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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tra2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
transformer 2
Annotation Symbol
CG10128
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003742
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
transformer 2 (tra2) is a sex-determining gene that encodes a pre-mRNA binding protein. It regulates the alternative splicing of several mRNAs including those from key regulators of sexual differentiation, dsx and fru, and Taf1, which encodes a TFIID component. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

tra-2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:14,602,004..14,604,337 [-]
Recombination map

2-72

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:14602004..14604337
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (21 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tra; FB:FBgn0003741
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:SF2; FB:FBgn0283477
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002689974
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred by curator from GO:0071011
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000391532
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002689974
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002309896
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002689974
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000391532
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the splicing factor SR family. (P19018)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for female sex determination in somatic cells and for spermatogenesis in male germ cells. Positive regulator of female-specific splicing and/or polyadenylation of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. Splicing requires an enhancer complex, dsxRE (dsx repeat element: which contains six copies of a 13-nucleotide repeat and a purine-rich enhancer (PRE)). DsxRE is formed through cooperative interactions between tra, tra2 and the sr proteins, and these interactions require both the repeat sequences and PRE. PRE is required for specific binding of tra2 to the dsxRE. Protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are involved in tra-2 dependent activation and repression of alternative splicing. Together with tra-2, plays a role in switching fru splicing from the male-specific pattern to the female-specific pattern through activation of the female-specific fru 5'-splice site.
(UniProt, P19018)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tra2: transformer 2
One role of tra2+ (like tra+) is to regulate sex determination by directing dsx+ in such a way that female primodia are expressed and male primodia repressed in chromosomal females. In addition, tra2+ serves as a regulator of spermiogenesis and copulation; as a result, functional sperm are produced by chromosomal males and transmitted to the females. Null or amorphic tra2 mutations, however, transform chromosomal females into flies that are phenotypically male in regard to external cuticular morphology, pigment pattern, internal genital ducts, and mating behavior. Their gonads are much reduced and lack sperm and they are not affected by mle (Fujihara et al., 1978). tra2 mutations in chromosomal males produce normal looking adult males showing normal sexual behavior, but the sperm are amotile (Watanabe, 1975; Belote and Baker, 1981). Some tra2 mutants are temperature-sensitive; homozygotes become phenotypic males when reared at 29, but phenotypic females when reared at 16 (Belote and Baker, 1983). When X/X;tra2ts2 homozygotes are shifted to the female-specifying temperature during or before the third instar, no development of the male accessory glands occurs (Chapman and Wolfner, 1988, Dev. Biol. 126: 195-202). In X/X;tra2ts2 homozygotes reared throughout development at the permissive temperature of 16, yolk polypeptide synthesis occurs as in X/X;tra2ts2/+ controls; in X/X;tra2ts2 homozygotes raised and kept at 29, however, no synthesis of yolk polypeptides can be detected (Belote et al., 1985). Temperature shift experiments with this temperature-sensitive allele show that tra2+ function must be present in the adult for the initiation and maintenance of yolk polypeptide synthesis. This control over YP on the part of tra2+ was shown to be at the level of transcription (Kraus, Lee, Lis, and Wolfner, 1988, Mol. Cell Biol. 8: 4756-64). tra2ts homozygous females do not always maintain male courtship behavior at 29, but transformed females hemizygous for tra2 [tra2ts1/Df(2R)trix] court in a reliably male fashion (Belote and Baker, 1987). Temperature-shift experiments indicate that the TSP for induction of male courtship starts in the last half of the pupal period and ends before the end of pupation.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RNA splice factor - functions with Transformer to bring about the sex specific splicing of Doublesex - functions in the fat body to regulate lipid storage.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\tra2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\tra2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089617
1376
264
FBtr0089618
1405
136
FBtr0089619
1568
226
FBtr0089615
1228
226
FBtr0089616
1460
179
FBtr0089620
1381
264
FBtr0089621
1391
264
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.7 (northern blot); 1.427 (longest cDNA)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088562
31.0
264
11.85
FBpp0088563
15.6
136
11.76
FBpp0088564
26.9
226
11.84
FBpp0088560
26.9
226
11.84
FBpp0088561
21.3
179
11.63
FBpp0088947
31.0
264
11.85
FBpp0088946
31.0
264
11.85
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

264 aa isoforms: tra2-PA, tra2-PF, tra2-PG
226 aa isoforms: tra2-PC, tra2-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

264, 226, 179, 136 (aa)

256 (aa); 30 (kD)

Comments

tra and tra2 proteins as well as a set of SR

proteins isolated from HeLa cells were shown to be necessary for the

formation of a complex which commits the dsx pre-mRNA to the

female-specific splicing pathway. The factors bind to a regulatory element

located downstream of the 3' female-specific splice site.

