General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ttk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tramtrack
Annotation Symbol
CG1856
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003870
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Ttk69, Ttk88, FTZ-F2, E(yan)100D, osn
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:31,713,867..31,735,392 [+]
Recombination map
3-102
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Effectors Negatively Regulated by Sevenless Signaling Pathway -
Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Sevenless signaling pathway.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional regulatory region of ftz (PubMed:2104801). Isoform beta is required to repress inappropriate segmentation gene transcription and repress genes incompatible with development of photoreceptor cell fates (PubMed:12384587, PubMed:18160715). Probable repressor of the transcription of the segmentation genes ftz, eve, h, odd, run, and en (PubMed:8223261). Inhibits Trl-dependent activation of eve (PubMed:12384587). May bind to the region AGGGC/TGG (PubMed:8247159). Degradation of ttk is directed by binding of sinah or sina, via the adapter molecule phyl which binds to the BTB domain of ttk (PubMed:18160715, PubMed:17962185). A second method of degradation exists that is phyl-independent, this is mediated by recognition of motifs in the C-terminus of ttk (PubMed:17962185).
(UniProt, P17789)
Binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional regulatory region of ftz. Isoform alpha is required to repress genes that promote the R7 cell fate. Probable repressor of the transcription of the segmentation genes ftz, eve, h, odd, run, and en. May bind to the region 5'-AGGG[CT]GG-3'. Degradation of ttk is directed by binding of sinah or sina, via the adapter molecule phyl which binds to the BTB domain of ttk.
(UniProt, P42282)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ttk: Tramtrack
Gene encodes a zinc-finger protein binding to a number of sites involved in the transcriptional control of fushi-tarazu in the Antennapedia complex.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ttk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ttk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085829
3590
813
FBtr0085827
3833
813
FBtr0085828
4497
643
FBtr0085830
4254
643
FBtr0085825
3900
813
FBtr0085826
4564
643
FBtr0303227
3588
813
FBtr0303228
4252
643
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.0, 4.2 (northern blot)
4.2 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085190
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085188
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085189
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0085191
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0085186
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085187
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0292319
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0292320
68.8
643
7.65
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

813 aa isoforms: ttk-PA, ttk-PB, ttk-PE, ttk-PG
643 aa isoforms: ttk-PC, ttk-PD, ttk-PF, ttk-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
813, 643 (aa); 88, 69 (kD predicted)
811, 641 (aa); 97 (kD observed); 88 (kD predicted)
641 (aa); 69 (kD predicted)
Comments
As absence of ttk+P811 correlates with supernumerary R7 photoreceptor cells, this protein may be required for suppression of genes which promote the R7 fate.
ttk+P641 may repress expression of genes incompatible with the photoreceptor cell fate.
The ttk+P881 protein has a predicted molecular weight of 88 kD, although it runs about 50% slower than predicted on a polyacrylamide-SDS gel. The consensus DNA binding sites of the ttk+P881 and ttk+P641 proteins differ. The ttk+P641 protein binds sites in the eve promoter and autoregulatory element, while the ttk+P881 protein binds a region in the en promoter.
Although the ttk+P641 protein has a predicted molecular weight of 69kD, it runs at about 97 kD on a polyacrylamide-SDS gel. The zinc finger motifs, and the consensus DNA binding sites of the ttk+P881 and ttk+P641 proteins differ. The ttk+P641 protein binds sites in the eve promoter and autoregulatory element, while the ttk+P881 protein binds a region in the en promoter.
Three binding sites for ttk protein were detected in the ftz zebra element. Three additional binding sites were detected in the ftz promoter region.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Can form homodimers (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with Trl in vivo via the BTB domain (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with phyl (PubMed:17962185). Interacts with Usp47 (PubMed:18160715).
(UniProt, P17789)
Interacts with CoRest/CG33525, suggesting that it acts by recruiting a CoRest-containing corepressor complex. Interacts with phyl.
