α-tubulin, tubulin, α tubulin, α1-tubulin, α-Tub
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with Ote (PubMed:22751930).
Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively.
Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity).
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\αTub84B using the Feature Mapper tool.
The αTub84Btranscript is expressed at all stages of development, with highest levelsdetected betweeen 0 and 6 hours of embryonic development, and high levelsbetween 9 and 18 hours of embryonic development and the first and second larvalinstars.
localization of acetylated or glutamylated tubulin detected; found only in stabilized microtubules.
To compare synthesis and accumulation of α-tubulin proteins, 35S</up>methionine radiolabeled tissues were subjected to Western analysis using monoclonal anti-α-tubulin antibody. The predominant α-tubulin protein in all tissues and stages examined is αTub84B protein. The protein did not accumulate in the adult head.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\αTub84B in GBrowse 2
Mapping based on seven recombinants.
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: αTub84B CG1913
Source for merge of: αTub84B BEST:LD32507
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene in S2 cell results in dim staining of microtubules, and a short monopolar spindle. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a greater than three-fold increase in AttA activity in response to heat-killed E.coli after ecdysone treatment in S2 cells.
RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
Though αTub84B and αTub85E are very similar in sequence they are functionally distinct. αTub85E can provide function in the male germ line of generic microtubule arrays but lacks a subset of the functional properties possessed by specific features of microtubule assembly unique to the male germ cells.
αTub84B staining is used to analyse microtubule configuration during the first division of the zygote to investigate the organisation of the first cleavage spindle and the origin of the functional centrosome.
Mixtures of ncd or Khc motor domain treated with the zero-length cross linker EDC generates covalently cross linked products of ncd or Khc with βTub56D and αTub84B. These results indicate that kinesin family motors of opposite polarity interact with both βTub56D and αTub84B and support a model in which some portion of each ncd or Khc proteins motor domain overlaps adjacent βTub56D and αTub84B subunits.
Investigation of the proteins that bind the regulatory sequences of αTub84B. DNaseI footprinting assays demonstrate Trl binds to tubulin element 2 (TE2) and the intron of αTub84B, but not to tubulin element 1 (TE1) and Tbf1 binds to tubulin element 1 (TE1) and tubulin element 2 (TE2) of αTub84B.
Two upstream regions, tubulin element 1 (TE1) and tubulin element 2 (TE2), and an intron activate expression of αTub84B. These regions act ubiquitously to insulate from position effects and to activate transcription.
Both meiosis and cleavage stage mitoses are severely affected by mutations that result in a substantial decrease in the αTub67C/αTub84B+αTub84D ratio, though an increase has little effect on meiosis while still disrupting mitotic spindle formation.
Total α-tubulin levels remain high throughout embryogenesis. Constitutive isotypes are more stable than maternal isotypes in most tissues.
Apical localization of pair-rule transcripts restricts lateral protein diffusion allowing pair-rule proteins to define sharp boundaries and precise spatial domains.
An allele of αTub84B has been identified due to second site non-complementation of alleles (including a null allele) of βTub85D, though a deletion for αTub84B complements βTub85Dn. The genetic interaction between βTub85D and αTub84B is based on the structural interaction between the protein products of each gene.
The expression of βTub60D is accompanied by a coordinate transient increase in the level of synthesis of the embryonic α-tubulins, thereby maintaining an approximately equimolar synthesis of α- and β-tubulins throughout embryogenesis.
In D.melanogaster, two multigene families, each made up of four members, code for α- and β-tubulins. Tubulins are a highly conserved family of proteins that are the main structural components of microtubules in mitotic and meiotic spindles, cilia, flagella, neural processes and the cytoskeleton; nontubulin proteins (MAPS or microtubule-associated proteins) are involved along with tubulins in the formation of specialized microtubules (FBrf0045282; FBrf0046966). Transcribed in the oocyte and the embryo, reaching a maximum level 6-9 hr after the egg is laid (FBrf0037623). A variety of post-translational modifications of αTub84B protein found in all tissues, some of which are tissue-specific (FBrf0049502). The gene appears to be constitutively expressed, its functions being common to most cells. Maternal-effect as well as zygotic lethality is shown by the more severe alleles. In the less severe hypomorphic alleles, heterozygotes die late in pupal life or early in adult life, the adults showing head, thoracic, or abdominal defects, bristle abnormalities, leg tremors and sterility (FBrf0046004). Both meiosis and cleavage stage mitoses are severely affected by mutations that result in a substantial decrease in the αTub67C/αTub84B+αTub84D ratio, though an increase has little effect on meiosis while still disrupting mitotic spindle formation (FBrf0058107). Missense mutations may be male sterile when doubly heterozygous with missense allele of βTub85D (FBrf0050548).