External Data
Post Translational Modification

Extensively phosphorylated on serine residues in the RS domain.

(UniProt, P19018)
Domain

The RS2 (Arg/Ser-rich domain 2) and RNP-CS (ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence) domains are required for both male sterility and female-specific dsx splicing but the RS1 domain is dispensable.

(UniProt, P19018)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tra2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RNase protection, primer extension, SI map
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Type A and Type B transcripts are expressed in both sexes. Type A mRNAs are predominant in somatic tissues, whereas Type B transcripts are more prominent in the female germ line.

Type C transcripts are male-specific.

tra2 transcripts are expressed throughout development and are present in both males and females in the germline and the soma.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{CaZPA-1,2,3}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tra2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 19 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 51 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tra2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tra2
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (32)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
4  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (33)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (27)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (23)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (31)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (12)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (15)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190H8N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150EYX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0KI6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0KOH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0Y02 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (31)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map

2-72

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:14,602,004..14,604,337 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
51B6-51B6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}ttvk03617&P{EP}ttvEP765 and P{lacW}Rpn6k00103
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
51B4-51B6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
51B-51B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (17)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (29)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Additional comments

snoRNA:tra2-a is encoded in an intron of tra2.

Other Comments

Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.

The Hrp59 protein binds preferentially to a subset of mRNAs, including tra2 mRNA.

Area matching Drosophila Tra-2 gene. Acc. No. X57484.

Ectopic somatic expression of the female product of tra is sufficient to feminise XY germ cells. This feminisation depends upon the tra2 gene, but does not seem to require a functional dsx gene.

tra and tra2 regulate sex-specific splicing of fru, inducing female-specific splicing of fru by activating the female-specific fru 5' splice site.

Autoregulation of the tra2 226 isoform in male germ cells is necessary for normal spermatogenesis.

Hsap\tra-2α can partially replace tra2 during sexual differentiation.

Both HeLa and Kc cell nuclear extracts have been used for UV cross-linking experiments to determine which proteins bind to dsxRE as part of the native tra- and tra2-dependent dsx enhancer complex (dsxEC). Rbp1 and SRp30 have been identified that bind the 13-nucleotide repeats and purine rich element (PRE), respectively, of the dsx repeat element (dsxRE).

In somatic tissues two different tra2 isoforms function redundantly to direct female differentiation and female specific "dsx" pre-mRNA splicing. In the male germline a single isoform uniquely performs all necessary functions. This isoform regulates its own synthesis during spermatogenesis through a negative feedback mechanism involving intron retention.

Anatomical and behavioural studies of fru mutants are consistent with the function of fru being downstream of tra and tra2.

An amino sequence in tra is capable of directing a heterologous protein to nuclear speckles mammalian cells, regions of the nucleus previously shown to contain high concentrations of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs and splicing factors. tra2 and tra colocalise in the speckle domains.

Female-specific expression of genes in the germline is dependent on a somatic signalling pathway which requires the sex-non-specific tra2 but not the sex-specific tra and dsx.

Regulated alternative splicing of dsx pre-mRNA requires the dsxRE splicing enhancer, dsx repeat element. The activity of dsxRE requires tra and tra2 and one or more general splicing factors. A purine rich enhancer (PRE) sequence within the RE has been identified, this element functionally synergises with the dsxRE and is required for specific binding of tra2 to the dsxRE. Results demonstrate that positive control of dsx pre-mRNA splicing requires tra- and tra2- dependent assembly of a multiprotein complex on at least two distinct enhancer elements.

tra2 interacts with pre-mRNAs from over 60 genes and binding to pre-mRNAs is not dependent on the presence of female specific tra2 protein. tra2 is unlikely to perform a general function in constitutive RNA splicing and results suggest the existance of a distinct subset of RNAs that interact with tra2 with high affinity.

