Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ttk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tramtrack
Annotation Symbol
CG1856
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003870
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

Ttk69, oversensitive, Tramtrack69, Ttk88, FTZ-F2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:31,713,867..31,735,392 [+]
Recombination map

3-102

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:31713867..31735392
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (39 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q08605
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CoRest; FB:FBgn0261573
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P17789
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (28 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (26 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:inferred from high throughput direct assayC1; FB:FBgn0015805
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional regulatory region of ftz (PubMed:2104801). Isoform beta is required to repress inappropriate segmentation gene transcription and repress genes incompatible with development of photoreceptor cell fates (PubMed:12384587, PubMed:18160715). Probable repressor of the transcription of the segmentation genes ftz, eve, h, odd, run, and en (PubMed:8223261). Inhibits Trl-dependent activation of eve (PubMed:12384587). May bind to the region AGGGC/TGG (PubMed:8247159). Degradation of ttk is directed by binding of sinah or sina, via the adapter molecule phyl which binds to the BTB domain of ttk (PubMed:18160715, PubMed:17962185). A second method of degradation exists that is phyl-independent, this is mediated by recognition of motifs in the C-terminus of ttk (PubMed:17962185).
(UniProt, P17789)
Binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional regulatory region of ftz. Isoform alpha is required to repress genes that promote the R7 cell fate. Probable repressor of the transcription of the segmentation genes ftz, eve, h, odd, run, and en. May bind to the region 5'-AGGG[CT]GG-3'. Degradation of ttk is directed by binding of sinah or sina, via the adapter molecule phyl which binds to the BTB domain of ttk.
(UniProt, P42282)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ttk: Tramtrack
Gene encodes a zinc-finger protein binding to a number of sites involved in the transcriptional control of fushi-tarazu in the Antennapedia complex.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - zinc finger - represses neural cell fate in the peripheral nervous system - a master repressor of enteroendocrine cell specification in intestinal stem cell lineages - regulates morphogenetic events during tracheal development

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ttk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ttk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085829
3590
813
FBtr0085827
3833
813
FBtr0085828
4497
643
FBtr0085830
4254
643
FBtr0085825
3900
813
FBtr0085826
4564
643
FBtr0303227
3588
813
FBtr0303228
4252
643
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.0, 4.2 (northern blot)

4.2 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085190
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085188
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085189
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0085191
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0085186
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0085187
68.8
643
7.65
FBpp0292319
88.4
813
6.19
FBpp0292320
68.8
643
7.65
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

813 aa isoforms: ttk-PA, ttk-PB, ttk-PE, ttk-PG
643 aa isoforms: ttk-PC, ttk-PD, ttk-PF, ttk-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

813, 643 (aa); 88, 69 (kD predicted)

811, 641 (aa); 97 (kD observed); 88 (kD predicted)

641 (aa); 69 (kD predicted)

Comments

ttk+P641 may repress expression of genes incompatible with the photoreceptor cell fate.

As absence of ttk+P811 correlates with supernumerary R7 photoreceptor cells, this protein may be required for suppression of genes which promote the R7 fate.

Although the ttk+P641 protein has a predicted molecular weight of 69kD, it runs at about 97 kD on a polyacrylamide-SDS gel. The zinc finger motifs, and the consensus DNA binding sites of the ttk+P881 and ttk+P641 proteins differ. The ttk+P641 protein binds sites in the eve promoter and autoregulatory element, while the ttk+P881 protein binds a region in the en promoter.

The ttk+P881 protein has a predicted molecular weight of 88 kD, although it runs about 50% slower than predicted on a polyacrylamide-SDS gel. The consensus DNA binding sites of the ttk+P881 and ttk+P641 proteins differ. The ttk+P641 protein binds sites in the eve promoter and autoregulatory element, while the ttk+P881 protein binds a region in the en promoter.

Three binding sites for ttk protein were detected in the ftz zebra element. Three additional binding sites were detected in the ftz promoter region.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Can form homodimers (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with Trl in vivo via the BTB domain (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with phyl (PubMed:17962185). Interacts with Usp47 (PubMed:18160715).

(UniProt, P17789)

Interacts with CoRest/CG33525, suggesting that it acts by recruiting a CoRest-containing corepressor complex. Interacts with phyl.

(UniProt, P42282)
Post Translational Modification

Polyubiquitinated by sina. Polyubiquitin linkage is mainly through 'Lys-48', but linkage through 'Lys-63' also occurs. Deubiquitination by Usp47 leads to its stabilization.

(UniProt, P17789)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ttk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
CNS glial cell

Comment: specific to short isoform

Additional Descriptive Data

Antibody specific to the smaller ttk isoform (referred to as Ttk69) detects expression in all epithelial cells, with the highest levels in enterocytes and the lowest levels in intestinal stem cells and enteroendocrine cells.

