General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tsh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
teashirt
Annotation Symbol
CG1374
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003866
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
ae
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:21,828,593..21,837,011 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the teashirt C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. (P22265)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Homeotic protein that acts downstream of Arm in the Wg cascade during embryogenesis to determine segment identity throughout the entire trunk. Acts cooperatively with other trunk homeotic proteins to repress head homeotic genes and therefore repress head segmental identity. Necessary, in combination with Scr, for the formation of the prothoracic segment. Promotes eye development in the dorsal region of the eye disk and suppresses eye development in the ventral region in combination with Wg-signaling and several early dorso-ventral eye patterning genes. Required for proper development of proximal leg segments. Has differential functions along the dorso-ventral axs of the antennal and leg disks. May play a role in wing hinge development. Possible involvement in chromatin structure for modulation of transcription. Binds DNA and can act as both a transcriptional repressor and activator. Positively regulates its own expression as well as that of Dll. Negatively regulates the expression of mod. Required for Wg-mediated transcriptional repression of Ubx in the midgut. Also represses transcription of lab in the midgut and is necessary for the proper formation of anterior and central midgut structures. Tiptop (tio) and teashirt (tsh) have, on the whole, common activities. Tio and tsh repress each other's expression and tsh has a crucial role for trunk patterning that is in part masked by ectopic expression of tiptop. Both genes share a common activity required for the activation of Ser and svb and the maintenance of en and wg.
(UniProt, P22265)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
*ae: aeroplane
Wings spread, balancers drooping. Overlaps wild type. RK3.
Interactive Fly
transcription factor - zinc finger - required globally for segmental identity throughout the entire trunk - required for identity of the anterior prothorax - required for the subdivision of midgut mesoderm acting in partnership with the homeotics - Restricted teashirt expression confers eye-specific responsiveness to Dpp and Wg signals during eye specification
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\tsh or the JBrowse view of Dmel\tsh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085906
4732
954
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.5, 8.1, 5.4, 5.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085261
100.6
954
8.64
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
993 (aa); 106 (kD)
Comments
Several isoforms of tsh protein are observed on gels. The smaller 116kD form was determined to be a hypophosphorylated form.The phosphorylated forms have apparent molecular weights of 120~130kD.
The tsh protein has three separated Zn fingers of the HX5H type which are also found in the hb, human PRDII-BF1,Pep, and Su(var)3-7 proteins. Outside of the Zn-finger region, no clear regions of similarity were observed to other proteins.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Binds arm.
(UniProt, P22265)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tsh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (28 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P18824
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000281113
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P18824
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000281113
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | 40-60% egg length

Comment: reference states 45-60% egg length

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
tsh transcript is expressed in the eye disc in the region anterior to the morphogenetic furrow. tsh and tio transcripts are expressed at similar levels in the eye disc.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
tsh protein is present in the anterior part of the eye disc and in the proximal domains of the leg and wing discs in third instar larvae. The expression domain overlaps that of tio.
It appears that the hypophosphorylated form of tsh protein is largely cytoplasmic while the phosphorylated forms are nuclear.
Expression of the tsh protein was detected in stage 15 embryonic Malpighian tubule stellate cells.
tsh protein is expressed in all cells of the second instar eye disc; expression levels are lower in the posterior disc. By late third instar, tsh protein is expressed in the eye disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, but not in the anterior-most part of the eye disc, where it contacts the antennal disc.
tsh protein is expressed in the presumptive notum region of the wing disc and repressed in the presumptive wing region
At stages 5-8, the faster, nonphosphorylated tsh protein is detected in the region of the first three thoracic and the first abdominal segments as a diffuse signal within the nuclei and cytoplasm of all cells. Between stages 9 and 11, the larger form becomes more apparent. tsh protein becomes highly concentrated in nuclei in the posterior part of each segment. Anteriorly in the segments, it is found both in the nuclei and the cytoplasm and is still diffuse. In later stages, the larger forms are more predominant and staining is high in all nuclei.
tsh expression is specific to the trunk region of the developing embryo and is responsive to changes in homeotic gene expression.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}tsh1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}tshc724
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}tshGal4-1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}tshmd621
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}A(2)-6
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}tshB4-2-12
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}tsh04319
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tsh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 40 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of tsh
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
miscellaneous insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tsh
Allele of tsh
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tsh
vital-reporter construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 14 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
antenna & eye | ectopic
denticle belt & embryonic prothoracic segment
head & eye | ectopic
larval antennal segment & denticle | ectopic, with Scer\GAL469B
larval maxillary segment & denticle | ectopic, with Scer\GAL469B
leg & cuticle | dorsal | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
leg & cuticle | dorsal | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4VP16.arm
leg & cuticle | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
leg & cuticle | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4VP16.arm
leg & cuticle | ventral | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
leg & cuticle | ventral | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4VP16.arm
metaphase & condensed nuclear chromosome
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903BN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501VF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01HS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01FY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G028L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Binds arm.
    (UniProt, P22265 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-54
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:21,828,593..21,837,011 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    40A5-40A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Df31k05815 and P{PZ}cul-202074&P{lacW}l(2)k08110k08110
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    40A1-40A4
    (determined by in situ hybridization)
    40A-40C
    (determined by in situ hybridization)
    40A-40A
    (determined by in situ hybridization)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Map position determined using tshae-l.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     
    cDNA Clones (45)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: tsh CG1374
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: tsh ae
    Additional comments
    Complementation tests between tshae-l and various other tsh alleles define a distinct complementation group though molecular analysis places a tshae-l lesion very close to the 3' end of the tsh transcription unit, between the 3' end of tsh and previously defined regulatory sequences.