(UniProt, P42282)
Post Translational Modification
Polyubiquitinated by sina. Polyubiquitin linkage is mainly through 'Lys-48', but linkage through 'Lys-63' also occurs. Deubiquitination by Usp47 leads to its stabilization.
(UniProt, P17789)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ttk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (38 terms)
Molecular Function (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q08605
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CoRest; FB:FBgn0261573
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P17789
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (26 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (24 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:inferred from high throughput direct assayC1; FB:FBgn0015805
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
CNS glial cell

Comment: specific to short isoform

Additional Descriptive Data
The 69 kD ttk protein is detected in the nucleus of all eight photoreceptor cells.
Only the 69kD ttk isoform is detected in follicle cells before oogenesis stage 10. At stage 10B, ttk expression is significantly upregulated in all main body cells.
69 kD ttk protein is expressed in embryonic glial cells later than repo protein. Highest expression of 69 kD ttk is observed when longitudinal glioblasts have migrated to their correct positions. 69 kD ttk is expressed in all mature glial cells of the embryonic central nervous system. 69 kD ttk is not detected in glioblasts undergoing DNA replication.
Both the 69 and 88 kD ttk protein isoforms are detected in pupal cone cells and pigment cells, but only the 69 kD isoform is detected in pupal photoreceptor cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS003717
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS025025
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS043831
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS070207
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS104907
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS111904
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS118416
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS120905
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS120910
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS126010
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS128104
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS132515
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS137208a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS141806a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS141811
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS142402
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}ttk03540
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ttk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 107 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of ttk
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
      Other relevant insertions
      miscellaneous insertions
      Name
      Expression Data
      Transgenic Constructs ( 49 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ttk
      Allele of ttk
      Mutagen
      Associated Transgenic Construct
      Stocks
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ttk
      vital-reporter construct
      Name
      Expression Data
      Deletions and Duplications ( 17 )
      Summary of Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Lethality
      Allele
      Sterility
      Allele
      Other Phenotypes
      Allele
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      abdominal dorsal multidendritic neuron ddaE & dendrite
      dorsal multidendritic neuron ddaE & dendrite
      macrochaeta & leg
      sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
      thecogen cell & peripheral nervous system
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
       
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
      Species\Gene Symbol
      Score
      Best Score
      Best Reverse Score
      Alignment
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
      1 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      1 of 13
      Yes
      Yes
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      No
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
      1 of 15
      Yes
      Yes
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No orthologs reported.
      Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903ZA )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      AAA Syntenic Ortholog
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Drosophila melanogaster
      fruit fly
      Drosophila simulans
      Drosophila sechellia
      Drosophila erecta
      Drosophila yakuba
      Drosophila ananassae
      Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
      Drosophila persimilis
      Drosophila willistoni
      Drosophila virilis
      Drosophila mojavensis
      Drosophila grimshawi
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915036Q )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Musca domestica
      House fly
      Glossina morsitans
      Tsetse fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Mayetiola destructor
      Hessian fly
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Aedes aegypti
      Yellow fever mosquito
      Anopheles darlingi
      American malaria mosquito
      Anopheles gambiae
      Malaria mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Culex quinquefasciatus
      Southern house mosquito
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04N8 )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Bombyx mori
      Silkmoth
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Danaus plexippus
      Monarch butterfly
      Heliconius melpomene
      Postman butterfly
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis florea
      Little honeybee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Apis mellifera
      Western honey bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus impatiens
      Common eastern bumble bee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Bombus terrestris
      Buff-tailed bumblebee
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Linepithema humile
      Argentine ant
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Megachile rotundata
      Alfalfa leafcutting bee
      Nasonia vitripennis
      Parasitic wasp
      Dendroctonus ponderosae
      Mountain pine beetle
      Tribolium castaneum
      Red flour beetle
      Pediculus humanus
      Human body louse
      Rhodnius prolixus
      Kissing bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Cimex lectularius
      Bed bug
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Acyrthosiphon pisum
      Pea aphid
      Zootermopsis nevadensis
      Nevada dampwood termite
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04JQ )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Ixodes scapularis
      Black-legged tick
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Stegodyphus mimosarum
      African social velvet spider
      Daphnia pulex
      Water flea
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0WNB )
      Organism
      Common Name
      Gene
      Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
      Purple sea urchin
      Ciona intestinalis
      Vase tunicate
      Human Disease Model Data
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Interactions ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        RNA-RNA
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        RNA-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Can form homodimers (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with Trl in vivo via the BTB domain (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with phyl (PubMed:17962185). Interacts with Usp47 (PubMed:18160715).