The 69 kD ttk protein isoform is expressed at low levels in follicle cells during stages S6-S9 of oogenesis, and at higher levels during stages S10A and S10B.

The 69 kD ttk protein is detected in the nucleus of all eight photoreceptor cells.

ttk protein expression is enriched in border follicle cells transiently at the beginning of migration. Border cell expression declines during migration. At stage 10, elevated expression becomes apparent in the centripetal cells as they initiate their inward migration. At late stages, high levels are detected in all oocyte-associated follicle cells.

69 kD ttk protein is expressed in embryonic glial cells later than repo protein. Highest expression of 69 kD ttk is observed when longitudinal glioblasts have migrated to their correct positions. 69 kD ttk is expressed in all mature glial cells of the embryonic central nervous system. 69 kD ttk is not detected in glioblasts undergoing DNA replication.

Both the 69 and 88 kD ttk protein isoforms are detected in pupal cone cells and pigment cells, but only the 69 kD isoform is detected in pupal photoreceptor cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS003717
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS025025
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS043831
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS070207
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS104907
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS111904
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS118416
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS120905
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS120910
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS126010
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS128104
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS132515
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS137208a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS141806a
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS141811
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}ttkS142402
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}ttk03540
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ttk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal dorsal multidendritic neuron ddaE & dendrite
dorsal multidendritic neuron ddaE & dendrite
macrochaeta & leg
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
thecogen cell & peripheral nervous system
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903ZA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915036Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04N8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04JQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0WNB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (25)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Can form homodimers (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with Trl in vivo via the BTB domain (PubMed:12384587). Interacts with phyl (PubMed:17962185). Interacts with Usp47 (PubMed:18160715).
    (UniProt, P17789 )
    Interacts with CoRest/CG33525, suggesting that it acts by recruiting a CoRest-containing corepressor complex. Interacts with phyl.
    (UniProt, P42282 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Sevenless Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The specification of the R7 photoreceptor cell in each ommatidium of the developing Drosophila eye is dependent on activation of Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade to promote the expression of lz and pros. sev, expressed in presumptive R7 cells, is activated by binding to Bride of Sevenless (boss), a seven-transmembrane protein expressed in R8 cells. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
    EGFR Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-102

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:31,713,867..31,735,392 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    100D1-100D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}pygoEP1076 and P{PZ}ttk02667&P{lacW}ttkj6C7
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    100D1-100D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    100D1-100D2
    100D2--3
    100D3-100D4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (39)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (187)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: ttk CG1856

    Source for merge of: ttk CG11558

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for ttk protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_ttk collection report.

    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of ttk results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching. RNAi also causes alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.

    ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.

    ttk69 is required for dorsal appendage morphogenesis, but is not required fort cell fate determination.

    The ttk69 protein isoform is a repressor of stg mRNA transcription in the eye disc.

    ed defines a pathway that antagonizes Egfr signalling by regulating the activity, but not the level, of the ttk TTK88 transcriptional repressor.

    Repression of the ttk protein TTK69 in the neuronal lineage occurs translationally rather than transcriptionally. Translational repression of ttk occurs via its mRNA 3' untranslated region, by the action of msi protein.

    Overexpression of ttk69 protein not only blocks neuronal photoreceptor differentiation but also promotes non-neural cone cell specification in early eye development.

    ttk is down-regulated in developing photoreceptor cells by msi and sina functioning redundantly.

    The ttk isoform Ttk69, plays a positive and autonomous role in promoting and maintaining differentiation of photoreceptor neurons at the late stages of Drosophila eye development. ttk appears to have a dual function by serving negative and positive regulatory roles at different stages of photoreceptor development.

    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.

    ttk is required for proper glial cell development in the CNS. Phenotypes of doubly mutant ttk and pnt embryos and ectopic expression of ttk and pnt indicates the existance of two independent genetic pathways regulating glial cell development, which in the lateral glia are both downstream of gcm. One, mediated via pnt, results in the activation of glia cell differentiation, whereas the other, mediated by ttk, results in the suppression of neuronal differentiation in these cells.

    aop and ttk synergistically interact in an inhibitory signaling pathway that is critical for neural cell fate determination.

    Mutant phenotype indicates both aop and ttk are involved in the Ras/MAPK pathway, although their mechanisms of action to inhibit to inhibit cell fate might be different.

    aop and ttk mutations dominantly suppress eye phenotypes of ksr mutants.

    Down-regulation of ttk protein expression occurs in photoreceptor cells and is required for their fate determination. This down-regulation requires the presence of the phyl and sina proteins.

