Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spz
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spatzle
Annotation Symbol
CG6134
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003495
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
spatzle (spz) encodes a secreted protein which, after cleavage by an extracellular serine protease (encoded by ea or SPE), can induce the dimerization of the product of Tl, and the subsequent activation of the Toll pathway. It contributes to function of the Toll signaling cascade, which plays a key role in various developmental and immune processes, notably embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and regulation of antimicrobial peptides. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-06]
Also Known As
Spaetzle
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,064,990..27,070,070 [-]
Recombination map
3-92
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DORSAL GROUP -
The Dorsal group genes encode components of the Toll pathway and were initially identified by maternal effect mutations resulting in the dorsalization of the embryo. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
SPATZLES -
The spatzles are a family of secreted proteins that share a neutrotrophin-like cystine-knot domain. Proteolytically activated, spz binds Tl and activates canonical Toll signaling in embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning and innate immunity. spz, spz5 and NT1 are more closely related to each other and to the vertebrate neurotrophins than other members of the spatzle family and some family members have neutrophin-like activity. (Adpated from FBrf0206302).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Toll-NF-KappaB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The activated form, spaetzle C-106, acts as a ligand for the Toll receptor (PubMed:12872120). Binding to Toll activates the Toll signaling pathway and induces expression of the antifungal peptide drosomycin (PubMed:8808632). Component of the extracellular signaling pathway that establishes dorsal-ventral polarity in the embryo (PubMed:8124709, PubMed:11212919).
(UniProt, P48607)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
spz: spaztle
Maternal-effect lethal. Embryos dorsalized, germline dependent. Phenotypic rescue achieved by injection of cytoplasm or poly(A)+RNA from wild-type embryos into young embryos produced by spz females; cytoplasm more effective than RNA (Seifert et al.). Temperature-sensitive period of spz3 extends from oogenesis through fertilization until about the time of pole-cell formation. Strong alleles amorphic by deficiency testing. Pole-cell-transplantation studies indicate that spz acts in germ line and not soma of mother (Seifert et al.).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
secreted - ligand for Toll - the Easter protease is likely to be the direct proteolytic activator of Spätzle
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\spz or the JBrowse view of Dmel\spz for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Alternative transcripts labeled with isoform names according to (FBrf0134774)
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085137
2128
326
FBtr0085138
2050
300
FBtr0085139
1909
253
FBtr0085140
1969
273
FBtr0085145
1831
227
FBtr0085146
1882
244
FBtr0112834
2118
290
FBtr0114372
2058
270
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.3, 2.1, 1.9 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084507
37.4
326
6.59
FBpp0084508
34.3
300
7.21
FBpp0084509
29.0
253
6.03
FBpp0084510
30.9
273
7.42
FBpp0084515
25.9
227
6.97
FBpp0084516
28.0
244
6.35
FBpp0111747
33.0
290
6.85
FBpp0112921
31.0
270
7.21
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
326, 253 (aa); 38, 29 (kD predicted); 23 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:12872120, PubMed:9533958). In the presence of Tl, crystal structures show one Tl molecule bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24733933, PubMed:24282309). However, the active complex probably consists of two Tl molecules bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24282309, PubMed:24733933). This is supported by in vitro experiments which also show binding of the spaetzle C-106 dimer to 2 Tl receptors (PubMed:12872120). Ligand binding induces conformational changes in the extracellular domain of Tl (PubMed:24282309). This may enable a secondary homodimerization interface at the C-terminus of the Tl extracellular domain (PubMed:24282309).
(UniProt, P48607)
Post Translational Modification
During embryonic development, easter cleaves the signal peptide and also generates the C-terminal 12 kDa active fragment, C-106 (except for isoform 8.24 and isoform 11.27 as they do not contain the cleavage site) (PubMed:9533958). During the immune response, cleaved in the same manner by SPE (PubMed:16399077). Extracellular forms of isoform 8.19 and isoform 11.7 are glycosylated.
(UniProt, P48607)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spz using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (24 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (22 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pip; FB:FBgn0003089
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Spn27A; FB:FBgn0028990
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VMU8
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-2 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
spz transcripts are detected in RNA from ovaries and early embryos. In embryos, spz transcripts are rare and disappear within 2 hours after egg laying.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
spz protein is secreted into the perivitelline space.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\spz in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 33 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 24 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spz
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spz
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AL6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DB5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0G2S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0G35 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:12872120, PubMed:9533958). In the presence of Tl, crystal structures show one Tl molecule bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24733933, PubMed:24282309). However, the active complex probably consists of two Tl molecules bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24282309, PubMed:24733933). This is supported by in vitro experiments which also show binding of the spaetzle C-106 dimer to 2 Tl receptors (PubMed:12872120). Ligand binding induces conformational changes in the extracellular domain of Tl (PubMed:24282309). This may enable a secondary homodimerization interface at the C-terminus of the Tl extracellular domain (PubMed:24282309).
    (UniProt, P48607 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Toll-NF-KappaB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-92
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:27,064,990..27,070,070 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    97E1-97E1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sda03884 and P{PZ}btzrL203
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (22)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (117)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    A dorsalising activity for the heterologous ea, spz and Tl proteins in UV-ventralised Xenopus embryos is demonstrated: spz rescues axis structures in UV-ventralised Xenopus embryos. The activity is inhibited by co-injection of a dominant cact variant.
