disrupts the interactions and induces a conformational switch and dimerisation of smo protein cytoplasmic tails, which is essential for pathway activation.
Identified as a component of the hh signalling pathway in a genome-wide RNAi screen. dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed affects the extent of expression of a hh signaling reporter construct in Clone 8 cells.
smo protein accumulates in the plasma membrane of cells that lack ptc activity, whereas when co-expressed with ptc, smo protein localises exclusively intracellularly, in distinct punctate structures.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers against this gene tested in a cl-8 cell reporter assay to examine any role of smo in the hh signalling pathway.
The last 301 amino acids of the cos COOH terminus are sufficient to provide full association with smo.
Epistatic analysis places cos function downstream of ptc and smo.
dsRNA corresponding to smo used in S2 cultured cell assay.
17 alleles of smo have been recovered in a screen for mutations with smo-like mutant phenotypes in clones in the wing.
Control of smo localisation appears to be a crucial step in hh signalling.
ptc-smo signalling has a role in head morphogenesis to promote cell proliferation via activation of babo.
ptc protein destabilises smo protein in the absence of hh protein.
The hh signalling components smo and ci are required in cells posterior to hh to maintain ptc expression, whereas fu is not necessary in these cells.
ptc protein normally binds hh gene product without any help of the smo gene product, though smo is also a part of the receptor complex that binds hh and transduces the hh signal. The mechanism of signal transduction may involve hh binding specifically to ptc and inducing a conformational change leading to the release of latent smo activity.
Anterior cells in the wing that lack smo function no longer obey a lineage restriction in the normal position of the anterior-posterior boundary.
Complementation and epistasis tests indicate that oro is not allelic to smo.
smo encodes a serpentine protein highly conserved in evolution.
smo activity is required for transduction of hh but not wg. smo acts downstream from ptc to transduce the hh signal.
Loss of smo function causes a hh-like phenotype.
Morphogenetic furrow progression is significantly delayed, but not prevented, in smo clones.
smo is a putative receptor of the hh signal.
smo encodes a seven-pass membrane protein. In direction of increasing cytology: anon-21Ca+ anon-21Cb- smo+ anon-21Cc-
smo activity is required in wing anterior cells along the A/P boundary for these cells both to transduce hh and to limit its further movement into the anterior compartment. ptc regulates smo activity in response to hh signalling.
In competition binding, cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments no binding of tagged hh protein to smo protein or its rat homolog could be detected, although hh protein can bind to the protein encoded by the mouse homolog of ptc.
Segment polarity gene smo is required for the response of cells to hh signalling during the development of both the embryonic segments and imaginal discs. Structure of the smo protein suggests it may act as a receptor for the hh ligand.
The effects of removing smo gene activity from embryos in which hh or wg is ectopically expressed suggest a role for smo in the hh signalling pathway.
All alleles are zygotic lethal, cold sensitive, at the lower temperature the phenotype of all alleles is quite variable suggesting that the gene may be maternally expressed.
Direct wg autoregulation differs from wg signalling to adjacent cells in the importance of fu, smo and ci relative to sgg and arm.
The smo gene acts downstream of wg in pattern formation.
