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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\stg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
string
Annotation Symbol
CG1395
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003525
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase (3.1.3.48)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

cdc25, cdc25string, l(3)01235, Cdc25stg, EP1213

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,251,826..29,255,800 [-]
Recombination map

3-98

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:29251826..29255800
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the MPI phosphatase family. (P20483)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Protein tyrosine phosphate + H(2)O = protein tyrosine + phosphate (3.1.3.48)
Predictions / Assertions
Protein tyrosine phosphate + H(2)O = protein tyrosine + phosphate (3.1.3.48)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DUAL SPECIFICITY PHOSPHATASES -
Dual Specificity Phosphatases (DSP) can dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. Additionally, DSPs may target a much larger and diverse set of substrates, including phosphoinositide lipids, RNA 5'-triphosphate and carbohydrates. (Adapted from FBrf0227974).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
This protein functions as a dosage-dependent inducer in mitotic control. It is a tyrosine protein phosphatase required for progression of the cell cycle. It may directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 and activate the Cdk1 activity.
(UniProt, P20483)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
stg: string
Homozygous embryonic lethal; denticle bands reduced. First 13 nuclear divisions of zygote proceed on schedule; division 14 permanently arrested in G2 in homozygotes for strong alleles; no evidence of nuclear-envelope breakdown or chromosome condensation; division 14 severely impaired in weak alleles. DNA synthesis in arrested embryos confined to the polyploid amnioserosal cells. Gastrulation proceeds on schedule in stg embryos with but 5,000 cells, and markers ordinarily expressed in normal embryos with 50,000 cells also expressed in stg embryos. The only defect seems to be in the initiation of the first mitotic division that is under zygotic control. Clones of homozygous cells induced early don't survive; few late clones produced.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

protein tyrosine phosphatase - activates cyclin dependent kinase causing mitotic entry - the switch-like entry into mitosis observed in the Drosophila embryo during the 14th mitotic cycle is timed by the dynamics of Cdc25(String) accumulation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\stg or the JBrowse view of Dmel\stg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085397
2589
479
FBtr0334867
2747
479
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084766
54.1
479
6.93
FBpp0306890
54.1
479
6.93
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

479 aa isoforms: stg-PA, stg-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\stg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850864
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000089071
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000089071
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000089071
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000089071
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850864
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000850864
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

During Malpighian tubule development, stg is expressed asymmetrically in everting tubules, and subsequently in the distal proliferation zone.

stg transcripts are expressed maximally in nurse cells in the later stages of oogenesis and the transcripts are transferred to the oocyte from stage 11 onward. The maternally derived transcripts are uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm of the early embryo and are excluded from the forming cells during cellularization. Zygotic expression of stg initiates at cycle 14 and has been described elsewhere (FBrf 49340). stg transcripts are expressed in a variety of proliferating cells and are shown in a broad band that anticipates the mitotic divisions as the morphogenetic furrow passes aacross the eye-entennal disc and in proliferating cells in the optic lobes of the brain. stg transcripts are also expressed in the apical cells of the male testis.

stg transcripts are most abundant in early embryos and adult females.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell | subset

Comment: S, G2 and M cycle cells only

Additional Descriptive Data

stg is highly expressed in germline stem cells and in cyst stem cells and is rapidly downregulated in their differentiating daughters. The highest levels of stg were always found in germline stem cells at the testis apical tip.

stg accumulates in S, G2 and M cell cycle phases, but not in G1 phase.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacW}S096705a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS022406
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS024503
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS024532
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS043922
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS073013
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS089605a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS098006
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS106006a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}stgS108908
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{stg-lacZ.β}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{stg-lacZ.HZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\stg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 109 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of stg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of stg
Deletions and Duplications ( 25 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
glial cell & eye disc | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4
larval hindgut & ectoderm
macrochaeta & adult head
macrochaeta & adult thorax
macrochaeta & scutellum
macrochaeta & wing
scutum & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908D2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915035I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08P2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DFE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LFI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
7 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 6 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-98

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:29,251,826..29,255,800 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    99A5-99A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0470804708 and P{PZ}l(3)0674306743
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    99A5-99A7
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99A5-99A6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99A-99A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A1--4 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A1--8 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    98F-99A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A1--4 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99A1-99A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A (determined by in situ hybridisation) 99A1--8 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 98F3--11 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99A-99A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    98F-99A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (35)
    Genomic Clones (23)
    cDNA Clones (82)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: stg CG1395

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: stg EP1213

    Additional comments

    P{EP} insertion in "EP1213EP1213" is approximately 1.5kb upstream of the stg transcription unit. However, it is not clear whether stg or a gene other than stg is affected in the P{EP}stgEP1213 insertion line.

    "l(3)0674306743" may be a leaky allele of "stg".

    "Dr" mutants are always double hits in two genes, one of which is "stg".

