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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tll
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tailless
Annotation Symbol
CG1378
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003720
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

NR2E2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,852,315..30,854,400 [+]
Recombination map

3-101

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:30852315..30854400
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (26 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001723
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001628, InterPro:IPR013088
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002786850
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR2 subfamily. (P18102)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NUCLEAR RECEPTOR (LIGAND-DEPENDENT) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Nuclear receptors (NR) are C4 zinc finger ligand-dependent DNA-binding transcription factors. Members of the NR superfamily are defined by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain and a less conserved C-terminal ligand-binding domain. (Adapted from FBrf0184203).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Orphan receptor that binds DNA as a monomer to hormone response elements (HRE) containing an extended core motif half-site sequence 5'-AAGTCA-3' in which the 5' flanking nucleotides participate in determining receptor specificity. This receptor binds to the consensus sequence
(UniProt, P18102)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tll: tailless (J. A. Lengyel)
Recessive; zygotic lethal with pattern deletions in anterior and posterior of embryo (but body of normal length due to increase in length of non-deleted pattern elements). Anteriorly, dorsal portion of cephalopharyngeal skeleton is defective (dorsal arms shortened, dorsal bridge unfused), dorsal pouch shortened and scleritized, much of brain missing. Posteriorly, eighth abdominal segment and telson, Malpighian tubules, hindgut and much of posterior midgut missing.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - nuclear receptor - zinc finger - regulates neuronal sub-type identity, including motor, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuron identity - required for efficient proliferation and prolonged maintenance of mushroom body progenitors in the Drosophila brain - regulates germ band retraction, dorsal closure, muscle and heart development.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\tll or the JBrowse view of Dmel\tll for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085709
1965
452
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085071
50.5
452
9.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

452 (aa); 50.5 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Monomer.

(UniProt, P18102)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tll using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

tll and ems are expressed in adjacent regions during the blastoderm stage and during head neurectoderm and brain formation.

At embryonic stage 10, tll expression overlaps with the anterior part of the visual system that will give rise to the anterior lip of the optic lobe. At stage 12, tll is also observed at the posterior lip of the optic lobe but not in Bolwig's organ. In larvae, tll is expressed in the optic lobe of the larva brain. It is also expressed in both the antennal and eye portions of the eye-antennal disc

tll transcripts are expressed in the procephalic neurectoderm from the blastoderm stage into late stages of embryogenesis. tll transcripts are present in all proneural domains of the protocerebrum. The level of tll transcripts in a given domain is highest just before and during the stage in which the neurons from that domain delaminate. From stage 12 on, tll transcripts are present in the optic lobe and are also observed in the late third instar larval optic lobe.

The posterior tll expression domain is severely reduced in csw mutants.

tll transcripts are first observed at nuclear cycle 9 as two dots of staining in the nuclei of the terminal region cells. Staining is strongest in the most terminal nuclei and becomes progressively less intense in subterminal nuclei. During nuclear cycles 10, 11, and 12, staining increases over the nuclei and then in the surrounding cytoplasm until a solid cap of staining is seen at both termini. After the terminal caps form, they resolve into smaller domains. By the beginning of cellularization, the posterior cap has retracted from 20% to 16% egg length. The anterior cap also retracts both from the anterior tip progressing toward the posterior and from the ventral midline progressing laterally. By the end of syncytial blastoderm stage, the anterior domain has become a horseshoe shaped stripe from 75-88% egg length extending about 2/3 of the way towards the ventral midline. Posterior staining is stronger than anterior staining.

tll transcript levels reach a peak at 2-4 hr of embryogenesis. At the syncytial blastoderm stage, tll is expressed in a symmetrical pattern extending from 0-20% egg length and 80-100% egg length. By the cellular blastoderm stage, the tll domain has become smaller. Anteriorly, expression is seen in a stripe from 76-89% egg length in the lateral and dorsal part of the embryo. The posterior band has receded to cover 0-15% egg length. After the cellular blastoderm stage, tll expression is seen mainly in the anterior of the embryo, particularly in the forming brain. From stage 13 on, expression is lost in parts of the brain but persists in cortical regions. By stage 16, expression is mainly seen in the optic lobes. Transient expression occurs in the PNS in stages 12 and 13.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

tll-protein expression can be found in neoroepithelial cells in the proximal and upper distal part of the inner proliferation zone in the larval optic anlage. Expression can also be detected in ase-positive ganglion mother cells and transiently in their progeny part of the lobula plate anlage.

