Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\stil
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
stand still
Annotation Symbol
CG8592
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003527
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,570,367..12,571,883 [+]
Recombination map

2-67

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:12570367..12571883
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    -
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Essential in the female germline for proper survival, sex determination and differentiation. Participates in the transcriptional activation of Otu. Does not regulate the expression of Ovo.
    (UniProt, P92189)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    stil: stand still (T. Schupbach)
    Female sterile; homozygous females contain few developing egg chambers in their ovaries, which may contain abnormal numbers of nurse cells and usually degenerate before yolk uptake begins.
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\stil or the JBrowse view of Dmel\stil for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.49

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0087825
    1171
    321
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    1.2 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0086938
    35.8
    321
    9.74
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    40 (kD observed); 35.8 (kD predicted)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\stil using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (5 terms)
    Molecular Function (0 terms)
    There is no information supporting a Molecular Function term for this gene. (Based on a review of available data before: 2006-08-03 )
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (4 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    stil transcripts are first detected in the germarium where they are observed in all of the germ cells including the stem cells. They are present in the cytoplasm of nurse cells through most of oogenesis and reach a peak in stage S10. No staining in the oocyte is seen.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    stil protein is detected in the nucleus of germ cells starting at embryonic stage 11. Expression continues to be detected in the nuclei of germ cells of both sexes in first and second larval instars. During the third larval instar, differences in staining between sexes become apparent. In females, all germ cell nuclei are stained in third instar larvae and in ovaries of adults. In adult females, oocyte nuclei stain until stage S10, while nurse cell nuclei continue to be stained until they degenerate. In males, stil protein is detected in some, but not all germ cell nuclei. In third instar larval and adult testes, expression levels are low at the tip of the testes, are high in newly formed 16-cell cysts of primary spermatocytes, but disappear thereafter.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\stil in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of stil
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of stil
    Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FNK )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B3O )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CT4 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map

      2-67

      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:12,570,367..12,571,883 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      49B5-49B5
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG8569EP1182 and P{EP}AmphEP2175&P{lacW}spt4k05316
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      49A-49B
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (7)
      Genomic Clones (14)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (11)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      stil has been cloned and sequenced, and its expression pattern has been analysed.

      Genetic and morphological analysis of stil.

      stil has a role in specifying or maintaining a cytoskeletal component that is required in the germ line during oogenesis, and possibly during germ line sex determination.

      The most severe mutations produce agametic ovaries that lack germ cell clusters. Less severe mutations exhibit cell-associated cytoskeletal defects that underlie a variety of phenotypic anomalies.

      Surviving germ cells in stil mutants exhibit a primary spermatocyte morphology suggesting that stil is a germline sex determination gene.

      Mutations in stil cause two characterisitic phenotypes: death of female germ cells and surviving germ cells show a sexual transformation and differentiate as spermatocytes.

      stil is required in the female but not male germline.

      Mutants exhibit reduced quantities of yolk in the oocytes due to lack of functional gene product in the germ cells.

      The stil locus affects early oogenesis: mutations cause the production of few, defective germ cells.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (46)