    Interactions between "Dr" revertant alleles and "stg" demonstrate they are separate loci.

    Can rescue allele 22 of Spom\cdc25, but not a deletion of the gene.

    Other Comments

    Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against stg that is transfected into S2 treated with Listeria monocytogenes reveals stg to be involved in Listeria monocytogenes intracellular growth, with increased intracellular growth observed in stg-treated cells.

    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cell size is increased, microtubules are uniform or disorganised, cell shape is irregular, and cell number is decreased indicative of a failure in cell cycle progression through G1 to S and G2 to M stages.

    The joint action of two RNA degradation pathways (a maternally encoded and a zygotic pathway) controls maternal transcript degradation and its timing in the early embryo. stg transcripts (relatively high in abundance) require the action of both pathways in order to be eliminated prior to the midblastula transition.

    Many modular elements with separable activities, spread over more than 30kb, control stg transcription in the embryo and imaginal discs.

    The Dr mutants are cis-regulatory alleles of stg, as well as alleles of Dr.

    stg is required for completion of daughter centriole assembly in embryos.

    numb functions downstream of cell division genes (CycA, Rca1 and stg) and progression through the cell cycle is required for asymmetric localisation of numb and thus N mediated specification of the sib fate in the RP2/sib division.

    The loss of CycA, Rca1 or stg leads to a block in the division of GMC-1, however this GMC-1 adopts a RP2 identity.

    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.

    The wg product induces G2 arrest in two subdomains of the developing wing margin by inducing ac and sc, which down-regulate stg.

    Identification: Enhancer trap screen designed to discover genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes linked to blood cell disregulation.

    stg regulation is a critical part of the control of early entry into mitosis in some, but not all, G2-arrested imaginal cells, identifying an additional mechanisms by which cellular proliferation is controlled in the growing adult tissues. stg is essential for the generation of the adult cuticle.

    stg and twe complement each other in the germ-line and early embryo. stg is required for neither female germ cell divisions nor embryonic cycles 1-13. Lowering the maternal dose of stg and twe can advance the maternal/zygotic transition (MZT). Increasing twe, but not stg, can postpone the MZT.

    Genetic analysis of the Dr locus suggests it defines a novel regulator of stg.

    rux acts genetically to negatively regulate stg.

    The prolonged halflife of the mus209 protein in stg mutant embryos suggests involvement of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of some proteins in disassembly of the DNA replication enzyme complex.

    The coordinate program of expression of S phase genes (DNApol-α180, mus209, RnrL and RnrS) is not disrupted in stg mutants and is therefore not a secondary consequence of cell cycle progression.

    Known patterning genes act locally to influence stg transcription. Complete pattern of stg transcription requires >15.3kb of cis-acting regulatory sequences. stg transcription is largely unaffected in mutant embryos arrested in G2 of cycles 14, 15 or 16, or G1 of cycle 17. Thus there is a regulatory hierarchy in which developmental inputs, not cell cycle inputs, control the timing of stg transcription and hence cell cycle progression. Overall orientation not stated: anon-99A? stg+ ptls+

    Degradation of maternally supplied stg causes tyrosine dephosphorylation of cdc2 to become rate limiting for mitosis beginning in cycle 14.

    stg is epistatic to fzy.

    Mutants are embryonic lethal; denticle bands are reduced. First 13 nuclear divisions of zygote proceed on schedule; division 14 permanently arrested in G2 in homozygotes for strong alleles; no evidence of nuclear-envelope breakdown or chromosome condensation; division 14 severely impaired in weak alleles. Gastrulation proceeds on schedule in stg mutant embryos with but 5,000 cells. The only defect seems to be in the initiation of the first mitotic division that is under zygotic control. Clones of homozygous cells induced early don't survive; few late clones produced.

    DNA synthesis in arrested stg embryos confined to the polyploid amnioserosal cells. Markers ordinarily expressed in normal embryos with 50,000 cells also expressed in stg embryos with 5,000 cells.

    Mutations in zygotic gene stg do not interact with RpII140wimp.

    The effects of an altered nucleocytoplasmic ratio on transcripts that normally undergo changes in transcript pattern in cell cycle 14 is studied. A delay in the maternal-to-zygotic transition of the mitotic control gene stg is correlated with a decrease in nuclear density and a change in the cell cycle program.

    The normal number of cell divisions is important to achieve proper cuticular differentiation, whereas the relative timing of these divisions is less critical.

    stg gene product activity is rate limiting for the cell cycle transition G2/M during embryonic cell cycles 14, 15 and 16.