tll-protein expression detected immunohistochemically with two different antibodies, one raised against Drosophila Tll and one against human NR2E1.

tll protein is expressed in the oldest of the larval medulla forming neuroblasts.

tll expression is initially found in almost all procephalic neuroblasts, but by embryonic stage 16 it becomes largely restricted to the anterior procephalic neuroblasts. In larvae tll is expressed in the lamina precursor cells, but disappears by the end of the larval stage.

tll protein is observed in syncytial blastoderm embryos as a covering over the anterior and posterior termini of the embryo. As with the RNA, the terminal caps are resolved into smaller domains in the cellular blastoderm embryo. Staining is greater in the posterior cap than in the anterior cap.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter:
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{G22}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.K2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.K10}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.K11}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.P1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.P2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.P3}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{tll-lacZ.P4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tll in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 21 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tll
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tll
Deletions and Duplications ( 33 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
denticle belt & abdominal segment 8
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
2  
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (26)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908LR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915063P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AYM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0601 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0AV3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
5 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Monomer.
(UniProt, P18102 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-101

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,852,315..30,854,400 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
100A6-100A6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500 and P{PZ}Aph-407028&P{PZ}dcorK215
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
100A6-100B1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
100B1-100B2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (19)
Genomic Clones (5)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (2)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: tll CG1378

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for tll protein in 2-3 hr embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_tll collection report.

      Mutant embryos lack the corpus cardiacum.

      tll directly inhibits the expression of ems in the early embryonic head and the protocerebral brain anlage.

      tll functions to drive cells to optic lobe as opposed to Bolwig's organ fate in the developing embryonic visual system.

      Mutants are isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis: mutants exhibit gap pattern defects.

      cad acts in hindgut development through fog, fkh and wg, but does not play a role in activating tll, hkb, byn and bowl which are also required for proper hindgut development.

      tll expression in brain neuroblasts is examined and it is demonstrated that the expression is not detectably regulated by btd, oc, l(1)sc or tll itself. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs driven in tll pattern identify multiple modules responsible for different aspects of the tll pattern.

      Deleted posterior terminal structures of mutant embryos can be traced to an altered fate map at the early gastrula stage. Analysis of posterior epidermal structures, byn expression and hindgut size can order tll mutants in a series of graded strength.

      Gsc expression is controlled by dpp, oc, slp1/slp2 and tll.

      Probes labelled with digoxigenin, fluorescein and biotin allow detection of RNA of three different genes in three different colours.

      tll is necessary and sufficient to activate byn.

      Gene product is known to regulate Kr CD (cis acting control element) expression.

      The tor response elements have been mapped in the tll promoter. The 11bp response element mediates repression of tll. This repression is lifted by activation of the tor pathway at the poles of the embryo.

      tll is an activator of byn expression.

      twi, sna, hkb and tll gene products define the positions of the primordia of the germ layers and thereby the regions in which the blastoderm epithelium will invaginate.

      The limits of the mesoderm primordium do not depend on tll or fkh.

      "Splice" phenotype of torNRE dependent on tll, trk and tsl.

      tll is required for normal pattern of prd in the embryo.

      The role of tll in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.

      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate the presence of tor, bcd and dl maternal system cis-acting response elements in the 5' flanking region of tll.

      DNA sequence comparisons between D.melanogaster and D.virilis, DNAseI footprinting and promoter dissection identify two tll promoter elements in the previously defined D3 promoter region to be potential regulatory targets of phl-activated transcription factors. Sequence comparisons also reveal that unique residues in the DNA binding domain of the tll protein itself are conserved, and may be responsible for differences between the tll binding site and that of the closely related retinoid/estrogen receptors.

      The BRE region of Ubx includes binding sites for hb, ftz, tll, en and twi. The binding of their products and the interplay between them is responsible for generating the expression pattern directed by the BRE.

      An artificial bcd responder gene composed of three bcd consensus binding sites driving Ecol\lacZ is activated by bcd and repressed by tor. This repression does not require tll or hkb.

      Dsor1 is involved in both the positive and negative regulation of tll.

      Evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes, in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place, is studied.

      csw- syncytial and cellular blastoderm embryos show reduced posterior tll domain. csw and phl acts in concert to regulate tll expression.