        (UniProt, P17789 )
        Interacts with CoRest/CG33525, suggesting that it acts by recruiting a CoRest-containing corepressor complex. Interacts with phyl.
        (UniProt, P42282 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        Effectors Negatively Regulated by Sevenless Signaling Pathway -
        Target effectors which are specifically inhibited by the activation of the Sevenless signaling pathway.
        External Data
        Linkouts
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        3R
        Recombination map
        3-102
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        3R:31,713,867..31,735,392 [+]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        100D1-100D1
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}pygoEP1076 and P{PZ}ttk02667&P{lacW}ttkj6C7
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        100D1-100D2
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        100D1-100D2
        100D2--3
        100D3-100D4
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (53)
        Genomic Clones (13)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (187)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: ttk CG1856
        Source for merge of: ttk CG11558
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for ttk protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_ttk collection report.
        dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of ttk results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching. RNAi also causes alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.
        ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.
        ttk69 is required for dorsal appendage morphogenesis, but is not required fort cell fate determination.
        The ttk69 protein isoform is a repressor of stg mRNA transcription in the eye disc.
        ed defines a pathway that antagonizes Egfr signalling by regulating the activity, but not the level, of the ttk TTK88 transcriptional repressor.
        Repression of the ttk protein TTK69 in the neuronal lineage occurs translationally rather than transcriptionally. Translational repression of ttk occurs via its mRNA 3' untranslated region, by the action of msi protein.
        Overexpression of ttk69 protein not only blocks neuronal photoreceptor differentiation but also promotes non-neural cone cell specification in early eye development.
        ttk is down-regulated in developing photoreceptor cells by msi and sina functioning redundantly.
        The ttk isoform Ttk69, plays a positive and autonomous role in promoting and maintaining differentiation of photoreceptor neurons at the late stages of Drosophila eye development. ttk appears to have a dual function by serving negative and positive regulatory roles at different stages of photoreceptor development.
        Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
        ttk is required for proper glial cell development in the CNS. Phenotypes of doubly mutant ttk and pnt embryos and ectopic expression of ttk and pnt indicates the existance of two independent genetic pathways regulating glial cell development, which in the lateral glia are both downstream of gcm. One, mediated via pnt, results in the activation of glia cell differentiation, whereas the other, mediated by ttk, results in the suppression of neuronal differentiation in these cells.
        aop and ttk synergistically interact in an inhibitory signaling pathway that is critical for neural cell fate determination.
        Mutant phenotype indicates both aop and ttk are involved in the Ras/MAPK pathway, although their mechanisms of action to inhibit to inhibit cell fate might be different.
        aop and ttk mutations dominantly suppress eye phenotypes of ksr mutants.
        Down-regulation of ttk protein expression occurs in photoreceptor cells and is required for their fate determination. This down-regulation requires the presence of the phyl and sina proteins.
        Expression of the ttk TTK88 protein isoform represses neuronal fate determination in the developing eye. phyl protein acts to antagonise this repression by a mechanism that requires sina protein.
        Ubiquitous expression of ttk prevents the acquisition of both es and md neural fates, therefore ttk is not involved in the choice between es and md identities.
        aop and ttk mutations both act to repress inappropriate R7 cell determination, their mechanisms of action differ. In aop mutants the presence of supernumerary R7 cells depends on sina activity. In ttk mutants supernumerary R7 cells form even when sina activity is reduced.