    Regulated expression of stg mRNA controls the timing and location of zygotically driven embryonic cell divisions.

    stg mutants display a strong reduction in the number of denticle rows.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 70 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CDC25string
    Cdc25string
    String/Cdc25
    anon-EST:Liang-2.21
    l(3)j10B9
    l(3)j1D3
    l(3)j1E3
    l(3)j3D1
    l(3)s2213
    stg
    (Bivik Stadler et al., 2019, Finegan et al., 2019, Gerlach et al., 2019, Grendler et al., 2019, Guo et al., 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Nelson et al., 2019, Rivera et al., 2019, Rotelli et al., 2019, Yang et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Ariss et al., 2018, Spéder and Brand, 2018, Franz et al., 2017, Hevia et al., 2017, Ibar and Glavic, 2017, Lou et al., 2017, Meserve and Duronio, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Bivik et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Djabrayan and Casanova, 2016, Seyres et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Barrios et al., 2015, Blatti et al., 2015, Dequéant et al., 2015, Kok et al., 2015, Verma and Cohen, 2015, Wang and Baker, 2015, Xie et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Ciglar et al., 2014, Djabrayan et al., 2014, Gómez-Lamarca et al., 2014, Gonzalez et al., 2014, Liang et al., 2014, Matakatsu, 2014.6.24, Sopko et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Chang et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Di Talia et al., 2013, Djiane et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Mishra et al., 2013, Muha and Müller, 2013, Nakamura et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Yin et al., 2013, Aliee et al., 2012, Althoff et al., 2012, Di Talia and Wieschaus, 2012, Di Talia and Wieschaus, 2012, Farrell et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Ji et al., 2012, Korenjak et al., 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Marinari et al., 2012, Reid et al., 2012, Sun and Spradling, 2012, Takahashi et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Pinto et al., 2011, Willecke et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Berger et al., 2010, Bernard et al., 2010, Fox et al., 2010, Frise et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Mesquita et al., 2010, Rouault et al., 2010, Schittenhelm et al., 2010, Silicheva et al., 2010, Swaminathan and Pile, 2010, Swaminathan et al., 2010, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Christensen et al., 2009.7.22, Davidson et al., 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Read et al., 2009, Shyu et al., 2009, Andersen and Tapon, 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Mitchell et al., 2008, Nakamura et al., 2008, O'Farrell and Kylsten, 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Buszczak et al., 2007, Buttitta et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, da Silva and Vincent, 2007, Gawlinski et al., 2007, Jemc and Rebay, 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Shibutani et al., 2007, Sun and Deng, 2007, White et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Choksi et al., 2006, Gibson et al., 2006, Morris et al., 2006, Mukherjee et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Wells et al., 2006, Grosskortenhaus et al., 2005, Odenwald, 2005, Delanoue et al., 2004, Loop et al., 2004, Heriche et al., 2003, Park et al., 2003, Gim et al., 2001, Trunova et al., 2001)
    Name Synonyms
    String/Cdc25 phosphatase
    Suppressor of rux 3A
    string
    (Neves and Eisenman, 2019, Drelon et al., 2018, Lefebvre and Lécuyer, 2018, Amourda and Saunders, 2017, Branco-Santos et al., 2017, Hevia et al., 2017, Muzzopappa et al., 2017, Gupta et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Barrios et al., 2015, Dequéant et al., 2015, Dorn and Dorn, 2015, Verma and Cohen, 2015, Gómez-Lamarca et al., 2014, Günesdogan et al., 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Liang et al., 2014, Southall et al., 2014, Wong et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Cui et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Sung et al., 2013, Zhan et al., 2013, Bossing et al., 2012, Farrell et al., 2012, Yokoyama and Nakamura, 2011, Berger et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Mesquita et al., 2010, Rouault et al., 2010, Thomsen et al., 2010, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Davidson et al., 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Shyu et al., 2009, Sims et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Chang et al., 2008, Herranz et al., 2008, Nakamura et al., 2008, O'Farrell and Kylsten, 2008, Somma et al., 2008, Zielke et al., 2008, Anuradha et al., 2007, Buttitta et al., 2007, da Silva and Vincent, 2007, De Renzis et al., 2007, Garcia et al., 2007, Gawlinski et al., 2007, Gregory et al., 2007, Jemc and Rebay, 2007, Jemc and Rebay, 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Kaplow et al., 2007, Moshkin et al., 2007, Omel'yanchuk et al., 2007, Silva and Vincent, 2007, Sun and Deng, 2007, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2007, White et al., 2007, Choksi et al., 2006, Foglietti et al., 2006, Gibson et al., 2006, Hutterer et al., 2006, Hyun et al., 2006, Morris et al., 2006, Mukherjee et al., 2006, Wodarz and Gonzalez, 2006, Odenwald, 2005, Jafar-Nejad and Bellen, 2004, Wheeler et al., 2004, Bellotto et al., 2002, Trunova et al., 2001, Wilkie et al., 2001, Su et al., 2000)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0011019
    • FBgn0011315
    • FBgn0011317
    • FBgn0011354
    • FBgn0011428
    • FBgn0043376
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (669)