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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sws
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
swiss cheese
Annotation Symbol
CG2212
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003656
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Lysophospholipase (3.1.1.5)
Gene Summary
swiss cheese (sws) encodes a transmembrane protein that hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and binds to and inhibits the C3 catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Its loss leads to neuronal and glial degeneration and apoptotic cell death. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

olfE

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-22
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:7956820..7968236
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P16912
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000369206
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000369206
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NTE family. (Q9U969)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate (3.1.1.5)
Predictions / Assertions
2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate (3.1.1.5)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
swiss cheese (sws) encodes a transmembrane protein that hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and binds to and inhibits the C3 catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Its loss leads to neuronal and glial degeneration and apoptotic cell death. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LYSOPHOSPHOLIPASES -
Lysophospholipases are hydrolases that catalyze the conversion of a 2-lysophosphatidylcholine into glycerophosphocholine and a carboxylate.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Phospholipase B that deacylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), generating glycerophosphocholine (GroPtdCho). This deacylation occurs at both sn-2 and sn-1 positions of PtdCho. Its specific chemical modification by certain organophosphorus (OP) compounds leads to distal axonopathy. Plays a role in the signaling mechanism between neurons and glia that regulates glia wrapping during development of the adult brain. Essential for membrane lipid homeostasis and cell survival in both neurons and glia of the adult brain.
(UniProt, Q9U969)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
olfE: olfactory-E (J.C. Hall)
Larvae and adults show reduction in responses to benzaldehyde in petri-plate-based and Y-tube olfactometric assays, respectively. In odor-induced-jump assay (using benzaldehyde), mutants jump less than half as often as normal flies. allele: There is one extant allele, olfEx26.
sws: swiss cheese (J.C. Hall)
Isolated in anatomical screen (cf. Heisenberg and Bohl, 1979, Z. Naturforsch. 34: 143-47); many Swiss-cheese-like holes seen in brain sections of adults (similar to phenotype observed in dying drd flies).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sws for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071125
5571
1425
FBtr0071126
1928
341
FBtr0301675
5571
1425
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.4, 1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071077
160.6
1425
7.95
FBpp0071078
38.8
341
4.59
FBpp0290889
160.7
1425
7.91
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with Pka-C3; interaction inhibits the catalytic function of Pka-C3 and the esterase activity of sws.

(UniProt, Q9U969)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sws using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sws is expressed in most or all neurons in the adults brain and at higher levels in a subset of neurons that also express Pka-C3.

sws is expressed in most or all neurons in the adult brain in 1 day adults. By 12 days, staining becomes more restricted with higher expression in some neurons. Double staining with a glial-specific marker reveals expression of sws in interface glia at the neuropil-cortex border but not in the neuropil glia of the protocerebrum. In the optic system, expression is observed in the fenestrated and satellite glia in the lamina cortex and in the medulla glia at the cortex-neuropil interface.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sws in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 19 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sws
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sws
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 6 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
11  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
0  
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900MU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500SF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00M5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00KY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00XM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Pka-C3; interaction inhibits the catalytic function of Pka-C3 and the esterase activity of sws.
(UniProt, Q9U969 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-22
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
7D1-7D1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1243 and P{EP}snEP1217
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
7D1-7D1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (16)
Genomic Clones (22)
cDNA Clones (54)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: sws CG2212

Source for database merge of
Additional comments

complements olfA, olfB and olfF.

Other Comments

sws is essential for membrane lipid homeostasis and cell survival in both neurons and glia.

sws mutants are characterised by progressive degeneration of the adult nervous system, glial hyperwrapping, and neuronal apoptosis.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 77 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0004059
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (102)