        Initiation of ftz transcription is regulated by the concentration of maternally loaded ttk. Altering the dose of ttk in embryos shifts the activation of ftz transcription either forward or backward during development but does not affect Kr activation.
        The role of ttk during sensory development is to impose the "non-neural" fate at each choice point during the lineage.
        ttk has a role in the determination of different sensory organ precursor daughter cell fates. Loss of ttk function transforms support cells to neurons and overexpression results in the reverse transformation. Loss of ttk or numb function in sensory organ precursor daughter cells results in reciprocal cell fate transformation, epistatic studies suggest that ttk acts downstream of numb.
        Removal of the POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain increases DNA binding affinity of the chromosome.
        Mutation in ttk affects the neuronal lineage, causes transformation of support cells into neurons.
        ttk is required for PNS development in the embryo.
        The highly complex pattern of ttk expression suggests specific functions for ttk late in development that are separate from the regulation of ftz. Ectopic ttk expression causes complete or near complete repression of ftz and significant repression of eve, odd, h and runt.
        The structure of a two zinc finger DNA-binding domain from the ttk protein complexed with DNA is reported.
        Biochemical studies led to the identification multiple DNA-binding proteins (including ftz-f1 and ttk) that regulate ftz gene expression through the proximal enhancer, to mediate stripe establishment and maintenance.
        The structure of the DNA binding domain in complex with a specific binding site is determined.
        ttk gene product is required for cell fate determination in the compound eye.
        ttk has been cloned and sequenced. It is a zinc finger protein.
        Maternally supplied ttk protein helps to establish the timing of the onset of zygotic expression of eve and ftz thereby preventing premature activation.
        The ttk product binds to the zebra stripe element of the ftz promoter, behaving as a transcriptional repressor.
        ttk protein binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional control regions of the ftz gene.
        Gene encodes a zinc-finger protein binding to a number of sites involved in the transcriptional control of fushi-tarazu in the Antennapedia complex.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 125 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (56)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        anon-EST:Liang-2.9
        ftz-f2
        ftzf2/ttk
        l(3)02667
        l(3)j2A1
        l(3)j7B8
        ovs
        ttk
        (He et al., 2018, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Osterfield et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Altenhein et al., 2016, Çiçek et al., 2016, Liaw, 2016, Mavromatakis and Tomlinson, 2016, Öztürk-Çolak et al., 2016, Ge et al., 2015, Hsu et al., 2015, Monfort and Furlong, 2015.1.15, Nadimpalli et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Chandran et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Dai et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Enuameh et al., 2013, Huang et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Peters et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Herranz et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Technau et al., 2012, Bonchuk et al., 2011, Carreira et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Tomlinson et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Boyle et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Mourikis et al., 2010, Stofanko et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Bassett, 2009.2.25, Boyle and Berg, 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Nagaraj and Banerjee, 2009, Rach et al., 2009, Yamamoto et al., 2009, Boyle and Berg, 2008, Burgio et al., 2008, Bushati et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Mugat et al., 2008, Remaud et al., 2008, Xie and Birchler, 2008, Yamamoto et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Araujo et al., 2007, Araújo et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Joly et al., 2007, Kertesz et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Letizia et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Spokony and Restifo, 2007, Sun and Deng, 2007, Xie and Birchler, 2007, Altenhein et al., 2006, de Velasco et al., 2006, Edwards et al., 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Kelly and Daniel, 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Althauser et al., 2005, Burgler and Macdonald, 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Stark et al., 2005, Brodsky et al., 2004, Page, 2004, Song and Taylor, 2003, Chen et al., 2002)
        ttk/FTZ-F2
        Name Synonyms
        Enhancer of yan at 100D
        Ttk88 repressor
        tramtrack-69
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0011319
        • FBgn0011402
        • FBgn0011681
        • FBgn0039865
        • FBgn0039866
        Datasets (2)
        Study focus (2)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • bait_protein
        ChIP-chip identification of binding sites for transcription factors that regulate mesodermal development.
        • bait_protein
        Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        References (463)