    Other Comments
    tsh is required in undifferentiated cells for eye specification, but its expression must later be turned off to allow retinal differentiation.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene and injected into embryos on the dorsal side causes a phenotype at the larval stage. These larvae have no T1 denticle beard and also show a reduced number of denticle rows in the abdominal segments compared to wild type.
    tsh and tio repress each other's expression.
    The primary signal for repression of tsh expression during wing development is wg.
    Different combinations of the proteins ci, tsh and arm appear to be employed for the specification of naked cuticle at distinct positions both along the anterior posterior axis and within individual trunk segments.
    ci, tsh and arm may act as a complex.
    tsh is required for thr formation of proximal leg segments, but has no role in boundary formation.
    tsh contributes to the differences in cell-cell adhesion between proximal and distal leg cells.
    wg signaling promotes the phosphorylation and the nuclear accumulation of tsh protein.
    spen cooperates with Antp and tsh to repress head-like sclerites in the thorax and promote thoracic identity.
    tsh protein binds to, and requires, arm protein for the naked cell-fate choice in the larval trunk.
    tsh and ey induce the expression of each other, acting in a gene network that functions to specify eye identity.
    Targeted expression of tsh in imaginal discs is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation in non-eye tissues. tsh functions with the other eye specification genes ey, so and dac to specify eye identity.
    tsh specifies adult head segments by repressing Antp expression.
    mod is a genetic target of tsh. A biological role of tsh is to repress mod expression in the ectoderm and this negative control is performed independently of Scr. tsh protein binds to specific DNA sequences within a 5' mod regulatory region that reproduces tsh-dependent expression in the ectoderm.
    P{wAR}4-3 localizes to the 3' end of the tsh gene.
    tsh expression in the visceral mesoderm is required for the development of anterior and central midgut structures and is regulated by homeotic genes and dpp and wg.
    tsh may act as a cofactor for homeotic function, acting in parallel to Antp in epidermal enhancer activity in the thorax while playing an antagonistic role to Ubx in somatic mesoderm.
    A homeotic response element (HOMRE) has been identified and characterized within the tsh gene. Different homeotic proteins control tsh enhancer activity in different tissues.
    Expression pattern of Ecol\lacZ from silencer detector insertion P{lacW}A(2)-6 reflects that of tsh.
    Salivary gland induction by Scr in the trunk is limited by tsh.
    tsh is necessary for proper formation of anterior and central midgut structures. Antp, Ubx, abd-A, dpp and wg are required for proper tsh expression. The control of tsh by Ubx, abd-A and probably also by Antp is mediated by secreted signaling molecules.
    tsh is a target gene of the homeotic selector genes and is regulated by exd.
    Ectopic expression of dpp eliminates Scr and Antp expression, attenuating abd-A expression, inducing Ubx, dpp, wg and tsh expression in the visceral mesoderm and inducing lab expression in the apposing endoderm. The result is failure of all of the morphogenetic events except formation of midgut constriction 2.
    tsh acts in a partially redundant way with certain homeotic complex proteins but co-operates with them for the establishment of specific segment types. The tsh product and homeotic complex proteins regulate common sets of downstream target genes.
    In the epidermis tsh is expressed in a parasegmental and then a segmental register whereas in the CNS its expression remains parasegmental. The maintenance of tsh expression in the posterior compartments of trunk segments is dependent on the common function of Antp and the bithorax complex genes. Scr and lab are expressed ectopically in embryos deficient for tsh and Antp. Antp and Ubx act independently of tsh for the determination of trunk identity, although tsh is essential for the complete function of the trunk homeotic genes.
    tsh is required for normal development of the cells giving rise to the labial prothoracic region, ventral trunk region and anal opening.
    Mutants have outheld wings.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Mohr, 24th Nov. 1926.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 42 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)04319
    l(2)B4-2-12
    tsh
    (Bischof et al., 2018, Palliyil et al., 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2017, Neto et al., 2017, Neuert et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Zhu et al., 2017, Carrasco-Rando et al., 2016, Neto et al., 2016, Seyres et al., 2016, Shlyueva et al., 2016, Testa and Dworkin, 2016, Voutev and Mann, 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Orsi et al., 2014, Piñeiro et al., 2014, Shukla et al., 2014, Bateman et al., 2013, Denholm et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Merabet and Hudry, 2013, Moran et al., 2013, Southall et al., 2013, Berni et al., 2012, Foronda et al., 2012, Hudry et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Brockmann et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Tapadia and Gautam, 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Campbell et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Oros et al., 2010, Rubinstein et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Bao and Friedrich, 2009, Bessa et al., 2009, Datta et al., 2009, Dichtel-Danjoy et al., 2009, Fang et al., 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Perea et al., 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Anderson and Kumar, 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Coiffier et al., 2008, Oktaba et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Takacs et al., 2008, Terriente et al., 2008, Kumar and Datta, 2007, Kumar and Luhur, 2007, Kumar and Salzer, 2007, Merabet et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Patel et al., 2007, Peng et al., 2007, Singh et al., 2007, Taghli-Lamallem et al., 2007, Tanaka et al., 2007, Zirin and Mann, 2007, Culi et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Noro et al., 2006, Venken, 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Pütz et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Grad et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Chauvet et al., 2000)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000058
    • FBgn0010570
    • FBgn0013543
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