      The activation and spatial limitation of tll and hkb expression in the posterior region of the embryo is critically dependent on tor activity. The spatial limitation of hkb and tll expression is not regulated by the "central gap genes" which are essential for the establishment of segmentation in the trunk of the embryo, and also does not involve mutual interactions between hkb and tll.

      tll was included in a study to determine how gap genes influence gt expression.

      tll exerts a negative effect on gt expression in the embryo.

      Mutations in zygotic cardinal gene tll do not interact with RpII140wimp.

      Mutant tll embryos alter the expression of the Ubx bx region enhancer element, BRE.

      Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.

      The effect of tll on hb and ftz expression has been studied.

      tll mutants exhibit deletions in the terminal regions of the embryo.

      tll represses Kr expression in the central segmentation domain and activates Kr expression in the posterior Malpighian tubule domain.

      Molecular analysis and cloning of tll suggests that the tll protein functions as a transcription factor.

      Expression of kni-Ecol\lacZ regulatory fusion constructs in mutant embryos shows that kni expression is repressed by tll activity.

      Genetic and phenotypic investigation of the tll gene demonstrate it is required for the formation of the normal body pattern. tll and maternal terminal genes act together in a common pathway to establish the posterior and anterior domains of the embryo.

      A detailed analysis of the tll mutant phenotype has been carried out.

      tll mutants display deletion of A8 and telson and a defective head skeleton.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 38 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      tll
      (Hakes and Brand, 2020, Keenan et al., 2020, Curt et al., 2019, Johnson and Toettcher, 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Sapar and Han, 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Goyal et al., 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Palmer et al., 2018, Forés et al., 2017, Goyal et al., 2017, Johnson et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wolfstetter et al., 2017, Crocker et al., 2016, Hoermann et al., 2016, Jussen et al., 2016, Kraft et al., 2016, Levario et al., 2016, Liaw, 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Wang and Xiong, 2016, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Dahlberg et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Guillermin et al., 2015, Jaumouillé et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Boyle et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Davis et al., 2014, Henstridge et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Palsson et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Johnson et al., 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Andrioli et al., 2012, Aswani et al., 2012, Bonn et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kim et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Turki-Judeh and Courey, 2012, Yaniv et al., 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Degennaro et al., 2011, Dubrovsky et al., 2011, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Garcia and Stathopoulos, 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Uddin et al., 2011, Dilão and Muraro, 2010, Ding et al., 2010, Ismat et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Tipping et al., 2010, Ventura et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, de Las Heras et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Kurusu et al., 2009, Lin et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Pisarev et al., 2009, Rewitz et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Wolfstetter et al., 2009, Ashyraliyev et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Florence and Faller, 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Kwong et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Xia et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Astigarraga et al., 2007, Coppey et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Pereanu et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Ullah et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, de las Heras and Casanova, 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Janssens et al., 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Moran and Jimenez, 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wratten et al., 2006, Hoskins et al., 2005, Peel et al., 2005, Brodsky et al., 2004, Grad et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Loop et al., 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2002, Shaw et al., 2002, Tuckfield et al., 2002, Hauptmann, 2001)
      Name Synonyms
      tailless
      (Auman and Chipman, 2017, Crocker et al., 2016, Jussen et al., 2016, Wang and Xiong, 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Anholt and Mackay, 2015, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Dahlberg et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Guillermin et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Davis et al., 2014, Guilgur et al., 2014, Johnson et al., 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Andrioli et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Yaniv et al., 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Bieler et al., 2011, Degennaro et al., 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Dilão and Muraro, 2010, Ding et al., 2010, Ventura et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2009, de Las Heras et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Kurusu et al., 2009, Lin et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Manu et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Rewitz et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Weber et al., 2009, Wolfstetter et al., 2009, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Florence and Faller, 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Xia et al., 2008, Astigarraga et al., 2007, Coppey et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Haecker et al., 2007, Pereanu et al., 2007, Strome and Lehmann, 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, Deshpande et al., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, McGregor, 2006, Perkins et al., 2006, Hariharan, 2005, Rehmsmeier et al., 2004, Zeremski et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2002, Tuckfield et al., 2002)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (2)
        Study focus (2)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • bait_protein
        ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
        • bait_protein
        Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        References (597)