    Expression of the ttk TTK88 protein isoform represses neuronal fate determination in the developing eye. phyl protein acts to antagonise this repression by a mechanism that requires sina protein.

    Ubiquitous expression of ttk prevents the acquisition of both es and md neural fates, therefore ttk is not involved in the choice between es and md identities.

    aop and ttk mutations both act to repress inappropriate R7 cell determination, their mechanisms of action differ. In aop mutants the presence of supernumerary R7 cells depends on sina activity. In ttk mutants supernumerary R7 cells form even when sina activity is reduced.

    Initiation of ftz transcription is regulated by the concentration of maternally loaded ttk. Altering the dose of ttk in embryos shifts the activation of ftz transcription either forward or backward during development but does not affect Kr activation.

    The role of ttk during sensory development is to impose the "non-neural" fate at each choice point during the lineage.

    ttk has a role in the determination of different sensory organ precursor daughter cell fates. Loss of ttk function transforms support cells to neurons and overexpression results in the reverse transformation. Loss of ttk or numb function in sensory organ precursor daughter cells results in reciprocal cell fate transformation, epistatic studies suggest that ttk acts downstream of numb.

    Removal of the POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain increases DNA binding affinity of the chromosome.

    Mutation in ttk affects the neuronal lineage, causes transformation of support cells into neurons.

    ttk is required for PNS development in the embryo.

    The highly complex pattern of ttk expression suggests specific functions for ttk late in development that are separate from the regulation of ftz. Ectopic ttk expression causes complete or near complete repression of ftz and significant repression of eve, odd, h and runt.

    The structure of a two zinc finger DNA-binding domain from the ttk protein complexed with DNA is reported.

    Biochemical studies led to the identification multiple DNA-binding proteins (including ftz-f1 and ttk) that regulate ftz gene expression through the proximal enhancer, to mediate stripe establishment and maintenance.

    The structure of the DNA binding domain in complex with a specific binding site is determined.

    ttk gene product is required for cell fate determination in the compound eye.

    ttk has been cloned and sequenced. It is a zinc finger protein.

    Maternally supplied ttk protein helps to establish the timing of the onset of zygotic expression of eve and ftz thereby preventing premature activation.

    The ttk product binds to the zebra stripe element of the ftz promoter, behaving as a transcriptional repressor.

    ttk protein binds to a number of sites in the transcriptional control regions of the ftz gene.

    Gene encodes a zinc-finger protein binding to a number of sites involved in the transcriptional control of fushi-tarazu in the Antennapedia complex.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 128 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (56)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-EST:Liang-2.9
    ftz-f2
    ftzf2/ttk
    l(3)02667
    l(3)j2A1
    l(3)j7B8
    ovs
    ttk
    (Li et al., 2020, Best, 2019, Guo et al., 2019, Raza et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Simon et al., 2019, Swevers, 2019, He et al., 2018, Dinges et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Altenhein et al., 2016, Çiçek et al., 2016, Liaw, 2016, Mavromatakis and Tomlinson, 2016, Öztürk-Çolak et al., 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Ge et al., 2015, Hsu et al., 2015, Monfort and Furlong, 2015.1.15, Nadimpalli et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Chandran et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Rhee et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Dai et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Enuameh et al., 2013, Huang et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Peters et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Herranz et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Technau et al., 2012, Bonchuk et al., 2011, Carreira et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Tomlinson et al., 2011, Walrad et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Boyle et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Mourikis et al., 2010, Stofanko et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Bassett, 2009.2.25, Boyle and Berg, 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Nagaraj and Banerjee, 2009, Rach et al., 2009, Yamamoto et al., 2009, Boyle and Berg, 2008, Burgio et al., 2008, Bushati et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Mugat et al., 2008, Remaud et al., 2008, Xie and Birchler, 2008, Yamamoto et al., 2008, Yatsu et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Araujo et al., 2007, Araújo et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Joly et al., 2007, Kertesz et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Letizia et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Spokony and Restifo, 2007, Sun and Deng, 2007, Xie and Birchler, 2007, Altenhein et al., 2006, de Velasco et al., 2006, Edwards et al., 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Kelly and Daniel, 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Althauser et al., 2005, Boyle et al., 2005, Burgler and Macdonald, 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Stark et al., 2005, Brodsky et al., 2004, Page, 2004, Song and Taylor, 2003, Vander Zwan et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2002)
    ttk/FTZ-F2
    Name Synonyms
    Enhancer of yan at 100D
    Ttk88 repressor
    tramtrack-69
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0011319
    • FBgn0011402
    • FBgn0011681
    • FBgn0039865
    • FBgn0039866
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    ChIP-chip identification of binding sites for transcription factors that regulate mesodermal development.
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (481)