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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\thr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
three rows
Annotation Symbol
CG5785
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003701
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
three rows (thr) encodes a protein that, together with the product of Sse, forms the endoprotease separase complex, which cleaves a subunit of the cohesin complex, thereby allowing separation of the sister chromatids. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
anch, ana, anarchist
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,861,273..17,865,963 [-]
Recombination map
2-84
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Required specifically for chromosome disjunction during all mitoses; maternally provided protein is sufficient until mitosis 14 then zygotic protein is required. Involved in formation and/or maintenance of epithelial structures: bud extension during Malpighian tubule development, and foregut and hindgut morphogenesis.
    (UniProt, P42286)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    thr: three rows
    Larval denticles sparse and arranged in few rows, all pointing posteriorly. Denticles larger than normal. Apparently no mitoses after the first post-blastoderm mitosis, resulting in embryos with fewer and larger cells than normal. TSP 4-9 h. Homozygous lethal in embryo.
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\thr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\thr for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Gene model reviewed during 5.50
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0086825
    4358
    1379
    FBtr0340283
    4578
    1379
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    4.7, 4.4 (northern blot)
    4.4 (unknown)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0086004
    157.6
    1379
    8.72
    FBpp0309246
    157.6
    1379
    8.72
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    1379 aa isoforms: thr-PB, thr-PC
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    1209 (aa); 137.9 (kD predicted)
    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with pim and Sse. Cleavage of thr contributes to inactivation of Sse.
    (UniProt, P42286)
    Post Translational Modification
    Proteolytically cleaved after the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, C-terminal cleavage product is degraded. Cleavage can only proceed within complexes that contain active Sse.
    (UniProt, P42286)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\thr using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (12 terms)
    Molecular Function (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24454
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VRN6
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (10 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    No Assay Recorded
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    In Northern blots, thr transcript is detected at high levels in 4 hr and younger embryos, and at lower levels throughout the rest of embryogenesis. In situ hybridization experiments show thr transcript to be evenly distributed in the embryo before cellularization. After cellularization, thr transcript continues to be expressed ubiquitously, but is at higher levels in the pole cell region. Expression declines during germ band extension. After germ band extension, thr transcript is detected in the central and peripheral nervous sys ems. After germ band retraction, a subset of cells in the ventral nerve cord and the proliferating areas of the brain express thr. RNAse protection experiments show that thr transcript is present in third instar larvae, in adults of both sexes, and in Schneider line 2 cells.
    thr transcript is distributed in a punctate and perinuclear pattern in embryonic cells.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\thr in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of thr
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of thr
    Deletions and Duplications ( 26 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902NJ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500DV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with pim and Sse. Cleavage of thr contributes to inactivation of Sse.
      (UniProt, P42286 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-84
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:17,861,273..17,865,963 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      54F3-54F4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}grh06850&P{lacW}olf186-Fk11505 and P{PZ}Hsf03091&P{EP}Dgp-1EP731
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      54F4-54F5
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      54F3-54F6
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Mapping method not described.
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (11)
      Genomic Clones (17)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (20)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in aberrantly long spindles when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
        thr protein is cleaved after metaphase-to-anaphase transition during mitosis and this cleavage requires functional Sse protein complexes.
        pim and thr are required for sister chromatin separation in mitosis.
        There is no synergistic interaction between pim and thr.
        The metaphase arrest seen in fzy mutants persists in the absence of pim or thr function.
        Zygotic expression of thr is required for the embryonic mitoses.
        The maternal thr genotype influences the zygotic mutant phenotype.
        The thr gene was cloned by a combination of chromosome microdissection and P element tagging: predicted protein bears little resemblence to any sequence previously reported. Most significant similarity is over a 26 amino acid stretch where similarity to the S.pombe nuc2 nuclear scaffold-like protein is detectable. Mutants in thr show abnormal mitoses, becoming delayed at mitosis 15, with the chromosomes remaining at the metaphase plate, and subsequently decondensing. Maternal mRNA and protein are apparently sufficient for 14 rounds of mitosis in thr mutant embryos.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (106)