    Other Comments
    Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.
    NT1 amd spz are expressed in the embryonic lateral muscles in a complementary pattern, suggesting that they may aid targeting by different axonal projections and promote the survival of distinct subsets of neurons.
    The mature, processed, form of the spz gene product binds to the Tl ectodomain with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one spz dimer to two Tl receptors. The spz pro-domain sequence acts to prevent interaction of the spz cytokine and its receptor Tl.
    A linear activation cascade spz-Tl-cact-dl/Dif leads to the induction of the Drs gene in larval fat body cells.
    ea can directly cleave spz at a unique position, the spz carboxy-terminal fragment generated has the biological and biochemical properties of the polarising activity of spz, it exists as a disulfide-linked dimer and appears to share structural similarities with the nerve growth factor and the neurotrophin family of growth factor ligands.
    spz is required for muscle development in the embryo.
    The embryonic regulatory pathway, comprising the gene products between spz and cact (Tl, tub and pll) but not the genes acting upstream or downstream (ea and dl), is involved in the induction of the Drs gene in adults. Mutations that affect the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides dramatically lower the resistance of flies to infection.
    Does not belong to the proliferative class of genes involved in Malignant Brain Tumor (MBT) syndrome.
    Mutations in spz, tld and yeti cooperatively induce brain tumor formation in the Malignant Brain Tumor strain.
    The secreted spz product must be activated by proteolytic cleavage, and localized proteolytic processing of the spz protein determines where the receptor, Tl, is active.
    The spz product acts immediately upstream of Tl in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the embryo, and may encode the ligand that activates Tl.
    spz is the soluble extracellular factor (polarising activity) that induces ventral structures when injected into the extracellular space of embryos.Proteolytic processing of spz product generates a polarised form of spz which defines embryonic dorsal ventral polarity by activation of Tl on the ventral side of the embryo.
    Double mutant combinations of spz with ea alleles demonstrate that spatial regulation of ea activity by localized zymogen activation is a key initial event in defining the polarity of the dorsal-ventral embryonic pattern.
    Pole-cell-transplantation studies indicate that spz acts in germ line and not soma of mother.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 133 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    mel(3)7
    spz
    (Hanson et al., 2019, Parvy et al., 2019, Alpar et al., 2018, Shahrestani et al., 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Del Signore et al., 2017, Dostálová et al., 2017, Duneau et al., 2017, Keesey et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Louradour et al., 2017, Patrnogic and Leclerc, 2017, Romero-Pozuelo et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Guillou et al., 2016, Iatsenko et al., 2016, Kučerová et al., 2016, Lamiable et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Mistry et al., 2016, Morris et al., 2016, Rahimi et al., 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Troutwine et al., 2016, Hsu et al., 2015, Kanoh et al., 2015, Neyen and Lemaitre, 2015, Sudmeier et al., 2015, Ward et al., 2015, Xia et al., 2015, Xiao et al., 2015, Yamamoto-Hino et al., 2015, Binggeli et al., 2014, Carvalho et al., 2014, Chambers et al., 2014, Ferreira et al., 2014, Zhou et al., 2014, Clark et al., 2013, Kari et al., 2013, Katzenberger et al., 2013, McIlroy et al., 2013, Nelson et al., 2013, Quintin et al., 2013, Rancès et al., 2013, Samaraweera et al., 2013, Sutcliffe et al., 2013, Buendia et al., 2012, Cho et al., 2012, Haskel-Ittah et al., 2012, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Lemaitre et al., 2012, Nam et al., 2012, Akhouayri et al., 2011, Bou Aoun et al., 2011, Fullaondo et al., 2011, Glittenberg et al., 2011, Glittenberg et al., 2011, Marcu et al., 2011, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2011, Zaidman-Rémy et al., 2011, Zhao et al., 2011, Becker et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Cho et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Huang et al., 2010, Matskevich et al., 2010, Paddibhatla et al., 2010, Ahmad et al., 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Charroux and Royet, 2009, Geuking et al., 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, Shia et al., 2009, Bushati et al., 2008, El Chamy et al., 2008, Gordon et al., 2008, Hoffmann et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Jones et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, Linder et al., 2008, Liu and Lehmann, 2008, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2008, Stramer et al., 2008, Tan et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Vonkavaara et al., 2008, Xi et al., 2008, Zhu et al., 2008, Bidla et al., 2007, Hallem et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Taylor and Kimbrell, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Brun et al., 2006, Chen et al., 2006, Chien et al., 2006, Kambris et al., 2006, Kambris et al., 2006, Leclerc et al., 2006, Mulinari et al., 2006, Ryu et al., 2006, Scherfer et al., 2006, Senger et al., 2006, Tang et al., 2006, Zaidman-Remy et al., 2006, Castillejo-Lopez and Häcker, 2005, Zhou et al., 2005, Dionne et al., 2003, Lau et al., 2003, Leulier et al., 2003, Leulier et al., 2003, Ligoxygakis et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tauszig-Delamasure et al., 2002, DeLotto, 2001, Rutschmann et al., 2000, Lindsley and Zimm, 1992)
    Name Synonyms
    Protein spaetzle precursor
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (466)