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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\su(sable)
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
suppressor of sable
Annotation Symbol
CG6222
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003575
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Affects the transcript levels of those alleles that it suppresses. May be involved in influencing complex assembly on cryptic 5'-splice sites or nuclear RNA export; binds RNA preferentially at a sequence that resembles a cryptic 5'-splice site (in vitro). (UniProt, P22293)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

su(s), EG:115C2.3 , su-s

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:635890..643760
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VLN1
(assigned by UniProt )
enables RNA binding
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000571
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with euchromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000319268
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Affects the transcript levels of those alleles that it suppresses. May be involved in influencing complex assembly on cryptic 5'-splice sites or nuclear RNA export; binds RNA preferentially at a sequence that resembles a cryptic 5'-splice site (in vitro).
(UniProt, P22293)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
su(s): suppressor of sable (R.A. Voelker)
In hemizygous or homozygous condition suppresses certain spontaneous alleles that contain 412 insertions at several loci (e.g., v, v2, vk, pr, prbw, sp) or hybrid dysgenesis-induced alleles that contain P element insertions (e.g., snw, y76d28). s is suppressible but does not have a 412 insertion (Searles and Voelker, 1986). bx is caused by a 412 insertion but is not suppressed (Voelker et al., 1989). Not all su(s) alleles suppress all suppressible alleles (Jacobson et al., 1982a). Although reported as recessive, some alleles show a slight dominance (Shapard, 1960; Baglioni, 1960). No lethal alleles recovered in a lethal saturation screen of the su(s) region, but a number of X-ray-, EMS- and ENU-induced alleles exhibit sterility or reduced male fertility when reared at 18C (Voelker et al., 1989). Some alleles cause a slight spreading of the wings, especially in males. Suppression of v and y76d28 occurs by elevating the levels of pseudo-wild-type, presumably translatable, message (Searles, Ruth, Pret, Fridell, and Ali, submitted; P. Geyer, V. Corces and M. Green, personal communication). Some alleles enhance some gypsy-caused mutations (Rutledge et al., 1988). A duplication of su(s)+ enhances suppressible pr alleles (Jacobson et al., 1982b).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\su(sable) for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry P22293)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070120
4901
1325
FBtr0340081
4889
1321
FBtr0340082
4657
1325
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070115
143.8
1325
5.22
FBpp0309080
143.4
1321
5.26
FBpp0309081
143.8
1325
5.22
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1325 aa isoforms: su(sable)-PA, su(sable)-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1322 (aa); 150 (kD observed)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\su(sable) using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

su(s) transcript is detected at nearly constant levels in all developmental stages.

su(s) transcripts are much more abundant in embryos than adults.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

su(s) protein is detected in a reticulated pattern in embryonic nuclei. A similar reticulated pattern is observed in larval salivary gland nuclei.

su(s) protein is detected in a reticulated pattern in embryonic and salivary gland nuclei. In the salivary gland the staining localizes mainly to the nucleoplasm. Fewer than 20 sites on salivary gland chromosomes stain strongly with anti-su(s) antibody, and a larger number of sites stain weakly. Most chromosome puffs do not stain strongly. Many (but not all) sites that stain with anti-su(s) antibody also stain with anti-snRNP-U1-70K antibody.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with euchromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\su(sable) in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 143 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of su(sable)
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of su(sable)
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 101 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 101 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1B13-1B13
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}DreddEP1412&P{EP}Suv4-20EP1216a and P{EP}sdkEP369
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1B13-1C1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1B11-1B13
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Rare crossovers occur between y and su(s).

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (70)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: su(s) CG6222

    Source for identity of: su(sable) su(s)

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    The gene symbol "su(s)" has been changed to "su(sable)" in order to reduce confusion with the "Su(S)" ("Suppressor of Star") gene symbol, from which it differed only by case.

    Other Comments

    "Gene order: In direction of increasing cytology: RpL36+ l(1)1Bi+ Dredd- su(s)+" was stated as revision.

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    Recombinant su(s) protein is capable of binding RNA, consistent with previous results indicating that su(s) mutations affect mRNA processing (FBrf0051854, FBrf0068496 and FBrf0055001).

    "Gene order: In direction of increasing cytology: RpL36? l(1)1Bi+ Dredd- su(s)+ CG13367? l(1)1Bk?" was stated as revision.

    Expression of derivatives of a vs allele with a smaller 412 insertion and alterations in the 412-associated splice sites is examined in su(s) wild type and su(s) mutant backgrounds after germ line transformation. Results provide strong support for a role of the su(s) protein in the pre-mRNA splicing pathway.

    Strains carrying both the v+37 allele and one of three su(s) alleles were used to demonstrate how su(s) mutants affect transcript level of v mutant alleles: increased v mRNA accumulation was observed.

    su(s) has been cloned and sequenced.

    Three alleles of the vermilion gene, containing identically located 412 retrotransposon insertions are suppressed by recessive mutations at the su(s) locus.

    FlyBase curator comment: Gene order described in this paper is "l(1)1Bi? RpL36+ Dredd- su(s)+ CG13367? l(1)1Bk?". FBrf0098592 subsequently reversed the order of l(1)1Bi and RpL36.

    Mutant phenotype can be rescued by the introduction of a wild type gene by P element mediated transformation. Recessive mutations at the su(s) locus result in the suppression of second site mutations caused by insertions of the 412-element.

    In hemizygous or homozygous condition suppresses certain spontaneous alleles that contain 412 insertions at several loci (e.g., v, v2, vk, pr, prbw, sp) or hybrid dysgenesis-induced alleles that contain P element insertions (e.g., snw, y76d28). s is suppressible but does not have a 412 insertion (Searles and Voelker, 1986). bx is caused by a 412 insertion but is not suppressed (Voelker et al., 1989). Not all su(s) alleles suppress all suppressible alleles (Jacobson et al., 1982). Although reported as recessive, some alleles show a slight dominance (Shapard, 1960; Baglioni, 1960). No lethal alleles recovered in a lethal saturation screen of the su(s) region, but a number of X-ray-, EMS- and ENU-induced alleles exhibit sterility or reduced male fertility when reared at 18oC (Voelker et al., 1989). Some alleles cause a slight spreading of the wings, especially in males. Suppression of v and y76d28 occurs by elevating the levels of pseudo-wild-type, presumably translatable, message (Searles, Ruth, Pret, Fridell and Ali, submitted; P. Geyer, V. Corces and M. Green, personal communication). Some alleles enhance some gypsy-caused mutations (Rutledge et al., 1988). A duplication of su(s)+ enhances suppressible pr alleles (Jacobson et al., 1982).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 50 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
    Datasets (8)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (8)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from non-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from wasp-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    References (126)