The choice of female identity in the germ line is dependent upon a somatic signalling pathway that requires the sex-non-specific tra2 gene but not the sex specific genes tra and dsx. The somatic signalling pathway appears to function continuously from embryogenesis to the larval stages to select and sustain female germ line identity.

The sex-specific requirement of sov in gonadal development is controlled by the somatic sex regulatory genes tra, tra2 and dsx.

The ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence (RNP-CS) of the tra2 product is required for male fertility and positive and negative control of alternative splicing in transgenic flies, as well as for in vitro binding of recombinant tra2 protein to dsx and tra2 pre-mRNAs. One of two arginine-serine (RS)- rich domains of tra2 is dispensable, while the other is indispensable for all in vivo functions, and is required for RNA binding and specific protein-protein interactions. Both protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are involved in tra2-dependent activation and repression of alternative splicing.

tra2 is required in male germ cells for efficient male-specific processing of exu RNA. In the absence of tra2 males produce a new exu mRNA which is processed at its 3' end so that it contains sequences normally specific to the female 3' untranslated region.

A sequence comparison and numerical analysis of the RRM-containing (RNA recognition motif) proteins suggests that functionally related RRM-containing proteins have significant sequence similarities in their RRMs.

The genetic hierarchy regulating female germ-line sex determination includes tra, tra2, dsx, fu, otu, ovo, snf and Sxl.

Female specific splicing of dsx is regulated by tra and tra2, which recruit general, serine/arginine-rich splicing factors to a regulatory element located downstream of a female-specific 3' splice site.

UV crosslinking/transfection of Kc cells showed tra2 protein binds to 13 nucleotide motif that is repeated 6 times in female-specific fourth exon that acts as cis exon for female-specific splicing of dsx pre-mRNA.

tra2 function directs the development of sexually dimorphic skeletal muscles.

An in vitro splicing system to study the mechanism involved in positive control of dsx female specific splicing by tra and tra2 is used in HeLa cell nuclear extracts.

Wild type functions of tra and tra2 are necessary in females for the expression of the female specific dsx function. In te absence of tra or tra2 function the alternative pattern of processing produces the dsx mRNA that encodes the male specific dsx protein.

tra2 produced in E.coli binds specifically to a site within the female specific exon of dsx pre-mRNA. This site is required for female specific splicing and female specific polyadenylation. Results suggest that tra2 is a positive regulator of dsx pre-mRNA processing.

Cotransfection analyses in which dsx, tra and tra2 cDNAs are expressed in Kc cells revealed that female specific splicing of dsx transcript is positively regulated by tra and tra2 gene products.

tra2 products function to autoregulate the alternative splicing of male germ line-specific tra2 transcripts.

Cotransfection assays to examine regulatory interactions between specific cis-acting sequence elements of dsx pre-mRNA, and tra and tra2 gene products establish that tra and tra2 function to activate the use of the female specific exon.

Alternative splicing of tra2 is sex-specific in the germ line but not in the soma.

P element construct carrying a wild type copy of tra2 is capable of fully complementing both the sex determination and male sterility of the tra2 mutants. The tra2 gene product may function to control sexual differentiation by directly regulating the processing of the dsx pre-mRNA.

The mechanism of sex determination in the germ line has been analysed.

