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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spir
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spire
Annotation Symbol
CG10076
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003475
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
spire (spir) encodes a de novo WH2 domain-containing actin nucleation factor that polymerizes linear actin filaments, as well as bundles and/or crosslinks actin and microtubules. It is a downstream effector of the product of Rho1 and is involved in many cytoskeleton related developmental processes, including ooplasmic streaming, nurse cell architecture, and endocytosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

p150-Spir, 38C.37, 38C.34

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,311,219..20,348,386 [+]
Recombination map

2-54

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:20311219..20348386
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the spire family. (Q9U1K1)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Acts as an actin nucleation factor, remains associated with the slow-growing pointed end of the new filament. Promotes dissociation of capu from the barbed end of actin filaments. Involved in intracellular vesicle transport along actin fibers, providing a novel link between actin cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular transport. Required for localization of determinants within the developing oocyte to the posterior pole and to the dorsal anterior corner. Links Rho family signaling and Jnk function to the actin cytoskeleton.
(UniProt, Q9U1K1)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
spir: spire (T. Schupbach)
Maternal-effect lethal; homozygous females lay eggs which sometimes (5-10%) have a "peak" (spire) of dorsal appendage material sitting over the anterior end of the egg, instead of two distinct dorsal appendages. Such eggs are similar to eggs formed by the female-sterile mutation fs(1)K10, but the extent of dorsal appendage material on spir eggs is much more variable than that of fs(1)K10 eggs. Mutant females produce embryos lacking polar granules, pole cells, and normal abdominal segmentation. In combination with Bic-D, however, abdominal segmentation does develop in the anterior half of the embryo; improper localization of abdominal determinants also indicated by the lack of posterior localization of vasa protein. Cellularization of the blastoderm irregularly defective with nuclei of different sizes and densities. Resemble embryos formed by other grandchildless-knirps-like mutations, such as vasa or tudor, but in addition, some of the embryos from spire females appear also to be dorsalized.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) homology domain 2 (WH2) family - a maternal effect locus that affects both the dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes of the Drosophila egg and embryo - required for localization of determinants within the developing oocyte

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
9

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\spir or the JBrowse view of Dmel\spir for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model includes transcripts encoding non-overlapping portions of the full CDS.

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081352
4881
1020
FBtr0081353
4794
991
FBtr0081355
3437
625
FBtr0081354
2666
585
FBtr0301884
4791
990
FBtr0306556
4875
1018
FBtr0307893
2669
586
FBtr0307894
2182
488
FBtr0339233
2212
498
FBtr0339234
5598
586
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.5, 2.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080884
114.9
1020
6.91
FBpp0080885
111.5
991
7.09
FBpp0080887
69.4
625
9.36
FBpp0080886
66.4
585
6.17
FBpp0291098
111.3
990
7.14
FBpp0297511
114.7
1018
6.96
FBpp0300327
66.5
586
6.12
FBpp0300328
55.0
488
5.92
FBpp0308340
56.3
498
5.98
FBpp0308341
66.5
586
6.12
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

586 aa isoforms: spir-PG, spir-PJ
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with bsk, Rho1, Rac1, Cdc42 and wash. Interacts with capu.

(UniProt, Q9U1K1)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated by Jnk kinase (bsk).

(UniProt, Q9U1K1)
Domain

Binds to actin monomers via the WH2 domain.

The Spir-box targets binding to intracellular membrane structures.

(UniProt, Q9U1K1)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spir using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:wash; FB:FBgn0033692
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:mon2; FB:FBgn0031985
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003124, InterPro:IPR029901
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR029901
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pole plasm

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data

spir expression at embryonic stages 1-4 is localized to the posterior pole of the embryo.

Both spir transcripts are present in nurse cells and follicle cells from germarium region 2 onwards.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\spir in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 57 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spir
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spir
Deletions and Duplications ( 35 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902HW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508JI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W098D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X094Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with bsk, Rho1, Rac1, Cdc42 and wash. Interacts with capu.
    (UniProt, Q9U1K1 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-54

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:20,311,219..20,348,386 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    38C5-38C5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}k09005 and P{EP}CG16798EP401&P{lacW}k07219
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (29)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (94)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: spir CG10076

    Source for merge of: spir CG18621

    Source for merge of: spir Spir

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of spir Spir was sequence comparison ( date:000414 ).

    Other Comments

    The spir-RC isoform crosslinks microtubules and microfilaments at the oocyte cortex; the spir-RD isoform can bind the spir-RC isoform and prevent its microfilament crosslinking activity.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

    Area matching Drosophila EST AA390587.

    The spir protein links rho family signalling to the actin cytoskeleton.

    The chic mutant phenotype resembles that caused by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D, and that of capu and spir.

    capu and spir are not required for the synthesis or nuclear localisation of fs(1)K10 protein and they mediate dorsoventral patterning independently of fs(1)K10 mRNA localisation.

    Only vas and tud are essential for osk-induced pole cell and abdomen formation, spir is not.

    vas, vls and tud (but not stau, capu, or spir) are necessary for the 6xosk mutant phenotypes.

    spir mutant embryos exhibit an absence of posterior pole plasm, polar granules and pole cells. BicD,spir embryos exhibit a duplication of the posterior telson at the anterior: the posterior signal can be active at the anterior independent of spir function. spir is required specifically for the localization, not synthesis, of the posterior signal.

    Mutations in maternal dorsal class gene spir do not interact with RpII140wimp.

    Mutations at the spir locus cause defects in midoogenesis.

    spir gene function affects dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning.

    spir plays a role in polar granule formation.

    Mutations in grk and Egfr are epistatic to mutations in capu and spir.

    capu and spir participate in pattern formation in both the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes of the embryo. Mosaic analysis reveals that the products of both are required in the oocyte-nurse cell complex.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 93 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG18621
    l(2)08327
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0029122
    • FBgn0032854
    • FBgn0040997
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (248)