l(1)G0395, l(1)G0479, l(1)G0160
chordin homolog - a Dpp antagonist involved in the determination of dorsal/ventral polarity - leads to the subdivision of the dorsal region of the fly into amnioserosa and dorsal ectoderm
RNA-Seq data support additional isoforms with extended 3' UTRs of differing length, some of which appear to be stage and/or tissue specific.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
7 (northern blot)
Palmitoylated, probably by Hip14.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sog using the Feature Mapper tool.
Expression pattern inferred from unspecified enhancer trap line.
sog is expressed in lateral stripes in the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm.
In wing and leg imaginal discs, sog transcript is expressed in stripes running parallel to the dpp stripe along the compartment border. sog and dpp transcripts are expressed in complementary patterns during pupal wing vein development. sog transcript is first detected in 18-20 hr pupae, in the center of the intervein domains. By 25-30 hr, sog is expressed in most of the intervein cells. Double labeling experiments with sog and dpp transcripts show that sog and dpp are expressed in a strictly complementary pattern in most of the pupal wing, with the exception of the L5 vein, where there is a one-cell-wide gap between sog and dpp expressing cells.
During cycle 14, sog is expressed in a broad lateral stripe 14-16 cells wide. The dorsal boundary of the sog expression domain abuts the ventral boundary of the dpp domain as early as cycle 13. Later, sog expression fades from its dorsal limits and there is a gap between the sog and dpp expression domains. The ventral border of the sog expression domain is marked by the mesectoderm and includes the single row of mesectodermal cells. sog expression is progressively lost dorsally during late blastoderm and early gastrulation. By germ band extension, the transcripts are confined to the ventral midline. Transcripts are localized apically within the cells. At full germ band extension, sog is expressed in a pattern of lateral patches dorsal to the tracheal pits that fuse to form a lateral stripe running between the two stripes of dpp expression. After germ band retraction, sog is expressed in ventral epidermal cells in a pattern resembling the outline of future denticle belts. Internally, sog is expressed in a series of bands in the endoderm of the gut and in the esophagus. While generally out of phase, endodermal cells expressing sog and visceral mesoderm cells expressing dpp are in contact at the junction of the gut with the esophagus.
In cellular blastoderm embryos, high levels of sog protein strongly colocalizes with sog transcript in two broad ventro-lateral stripes. Lower levels localize to the ventral mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm. Localization in the dorsal ectoderm is graded, with highest levels in the region adjacent to the ventral neurogenic region. The dorsal ventral gradient is more pronounced in late blastoderm embryos.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\sog in GBrowse 2
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Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: sog CG9224
Source for merge of: sog l(1)G0395 l(1)G0479 l(1)G0160
Mutant embryos lack the corpus cardiacum.
sog protein has a graded distribution across the dorsal side of blastoderm embryos.
sog plays a local role in the lateral region of the blastoderm embryos to oppose dpp activity in the neuroectoderm. sog protects the neuroectoderm from an invasive positive feedback loop created by dpp diffusion and autoactivation. sog functions as a diffusible morphogen in the blastoderm embryo.
sog is expressed in complementary intervein cells and suppresses vein formation. sog and dpp are expressed in complementary patterns during pupal wing vein development and function during the same phenocritical period to influence the vein versus intervein cell fate choice. dpp promotes vein fates indirectly by activating rho and sog functions by blocking an autoactivating dpp feedback loop. These data support the view that sog is a dedicated dpp antagonist.
Injection of sog mRNA into embryos from dl mutant mothers is sufficient to promote the formation of dorsal-lateral structures, indicating that sog can be sufficient to promote ventralisation of the ectodermal pattern.
Data presented by FBrf0083197 supports Geoffroy St-Hilaire's theory of dorsal-ventral inversion between vertebrate and arthropod embryos. Results suggest that two classes of signalling molecule (dpp and sog) represent counteracting systems that control dorsal-ventral patterning and might have been established in a primitive ancestor before the divergence of the arthropods and vertebrates.
sog, which is expressed in the ventrolateral region of the embryo that gives rise to the nerve cord, is functionally homologous to the chordin gene of Xenopus, which is expressed in the dorsal blastopore lip of the embryo and in dorsal mesoderm, in particular the notochord. sog antagonises the dorsalising effects of dpp.
Expression of sog in Xenopus embryos suggests that the mechanism of dorsal-ventral patterning may be conserved between the evolutionarily distinct organisms.
Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
Involved in the regulatory hierarchy responsible for the asymmetric distribution and function of zygotic regulatory gene products along the DV axis of early embryos. sog is required for the refinement of the zen expression pattern during cellularization and gastrulation: zen products do not become restricted to the presumptive amnioserosa.
Identification: A screen for X-linked genes that affect embryo morphology revealed sog.