One role of tra2+ (like tra+) is to regulate sex determination by directing dsx+ in such a way that female primodia are expressed and male primordia repressed in chromosomal females. In addition, tra2+ serves as a regulator of spermiogenesis and copulation; as a result, functional sperm are produced by chromosomal males and transmitted to the females. Null or amorphic tra2 mutations, however, transform chromosomal females into flies that are phenotypically male in regard to external cuticular morphology, pigment pattern, internal genital ducts and mating behavior. Their gonads are much reduced and lack sperm and they are not affected by mle (Fujihara, Kawabe and Oishi, 1978). tra2 mutations in chromosomal males produce normal looking adult males showing normal sexual behavior, but the sperm are amotile (Watanabe, 1975; Belote and Baker, 1981). Some tra2 mutants are temperature-sensitive; homozygotes become phenotypic males when reared at 29oC, but phenotypic females when reared at 16oC (Belote and Baker, 1983). When X/X; tra2ts2 homozygotes are shifted to the female-specifying temperature during or before the third instar, no development of the male accessory glands occurs (Chapman and Wolfner, 1988). In X/X; tra2ts2 homozygotes reared throughout development at the permissive temperature of 16oC, yolk polypeptide synthesis occurs as in X/X; tra2ts2/+ controls; in X/X; tra2ts2 homozygotes raised and kept at 29oC, however, no synthesis of yolk polypeptides can be detected (Belote, Handler, Wolfner, Livak and Baker, 1985). Temperature shift experiments with this temperature-sensitive allele show that tra2+ function must be present in the adult for the initiation and maintenance of yolk polypeptide synthesis. This control over YP on the part of tra2+ was shown to be at the level of transcription (Kraus et al., 1988). tra2ts1 homozygous females do not always maintain male courtship behavior at 29oC, but transformed females hemizygous for tra2 <up>tra2ts1/Df(2R)trix</up> court in a reliably male fashion (Belote and Baker, 1987). Temperature-shift experiments indicate that the TSP for induction of male courtship starts in the last half of the pupal period and ends before the end of pupation.

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GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
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BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
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Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
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tra-2
(Aranha et al., 2017, Hashiyama et al., 2011, Martín et al., 2011, Sarno et al., 2011, Ruiz and Sanchez, 2010, Saccone et al., 2008, Lazareva et al., 2007, Beckstead et al., 2005, Bielinska et al., 2005, Gleason et al., 2005, Kiesler et al., 2005, Arbeitman et al., 2004, Emmons and Lipton, 2003, Andrews and Oliver, 2002, Christiansen et al., 2002, Dauwalder et al., 2002, Hinson and Nagoshi, 2002, Arbeitman et al., 2001, Baker et al., 2001, Dauwalder et al., 2001, Dauwalder et al., 2001, Keisman et al., 2001, Keplinger et al., 2001, Fortier and Belote, 2000, Fortier and Belote, 2000, Gorfinkiel et al., 2000, Usui-Aoki et al., 2000, Wasserman, 2000, Waterbury et al., 2000, Dauwalder and Mattox, 1999, Goodwin, 1999, Herbert and Rich, 1999, O'Kane and Asztalos, 1999, Yamamoto and Nakano, 1999, Anand et al., 1998, Arthur et al., 1998, Heinrichs et al., 1998, Larsen and Taylor, 1998, Li and Baker, 1998, Marin and Baker, 1998, McGuffin et al., 1998, Yamamoto et al., 1998, Chandler and Mattox, 1997, Dauwalder and Mattox, 1997, Goodwin et al., 1997, O'Dell and Kaiser, 1997, Chandler et al., 1996, Dauwalder and Mattox, 1996, Dauwalder et al., 1996, Mattox et al., 1996, Mattox et al., 1996, Morgan and Mahowald, 1996, Ryner et al., 1996, Curtis et al., 1995, Lopez, 1995, McGuffin and Mattox, 1995, Wayne et al., 1995, Wilkins, 1995, Wu et al., 1995, Bownes, 1994, Hazelrigg and Tu, 1994, McKeown, 1994, Amrein, 1993.9.30, Burtis, 1993, Fukami-Kobayashi et al., 1993, Fuller, 1993, Oliver et al., 1993, Truman et al., 1993, Cavener, 1992, Hodgkin, 1992, Kyriacou, 1992, McKeown, 1992, McKeown and Madigan, 1992, Rio, 1992, Sanchez and Granadino, 1992, Steinmann-Zwicky, 1992, Feng et al., 1991, Mattox, 1991.8.21, Mattox and Baker, 1991, Taylor, 1991, Amrein et al., 1990, Bownes et al., 1990, Hodgkin, 1990, Mancebo et al., 1990, Mattox et al., 1990, Pauli and Mahowald, 1990, Yanicostas and Lepesant, 1990, Goralski et al., 1989, Nothiger et al., 1989, McLaren, 1987, Nothiger and Steinmann-Zwicky, 1987, Nothiger et al., 1987, Schupbach, 1982, Ota et al., 1981)
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