Mutations in zygotic polarity gene smo do not interact with RpII140wimp.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Smo
(Meltzer, 2019-, Meltzer et al., 2019, Jiang et al., 2018, Lehmann, 2018, Li et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2017, Hsia et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Shalaby et al., 2017, Zhang et al., 2017, Zhao et al., 2017, Jiang et al., 2016, Lee et al., 2016, Li et al., 2016, Mbodj et al., 2016, Ulmschneider et al., 2016, Dorn and Dorn, 2015, Gurdziel et al., 2015, Khaliullina et al., 2015, Lee et al., 2015, Marada et al., 2015, Oh et al., 2015, Sharpe et al., 2015, Xiong et al., 2015, Jiang et al., 2014, Kuzhandaivel et al., 2014, Pichaud, 2014, Shi et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Bausek, 2013, Briscoe and Thérond, 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Chen and Jiang, 2013, Gao et al., 2013, Gao et al., 2013, Mbodj et al., 2013, Palm et al., 2013, Shi et al., 2013, Yang et al., 2013, Yousefian et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Cheng et al., 2012, Fan et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Li et al., 2012, Robbins et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Xia et al., 2012, Shi et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2010, Jia et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Zheng et al., 2010, Ayers et al., 2009, Farzan et al., 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, González et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Su et al., 2008, Wu and Mlodzik, 2008, Zhao and Jiang, 2008, Liu et al., 2007, Molnar et al., 2007, Walthall et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Beenken and Mohammadi, 2006, Fisher and Howie, 2006, Ogden et al., 2006, Osterlund and Kogerman, 2006, Wilson and Chuang, 2006, Dawber et al., 2005, Jekely and Rorth, 2003, Kuwabara and Labouesse, 2002, Chen et al., 1999)
smo
(Brodskiy et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Ahaley, 2018, Baldeosingh et al., 2018, Billmann et al., 2018, Tseng et al., 2018, Albert and Bökel, 2017, Dai et al., 2017, Garcia-Garcia et al., 2017, Lai et al., 2017, Lu et al., 2017, Recasens-Alvarez et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Li et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Im et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Lu et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Rudolf et al., 2015, Zhou et al., 2015, Camp et al., 2014, Huang and Kalderon, 2014, Issman-Zecharya and Schuldiner, 2014, Karandikar et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Liu et al., 2014, Maier et al., 2014, Piñeiro et al., 2014, Ranieri et al., 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, Avanesov and Blair, 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Da Ros et al., 2013, Fan et al., 2013, Geisbrecht et al., 2013, Hartman et al., 2013, Hooper, 2013.5.30, Hooper, 2013.6.26, Huang et al., 2013, Kupinski et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Nedelcu et al., 2013, Rana et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Carroll et al., 2012, Cheng et al., 2012, Christiansen et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Jimenez-Sanchez et al., 2012, Krzemien et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Wang et al., 2012, Wu et al., 2012, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Marks and Kalderon, 2011, Molnar et al., 2011, Nicholson et al., 2011, Schilling et al., 2011, Su et al., 2011, Terriente-Félix et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhou and Kalderon, 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Camp et al., 2010, Cheng et al., 2010, Chou et al., 2010, de Celis and Molnar, 2010, Firth et al., 2010, Hartman et al., 2010, Jia et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Pospisilik et al., 2010, Raisin et al., 2010, Terriente-Félix et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Yavari et al., 2010, Zhou and Kalderon, 2010, Baker et al., 2009, Baron et al., 2009, Blanco et al., 2009, Deshpande et al., 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Foronda et al., 2009, Gazi et al., 2009, Jia et al., 2009, Khaliullina et al., 2009, Landsberg et al., 2009, Mosimann et al., 2009, Renault et al., 2009, Vied and Kalderon, 2009, Casso et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Fan and Bergmann, 2008, Farzan et al., 2008, Friggi-Grelin et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Lim et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Ogden et al., 2008, Schlichting and Dahmann, 2008, Tanaka-Matakatsu and Du, 2008, Terriente Felix and de Celis, 2008.1.16, Wang and Price, 2008, Ambrus et al., 2007, Bashaw, 2007, Bejarano et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Casso et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Claret et al., 2007, Cook, 2007.7.24, Corrigall et al., 2007, Escudero and Freeman, 2007, Escudero et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Molnar et al., 2007, Ruel et al., 2007, Smelkinson et al., 2007, Sweeney et al., 2007, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2006, Croker et al., 2006, D'Costa et al., 2006, Kent et al., 2006, Lu et al., 2006, McLellan et al., 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Sisson et al., 2006, Smelkinson and Kalderon, 2006, Suh et al., 2006, Umetsu et al., 2006, Varjosalo et al., 2006, Vrailas and Moses, 2006, Vrailas et al., 2006, Yao et al., 2006, Zhou et al., 2006, Baonza and Freeman, 2005, Briscoe and Therond, 2005, Cabernard and Affolter, 2005, Deshpande and Schedl, 2005, Firth and Baker, 2005, Firth and Baker, 2005, Ishii, 2005, Jia et al., 2005, Kirilly et al., 2005, Merianda et al., 2005, Nybakken et al., 2005, Torroja et al., 2005, Wei et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Punzo et al., 2004, Raabe et al., 2004)
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    References (615)